Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"



Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Experimental Research
Year : 2007 | Month : August | Volume : 1 | Issue : 4 | Page : 330 - 338

Influence of Helicteres isora Bark Extracts on Plasma and Tissue Glycoprotein Components in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats

KUMAR G, MURUGESAN AG

Selvamm Arts and Science College, Namakkal (DT)-637 003, Tamilnadu, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. G. Kumar. Head and Senior Lecturer in Biochemistry, Selvamm Arts and Science College, Namakkal (DT)-637003, Tamilnadu, India. Tel.: +91-(0) 4286-244606 E-mail: pgsvedhakumar@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background: The present study investigated the effect of aqueous bark extracts of Helicteres isora on dearrangement in glycoprotein levels in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods: The bark extracts of H. isora (100, 200 mg/kg) was administered orally for 30 days to normal and diabetic rats. The effect of bark extracts on glucose, insulin, and plasma and tissue glycoproteins were studied. The effect of bark extract was compared with tolbutamide, a reference drug.
Result: The levels of glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and plasma glycoproteins containing hexose, hexosamine and fucose were increased significantly, whereas the level of plasma insulin and haemoglobin were decreased significantly in diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the level of sialic acid and elevated levels of hexose, hexosamine and fucose in the liver and kidney of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Administration of H. isora (100, 200 mg/kg) to diabetic rats was followed by a decreased level of glucose, glyosylated haemoglobin and plasma glycoproteins. The levels of plasma insulin, haemoglobin and tissue sialic acid were increased, whereas the levels of tissue hexose, hexosamine and fucose were near normal.
Conclusion: The present study indicates that the bark extract of H. isora possesses a significantly beneficial effect on the glycoprotein moiety in addition to its anti-diabetic effect.

Keywords

Helicteres isora, streptozotocin, glycoprotein components, anti-diabetic effect

Type 2 diabetes mellitus typically involves an abnormal β-cell function that results in relative insulin deficiency, insulin resistance accompanied by decreased glucose transport into muscle and fat cells, and increased hepatic glucose output. All of these contribute to hyperglycaemia, resulting in the impairment of the metabolism of glucose, lipids, proteins and glycoproteins (1). The level of different types of serum glycoproteins are maintained within a narrow range in health (2) but are elevated in many pathological conditions, cardiovascular disease (3) and diabetes mellitus (4). Defects in insulin secretion and insulin action are universally present in type 1 diabetes, and also in type 2 diabetes, in both human and animal models.

Glycoproteins are carbohydrate-linked protein macromolecules found in the cell surface, which is the principal component of animal cells. Abnormal levels of glycoproteins are important in the pathogenesis of liver and kidney diseases in diabetes. Glycoproteins are rich in extracellular matrix, and they contribute a major source to the structure of the matrix (5). It is well documented that the oligosaccharide moieties of glycoproteins, hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid, have an important role in protein stability, function and turnover (6). In the diabetic state, glucose is utilised by the insulin-independent pathways leading to the synthesis of glycoproteins, and even a mild deficiency of insulin influences the thickening of the basement membrane (7). The raised levels of glycoproteins in diabetics may also be a predictor of angiopathic complications (7). The therapy of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus presently relies upon compounds from a number of chemical classes: sulfonylureas, non-sulfonylureas, biguanides, etc. A wide variety of structurally distinct molecules stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells by different mechanisms of action.

The bark of Helicteres isora Linn. (Sterculiaceae) has been used in the indigenous systems of medicine in India for the treatment of diabetes mellitus since time immemorial. The plant is a shrub or small tree available in forests throughout the Central and Western India. The roots and the bark are expectorant, demulcent and are useful in colic, scabies, gastropathy, diabetes, diarrhoea and dysentery (8). The fruits are astringent, refrigerant, stomachic, vermifugal, vulnerary and useful in griping of bowels, flatulence of children (9) and antispasmodic effect (10). The aqueous extract of the bark showed significant hypoglycaemic (11), lowering effect of hepatic enzymes (12) and antiperoxidative effect (13).

In non-insulin-dependent or type 2 diabetes mellitus, oral hypoglycaemic agents are used to stimulate the pancreatic β-cells to secrete insulin and/or increase the sensitivity of peripheral insulin receptors to the action of endogenous insulin (14),(15),(16). The last few years have witnessed the introduction of a number of new oral agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, with the hope of achieving better glycaemic control. A clinically used tolbutamide (a sulphonylurea drug) is known to lower the blood glucose level by stimulating β-cells to release insulin (17). Tolbutamide enhances the sensitivity of both hepatic and peripheral tissues to insulin. The drug also inhibits gluconeogenesis in the liver.

To our knowledge, no other biochemical investigations had been carried out on the effect of bark extracts of H. isor

Material and Methods

Chemicals
All the drugs and biochemicals used in this experiment were purchased from Sigma Chemical Company Inc., St Louis, MO, USA. The chemicals were of analytical grade.

Collection and processing of plant material
The bark of H. isora L. was collected from Solakkadu, Kollimalai, Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India, and authenticated by Fr. K.M. Matthew, Director, Rapinat Herbarium, St. Joseph’s College, Tiruchirapalli. Voucher Herbarium specimens have been deposited in the (collection number 23644, 27406) Herbarium for future references.

The dried bark of H. isora L. was ground into fine powder with auto-mix blender. Then the fine powder was suspended in equal amount of water and stirred intermittently and left overnight. The macerated pulp was then filtered through a coarse sieve and the filtrate was dried at reduced temperature. This dry mass (yield 185 g/kg of powdered bark) served as aqueous extract of H isora L. for experimentation.

Animals
Male Wistar albino rats (weighing 160–200 g) were procured from the Animal House, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli, under standard environmental conditions (12 h light/dark cycles at 25–28C, 60–80% relative humidity). They were fed with a standard diet (Hindustan Lever, India) and water ad libitum and allowed to acclimatise for 14 days before the procedure. All studies were conducted in accordance with the National Institute of Health guide (18).

Experimental induction of type 2 diabetes in rats
Rats were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 4.5 (19). Forty-eight hours later, blood samples were collected and glucose levels were determined to confirm the development of diabetes. Only those animals that showed hyperglycaemia (blood glucose levels >240 mg/dl) were used in the experiment (20),(21).

Experimental procedure
In the experiment, a total of 42 rats (36 surviving diabetic rats and six control rats) were used. The rats were divided into seven groups of six rats each.

Group I were control rats (vehicle treated). Group II and III were normal rats administered orally with bark extracts 100, 200 mg/kg bw for 30 days. Group IV were diabetic control rats, and Group V and VI were diabetic rats administered orally with bark extracts 100, 200 mg/kg bw for 30 days. Group VII were diabetic rats given orally with tolbutamide 250 mg/kg bw for 30 days. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were deprived of food overnight and blood was collected in a tube containing potassium oxalate and sodium fluoride for the estimation of plasma glucose, haemoglobin, and glycosylated haemoglobin. Plasma was separated for the assay of insulin. Liver and kidney were dissected out, washed in ice-cold saline, patted dry and weighed.

Analytical methods
Determination of plasma glucose and insulin
Plasma glucose was estimated colorimetrically using commercial diagnostic kits (Sigma Diagnostics Pvt Ltd., Baroda, India) (22). Plasma insulin was assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Roche Diagnostics, Germany).

Determination of haemoglobin and glycosylated haemoglobin levels
The level of haemoglobin was estimated by using the cyanmethaemoglobin method described by Drabkin and Austin (23). The glycosylated haemoglobin level was estimated according to the method of Sudhakar Nayak and Pattabiraman (24) with modifications according to Bannon (25).

Determination of glycoproteins levels
For the estimation of glycoproteins, the tissues were defatted by the method of Folch et al. (26) and the defatted tissues were treated with 0.1 N H2SO4 and hydrolysed at 8

Results

Plasma glucose and insulin levels
(Table/Fig 1) demonstrates the levels of plasma glucose and insulin in control and experimental animals. In diabetic rats, the level of plasma glucose was significantly increased, whereas the plasma insulin was significantly decreased. The administration of bark extracts (100, 200 mg/kg) significantly reversed the changes in a dose-dependent manner. The bark extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw showed a highly significant effect compared to 100 mg/kg bw. Administration of bark extracts were compared with tolbutamide (250 mg/kg bw), a reference drug.

Haemoglobin and glycosylated haemoglobin levels
(Table/Fig 2) shows the levels of haemoglobin and glycosylated haemoglobin in the blood of control and experimental rats. The diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in the level of total haemoglobin and a significant increase in the level of glycosylated haemoglobin. The administration of bark extracts (100, 200 mg/kg bw) and tolbutamide (250 mg/kg bw) to diabetic rats reversed the changes in total haemoglobin and glycosylated haemoglobin.

Effect of bark extracts on plasma and tissue glycoproteins
(Table/Fig 3) shows the changes in the level of plasma glycoproteins of control and experimental rats. There was a significant increase of plasma glycoproteins in diabetic rats.

Administration of bark extracts and tolbutamide significantly decreased the level of plasma glycoproteins. The levels of liver and kidney glycoprotein of control and experimental rats are shown in (Table/Fig 4). The levels of glycoproteins containing hexose, hexosamine and fucose were significantly increased, whereas the level of sialic acid was significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Administration of H. isora bark extracts (100, 200 mg/kg bw) and tolbutamide (250 mg/kg bw) significantly reversed these changes in the glycoproteins levels in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. The effect of bark extracts were compared with tolbutamide.

Discussion

Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder in which hyperglycaemia is the unifying feature, and, as knowledge of the heterogeneity of this disorder increases, more appropriate therapies are required (32). The esters of selected carboxylic metabolites, which are mediating the Krebs cycle, or their precursors such as pyruvic acid, succinic acid and glutamic acid, are currently under investigation as potent insulinotropic tools in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes (33)

In the present investigation, treatment with bark extracts of H. isora showed significant antihyperglycaemic activity. The administration of bark extracts and tolbutamide to decrease the increased blood glucose concentration to normal glycaemic concentration is an essential trigger for the liver to revert to its normal homeostasis during experimental diabetes. It is well documented that bark extracts trigger a proinsulin synthesis and insulin release, similar to glucose-induced insulin synthesis and release (34).

Hyperglycaemia is the clinical hallmark of poorly controlled diabetes, which is known to cause protein glycation, also known as non-enzymatic glycosylation (35). It has been reported that various proteins, including haemoglobin, albumin, collagen, and low-density lipoprotein, a crystalline of lens and fibronectin, undergo non-enzymatic glycation in diabetes (36),(37). In long-term diabetes, the glycosylated form of Hb has an altered affinity for oxygen, and this may be a factor in tissue anoxia (38),(39). Glycosylated haemoglobin is found to be significantly increased in diabetic animals, and the amount of this increase is directly proportional to the fasting blood glucose level (40),(41). The level of total haemoglobin is found to be decreased in the diabetic group, and this may be due to the increased formation of glycosylated haemoglobin. This was well correlated with earlier studies, which reported that there was a decrease in the level of haemoglobin in experimental diabetic rats (42). The increase in the level of haemoglobin in animals given bark extract may be due to the decreased level of blood glucose.

Glycation is a non-enzymatic reaction of glucose and other saccharide derivatives with proteins, nucleotides and lipids (43). Non-enzymatic glycation (Maillard reaction) is a complex series of reactions between reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins, which leads to browning, fluorescence and cross-linking of the proteins. The reaction is initiated by the reversible formation of a Schiff base, which undergoes a rearrangement to form a relatively stable Amadori product. The Amadori product further undergoes a series of reactions through dicarbonyl intermediates to form AGE (advanced glycation end-products). Formation of some AGEs combines both the glycation and the oxidative steps in a process termed glycoxidation (44). Glycation occurs inside and outside cells. Glycation of cellular proteins produces changes in structure and loss of enzymatic activity. These effects are countered by protein degradation and renewal.(Table/Fig 3)(Table/Fig 4)

Glycation of the extracellular matrix produces changes in macromolecular structure, affecting matrix–matrix and matrix–cell interactions associated with decreased elasticity and increased fluid filtration across the arterial wall, and endothelial cell adhesion (45). When the concentration of AGEs increased above a critical

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Konukoglu D, Serin O, Akcay T, Hatemi H. Relationship between diabetic angiopathic complications and serum total and lipid associated sialic acid concentrations. Med Sci Res 1999;27:53–5.
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Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. Vol. 1. Dehradun, India: International book distributors; 1995. p. 371–2.
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Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. 1st ed. New Delhi, India: CSIR; 1956. p. 131.
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Pohocha N, Grampurohit ND. Antispasmodic activity of the fruits of Helicteres isora Linn. Phytother Res 2001;15:49–52.
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Kumar G, Sharmila Banu G, Murugesan AG, Rajasekara Pandian M. Hypoglycaemic effect of Helicteres isora bark extracts in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;107:304–7.
12.
Kumar G, Murugesan AG, Rajasekara Pandian M. Effect of Helicteres isora bark extracts on blood glucose and hepatic enzymes in experimental diabetes. Pharmazie 2006;61:353–5.
13.
Tables and Figures
[Table / Fig - 1] [Table / Fig - 2] [Table / Fig - 3] [Table / Fig - 4]

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .