Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 73521

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferences
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
Knowledge is treasure of a wise man. The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help ones reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journalsNo manuscriptsNo authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2007 | Month : December | Volume : 1 | Issue : 6 | Page : 483 - 487 Full Version

Malnutrition among Under-Six Children in Chandigarh: Scarcity in Plenty

Published: December 1, 2007 | DOI:

Dr. sonia puri, Senior Lecturer. Department of Community Medicine, Govt. Medical College, College Building, Sector 32-A, Chandigarh - 160047, India

Correspondence Address :
Dr. sonia puri, Senior Lecturer. Department of Community Medicine, Govt. Medical College, College Building, Sector 32-A, Chandigarh - 160047, India.E-mail:


India has shown remarkable progress and a number of nutrition intervention programmes have been implemented, but malnutrition remains highly prevalent in poor states of the country. Chandigarh is one of the most literate among union territories/states of India, having highest per capita income.
Objective: The present study was conducted in one of the largest slums, with the objective to find out the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and some of the associated factors among children under the age of 6 years (under-six children).

Methodology: This community-based cross-sectional study is a representative of 26 slums, with 1.5–2 lakh population living in the slum areas of a modern city. Three hundred and thirteen under-six children were selected by systematic sampling technique.

Results: The overall prevalence of PEM was observed as 62.62%, which was higher among boys (65.87%) as compared to girls (58.90%). The peak prevalence was found in the age group of 6–12 months. A significant association between acute ailments (diarrhoea, ARI, and fever with rash) and PEM was observed (p < 0.001). Prevalence of worm infestation on the basis of history was recorded as 35.67%. Over half (58.4%) of the children were anaemic.

Conclusion: Prevalence of malnutrition along with worm infestation, anaemia, and common ailments in an urban slum of India’s modern city highlights the significance of developing integrated child illness management programmes for urban poor and strengthening nutrition intervention programmes.


Malnutrition, children, anaemia, worm infestation, slum

Malnutrition is still a major public health problem of staggering dimensions in developing countries including India. According to WHO, there are about 10.8 million child deaths a year globally. This number is attributed to iron, vitamin A, and zinc deficiencies. Iron deficiency affects 2 billion people, is responsible for one- fifth of early neonatal mortality, and kills 80,000 people/day (1),(2). Micronutrient deficiencies damage one-third of world population, resulting in 2 billion people living below their physical and mental potential (3). In South Asian region, nearly 5 million children are dying every year,and up to 3 million of these deaths are directly or indirectly associated with malnutrition (4).

In spite of a large number of national programmes related to nutrition such as ICDS, mid-day meal, etc., about 6600 under-five children die everyday, accounting to 46% child deaths due to protein energy malnutrition (PEM). As per the recent nationwide studies, majority of children are of mild-to-moderate grade, and those of severe grade are only 2.5% (5). Gradually India is observing urbanisation, resulting in development of slums with poor infrastructure leading to poverty and deprivation. The present study was conducted in one of the largest slums in Chandigarh, with the objective to find out the prevalence of PEM and assess its association with some of the factors among under-six underprivileged children.

Material and Methods

Union territory of Chandigarh is having a population of about 1 million, with nearly 50% population staying in urban developed sectors, 10% in rural areas, and 40% in slums and resettled colonies. The city has an excellent educational and health infrastructure, with one of the highest literacy rates of 81.6% among Indian cities having been reported in the recent census (6). However, as a result of rapid in-migration from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, unauthorised growth of slums has taken place where the infrastructure is poor.

The present study was conducted in one of the largest slums in Chandigarh, having a population of 15,000–20,000. This study covered under-six children living in the slum. A team of trained doctors from our department and AWWs (Anganwari workers of that slum) inquired about under-six children. Sample was selected by systematic sampling technique. Every 10th child was selected for the study population. Out of approximate 3000–3500 under-six children, 313 were selected for the study.

Information was collected on predesigned, pretested performa by interviewing the mothers. Information included history of acute illness in the past 6 months regarding diarrhoea (having passed three stools in a day), ARI (child with cough and fever), and fever with rash. Anaemia was assessed by clinical assessment of pallor; malnutrition was assessed on the basis of IAP classification. Child was considered to be suffering from worm infestation if there was history of passing worms or pica along with abdominal pain. Height and weight of each child were assessed by using standard anthropometric methods. These factors were assessed by age and sex and analysed accordingly.


The present study included 167 males (53.35%) and 146 females (64.65%). (Table/Fig 1) reveals that only 117 (37.38%) children were having normal weight and remaining 196 (62.62%) were suffering from various grades of PEM. It was observed that the prevalence of malnutrition was higher in males (65.87%) in comparison to females (58.9%), though severe grades of malnutrition (Grades III and IV) were higher among females (9.59%) than among males (5.38%). Overall, 36.42%, 18.85%, 5.43%, and 1.92% under-six children were in different grades of I, II, III, and IV, respectively. It can be seen in (Table/Fig 2) that a statistically significant relationship between acute ailments (diarrhoea, ARI, and rash with fever) with malnutrition was observed where 73.08% children were suffering from malnutrition in comparison with 42.08% children when no acute ailment had occurred (p < 0.001). Pallor was found to be the same in both boys and girls – 58.1% and 58.9%, respectively ((Table/Fig 3)).

According to operational definition of worm infestation in the present study, prevalence of worm infestation was 35.67%. On interviewing the mothers, it was observed that among these children, 20.45% children were passing worms in stools in the last 6 months and 25.24% gave history of pica with or without abdominal pain. Some children were having both the problems (worms in stools and pica). The prevalence of anaemia was 41.45% with equal distribution in both sexes.

Further, 284 (90.72%) children were suffering from less height for their age, according to NCHS standards recommended by National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad. More females (93.15%) were stunted in comparison to males (88.62%). No significant difference in stunting in different age groups was observed except in the children up to the age of 2 years (88.33%).


A high prevalence of PEM to the extent of 62.62% is indicative of the poverty and poor living conditions existing in slums. In south-east Asian region, prevalence of malnutrition is 51% (4). The study area has eight Aanganwadi centres under ICDS programme, which are catering to grossly inadequate population of nearly 3500–4000 under-six children. The national-level survey has reported an overall prevalence of 47% underweight and 18% wasted children under the age of 3 years (7). The prosperous states of Punjab and Haryana, with Chandigarh being their capital, have ample production of wheat, and therefore the population is not deprived of food. Nevertheless, the fact that nearly 90% under-six children have stunting in Chandigarh slums reflects the chronicity of malnutrition. This population living in the slums has migrated from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, which are known to have high prevalence of malnutrition and poverty. A higher prevalence of PEM in present study was seen among boys, which is in accordance with similar trend observed in another city of Uttar Pradesh (7).

Presence of severe PEM among 7% of children reflects the fact that supplementary nutrition programme has not yielded desired results. Source of drinking water is still unsafe, with unhealthy living conditions causing acute ailments and infections such as diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections, etc. The present study has also observed that there is a strong correlation between acute ailments and PEM. It is well documented that these infections lead to malnutrition, which further lowers the immunity, putting the children at risk of infections (8),(9). Vicious cycle between malnutrition and infection and low immunity is very well documented (4),(10).

A number of studies have reported a high prevalence of worm infestation among children in different parts of the country. The study carried out in Kanpur on ankylostomiasis among children depicted a prevalence of 27% in boys and 16% in girls (11). Present study also showed the prevalence of worm infestation around 35.68%. The similar trend has been observed in different studies that showed 41% prevalence of hookworms and 56% prevalence of protozoa, in comparison to 35% in the present study. Although prevalence of worm infestation is confirmed either by history of passing worms or by examination of stool, present study covered history of passing worms and pica with or without abdominal pain as criteria for worm infestation. Universal deworming of children has been recommended because of its high prevalence. Deworming in preschool children in slums of Lucknow resulted in weight and height gain among children who had a history of round worm passage (12),(13). Thus, we also emphasised on clinical grounds to highlight problem and encourage deworming. Deworming programmes are still not operational at mass level, leading to malnutrition among children.

Around two-third of children were suffering from anaemia with equal distribution in both sexes. This corroborates to the finding of various studies carried out in Delhi, which showed a high prevalence of anaemia in children (13),(14). Nutritional deprivation and worm infestation are the major causes of anaemia (15).

Presence of PEM among two-third under-six children, over half suffering from anaemia, one-third from worm infestation, and over two-third from acute ailments, requires to develop integrated child illness management programme. In a modern city like Chandigarh, which has one of the highest literacy rates among Indian cities (82%), we have observed that such health problems are enormous in the urban slums. Ther


A high prevalence of malnutrition, anaemia, and worm infestation among under-six children in urban slums of a modern city with a high socioeconomic status highlights the fact that such problem needs attention of policy makers at national level and some systems need to be developed to reduce the problems.


WHO. World Health Report 2002 – reducing risks promoting healthy life. Geneva: WHO; 2002.
Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Vanderhoorn S. Lancet 2002;360:1347–60.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization (BLT).Volume 82, Number 3, March 2004, 160-238.
Sheshadri S. Nutritional Anemia in South Asia. In: Malnutrition in South Asia: A Regional Profile Ed. Gillespie S. Katmandu, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia 1997; pp 75-124.
Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine; 17th edn. Jabalpur; M/s Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers: 2002. p. 435–7.
Census of India, Series-1, Registrar General and Commissioner, 2001.
National Family Health Survey (NFHS II) 1998–1999. Mumbai: International Institute of Population Sciences; 2000. p. 266–74.
Acharya D, Prassana KS, Rao RSP. Acute respiratory infections in children, a community based study in south India. Indian J Public Health 2003;47:7–11.
Karande S, Rajneesh M, Sanjeev A. Clinical profile and outcome of acute respiratory failure. Indian J Paediatr 2003;70:865–71.
Singh M. Rule of nutrients for physical growth and mental development. Indian J Paediatr 2004;71:59–62.
Yadla S, Sen H. An epidemiological study in ancylostomasis in a rural area of Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Indian J Public Health 2003;47(2):52–70.
Awasthi S, Pande VK. Six monthly deworming in infants to study effects on growth. Indian J Paediatr 2001:68(9):823–7.
Kapur D, Sharma S, Aggarwal KN. Effectiveness of nutrition education, iron supplementation or both on iron status in children. Indian Pediatr 2003;40:1131–7.
National Family Health Survey (NFHS II) 1998–1999. Mumbai: International Institute of Population Sciences; 2000. p. 19.

Tables and Figures
[Table / Fig - 1] [Table / Fig - 2] [Table / Fig - 3]

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .