Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 46637

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionReferences
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"



Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2007 | Month : August | Volume : 1 | Issue : 4 | Page : 243 - 247

The Role of NK and NKT Cells in Patients with Acute Brucellosis

AKBULUT H*,ILHAN F*,CELIK I**,OZDEN M*,GĂ–DEKMERDAN A*

*Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey. **Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Handan Akbulut. Department of Immunology, Firat Medical Center, 23119, Elazig, Turkey. Tel.:+90.424.2333555 ext 2168; fax: +90.424.2388096; e-mail:handanakbulut@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: The major role of T cells in Brucella immunity is secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) for activation of bactericidal function in macrophages. Natural killer T (NKT) cells are new subtype of T cells and produce IFN-γ very quickly and promptly when they are stimulated. Therefore, NKT cells can play an effective role in immunity of brucellosis.
Aim: It was aimed to evaluate whether natural killer (NK) and NKT cells have an effect on brucellosis immunity and whether there is any difference for these cell percentage between pre- and post-treatment period.
Methods and Material: The study included a total of 40 acute brucellosis cases and 20 healthy subjects. Two-colour flow cytometric analysis was performed on a FACScan flow cytometer, using monoclonal antibodies CD45/CD14, isotype control and CD3/CD16+56.
Results: No statistical significant difference was observed between patient and control groups for NKT cell counts and NK cell percentages. There were no differences between before and after treatment period in terms of NK and NKT cells ratio.
Conclusion: According to our result, acute brucellosis has no effect on increasing of NK and NKT cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about NKT cells ratio in patients with acute brucellosis.

Keywords

Brucellosis, NK cell, CD1-restricted cell, NKT cell

Brucellosis is one of the most common bacterial zoonoses in the world, caused by organisms belonging to the genus Brucella, facultative, intracellular bacteria, which causes infections both in animals and humans (1). The response against Brucella species involves the whole part of the immune system, from innate to adaptive immunity resulting from stimulation of antigen-presenting cells, NK cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and B cells (2),(3). The major role of T cells in Brucella immunity is secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) for activation of bactericidal function in macrophages (1). Moreover, NK cells have been shown to be important for control of infections of intracellular bacterial and protozoan parasites, and this role has been shown specifically to relate to their ability to produce IFN-γ (4),(5). A role for NK cells and cytotoxicity in protective immunity to brucellosis has not been substantiated experimentally (6). NKT cells are new subtype of T cells, and they produce IFN-γ very quickly and promptly when they stimulated. Therefore, NKT cells can play an effective role on immunity of brucellosis (7).

Material and Methods

Local ethics committee of Firat University has approved this study, and a written informed consent was obtained from each subject. A total of 45 patients admitted to Firat Medical Center, a tertiary referral University hospital located in East Anatolia, were examined. The presenting signs and symptoms were fever, musculoskeletal system complaints such as generalised aches and pains associated with fatigue, prostration and mental depression. Clinical and laboratory findings revealed acute brucellosis. All patients were started the appropriate treatment. However, five patients were excluded from the study because of non-response to the treatment. The study included 40 acute brucellosis cases (18 males and 22 females; between 17 and 80 years of age, mean ± SE, 37.08 ± 8.76 years).

Brucellosis was diagnosed based on clinical, serologic, bacteriologic and epidemiologic data. The diagnostic criteria were isolation of a Brucella species from blood culture (Bactec 9050, Becton-Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument System, Sparks, USA) or a single Brucella titre of ≥1/160 [by standard tube agglutination (STA) test or Coombs], confirmed by a 2-mercaptoethanol test (2-ME) titre of ≥1/160 in association with compatible clinical findings.

By using BACTEC blood culture system, Brucella bacteria were cultured and identified. Brucella species were isolated from the blood cultures in 22 cases (55%). The biotyping of the bacteria was performed by H2S production, urease positivity and dye sensitivity test (20–40 µg/ml basic fuchsine and growth in thionine). All the Brucella species were identified as B. melitensis. Disease activity was defined by the presence of typical signs and symptoms. The patient’s data were recorded to the previously prepared forms.

The control group was composed of 20 healthy subjects (nine male and 11 female subjects), ages ranging between 15 and 90 years (mean ± SE, 39.35 ± 7.53 years). No statistical significant difference was observed between groups’ ages. The cases in the control group were STA negative, showed ESR within normal limits and did not have any complaints. Exclusion criteria for the healthy control subjects included acute/chronic diseases, smoking, medication, pregnancy and any abnormalities in renal and liver function tests.

Blood samples were drawn from all patients and healthy subjects for studying NK and NKT cells. Two millilitre venous blood samples were obtained, and sera were separated in both study and control groups. T cells, NK and NKT cells [CD3+, and CD(16+56)+] were established from blood with EDTA. After isolation of the peripheral mononuclear cells, the direct immunofluorescence method was applied. Two-colour flow cytometric analysis was performed on a FACScan flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA), using Becton Dickinson monoclonal antibodies CD45/CD14, isotype control, and CD3/CD16+56, according to the instructions of manufacturer. Cells were fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde and analysed by flow cytometry, after counting 10,000 total events using Cell Quest software (Becton Dickinson). This lymphocyte subpopulation is expressed as percentages of the total number of lymphocytes. The quality criteria involved the frequency above 95% of total lymphocytes in the analysis gate, homogenous CD45+ lymphocyte population (minimum of 2000 events in the gate, CD45 > 95%).

Treatment for brucellosis was started as soon as the diagnoses was established and involved the combination of doxycycline plus rifampin for 45 days. After treatment, same parameters studied prior to start of antibiotics were measured again in all patients. Response criteria to the treatment were improvements of clinical findings with 2-ME tests ≤1/80 after the treatment. Non-responder patients had ongoing complaints such as fever, myalgia and other constitutional symptoms, with 2-ME test measuring ≥1/160 after the treatment.

Comparisons between the different groups were performed by Mann–W1/80 after the treatment. Non-responder patients had ongoing complaints such as fever, myalgia and other constitutional symptoms, with 2-ME test measuring

Results

The most common complaints of the patients were fever (85%) and sweating (72.5%), arthralgia (65%) and malaise (65%) ((Table/Fig 1)). The median of Brucella STA and 2-ME test levels were 1/320 for both, in patients. Mean white blood cell counts of patients were 6.800 ± 2.600, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 37.75 ± 29.7, and C-reactive protein was 33.53 ± 27.23 ((Table/Fig 2)).

NK and NKT cells have a particular importance in initiating and regulating the immune response. Here, we evaluated the role of NK and NKT cells in patients with brucellosis during the early phase of infection and their difference in appearance before and after treatment period.

There was no significant correlation between NK and NKT cells ratio and laboratory findings of patients. There were no differences between before and after treatment period in terms of total lymphocytes and NK and NKT cells ratio. CD3+ cells counts were higher at pre-treatment period than post-treatment’s levels (p < 0.001).

These cell counts at both pre- and post-treatment period were higher than in healthy subjects (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). No statistically significant difference was observed between patients and controls for NKT cell counts and NK cell percentage. The cell counts and statistical differences are shown in (Table/Fig 3).

Discussion

Facultative intracellular bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Brucella abortus and Salmonella spp., survive within normal resident macrophages and other non-professional phagocytes. IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes play an important role in recovery from infection by these organisms (8),(9). In intracellular bacteria infection such as listeriosis, brucellosis or intracellular protozoan parasitic infections like toxoplasmosis and leishmaniosis, NK cells are known to be crucial for early control of infection (4),(5). This mechanism is related to production of IFN-γ (4). Similar effect can be found with the other IFN-γ-producing cells such as NKT cells. NK cells are part of the first line of defence against pathogens and following activation can kill infected targets. However, removal of NK cells in vivo did not alter the ability of mice to contend with B. abortus infection (2).

The literature shows that the immune responses are sufficient to control Brucella infection, even in the absence of functional NK cell responses (3). In this study, we did not observe significant difference for NK cell counts between patients and healthy subjects. Our findings related to NK cells in patients with brucellosis supported the results of the previously published articles (2),(3). Salmeron et al. (10) have found that PBMC from patients with acute brucellar infection showed a significantly depressed NK cell activity, but they have suggested that this depressed activity was not related to a deficient number of NK cells, since the numbers of CD 56+ and CD16+ cells present in PBMC were similar in patients and controls. They concluded that acute brucellar infection is associated with a deficient cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Dornand et al. (11), on the contrary, show that NK cells are activated by B. suis-infected macrophages and that they inhibit the intracellular multiplication of the bacteria by lysing the infected cells, thus suggesting that NK cells could be one actor of the control of Brucella development in humans.

The NKT cell is a CD3+ T cell, having one or more markers of the NK cell lineage. This cell type resides predominantly in the liver and responds solely to antigen presentation mediated by class I-like CD1-specific T cells (12),(13). The NKT cell is especially well poised to perform a detrimental role in that it seems predisposed to IL-4 production (14). On the other hand, it also appears capable of IFN-γ production, when stimulated by IL-12 from liver perisinusoidal macrophages (Kupffer cells) (15). The NKT cell induces IL-12 production from antigen-presenting macrophages.

Immune response to brucellosis can be affected by NKT cells, because these cells produce the two most critical cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ) (16). NKT cells responding in a Th1-like manner may upregulate NK cell activity. There are reports that the cell type may also function as a cytolytic cell (17),(18). These modes of antigen presentation appears critical in the immune response to intracellular bacteria (19). However, in listeriosis, NKT cells appear to have a detrimental effect, while in tuberculosis, these cells have no effect on the immune response (20),(21).

In our study, this result shows that CD4+ CD3+ T helper cells and CD8+ CD3+ cytotoxic T cells increase in brucellar infections. The higher

References

1.
Ko J, Splitter GA. Molecular host-pathogen interaction in brucellosis: current understanding and future approaches to vaccine development for mice and humans. Clin Microbiol Rev 2003;16:65–78.
2.
Golding B, Scott DE, Scharf O, Huang LY, Zaitseva M, Lapham C, et al. Immunity and protection against Brucella abortus. Microbes Infect 2001;3:43–8.
3.
Fernandes DM, Benson R, Baldwin CL. Lack of a role for natural killer cells in early control of Brucella abortus 2308 infections in mice. Infect Immun 1995;63:4029–33.
4.
Garcia-Penarrubia P, Koster FT, Kelley RO, McDowell TD, Bankhurst AD. Antibacterial activity of natural killer cells. J Exp Med 1989;169:99–113.
5.
Laskay T, Rollinghoff M, Solbach W. Natural killer cells participate in the early defense against Leishmania major infection in mice. Eur J Immunol 1993;23:2237–41.
6.
Baldwin CL, Goenka R. Host immune responses to the intracellular bacteria Brucella: does the bacteria instruct the host to facilitate chronic infection? Crit Rev Immunol 2006;26(5):407–42.
7.
Poulton LD, Baxter AG. Clinical application of NKT cell assays to the prediction of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2001;17:429–35.
8.
Zhan Y, Cheers C. Differential induction of macrophage-derived cytokines by live and dead intracellular bacteria in vitro. Infect Immun 1994;63:720–3.
9.
Zaitseva MB, Golding H, Betts M, Yamauchi A, Bloom ET, Butler LE, et al. Human peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells express Th1-like cytokine mRNA and proteins following in vitro stimulation with heat-inactivated Brucella abortus. Infect Immun 1995;63:2720–8.
10.
Salmeron I., Rodriguez-Zapata M, Salmeron O, Manzano L, Vaquer S, Alvarez-Mon M. Impaired activity of natural killer cells in patients with acute brucellosis. Clin Infect Dis 1992;15:764–70.
11.
Dornand J, Lafont V, Oliaro J, Terraza A, Castaneda-Roldan E, Liautard JP. Impairment of intramacrophagic Brucella suis multiplication by human natural killer cells through a contact-dependent mechanism. Infect Immun 2004;72:2303–11.
12.
Seki S, Habu Y, Kawamura T, Takeda K,

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com