Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018

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"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

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On Sep 2018

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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

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On Aug 2018

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Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
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Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Experimental Research
Year : 2007 | Month : December | Volume : 1 | Issue : 6 | Page : 561 - 569 Full Version

Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of the Aqueous Fruit Extract of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb (L.) in Normal and Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats

Published: December 1, 2007 | DOI:

*Centre for Biotechnology, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram, Namakkal 627408, Tamilnadu, India **Selvamm Arts and Science College, Namakkal (DT) 637 003, Tamilnadu, India.

Correspondence Address :
Mrs. Sharmila Banu G, Lecturer, Biotechnology, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram, Namakkal 627408, Tamilnadu, India.
Tel: +91-(0) 4286-261566; e-mail:


Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous fruit extract of Trichosanthes dioica (TD) at a dose of 50 ml/kg b.w in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Material-Methods: The aqueous fruit extracts of TD (50 ml/kg) were administered orally for 15 days, to normal and diabetic rats. The effect of the fruit extracts on cholesterol and triglycerides, were studied. The body weights of the rats were observed. The effect of the fruit extract was compared with vanadate, a reference drug.

Result: In normal rats, the aqueous fruit extract of TD induced significant decrease of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations 6hrs after a single oral administration (P< 0.05), and also in 2 weeks after repeated oral administrations (p< 0.05). TD treatment caused significant decrease of plasma cholesterol levels after a single administration (p<0.01), and after repeated (p<0.01) oral administrations. Significant increase of triglyceride levels was observed 6hrs after a single oral administration of the TD aqueous fruit extract (p< 0.01). One week after repeated oral administration of aqueous extract of TD, the plasma triglyceride levels were significantly decreased (p <0.005). The decreasing trend continued even after 2 weeks (p <0.01). On the other hand, repeated oral administration of TD aqueous fruit extract, caused significant decrease of body weight after 2 weeks of treatment in both normal (p <0.001) and diabetic (p <0.01) rats.

Conclusion: The present study indicates that the aqueous fruit extract of TD exhibits cholesterol and body weight-lowering activities in both normal and hyperglycaemic rats.


Trichosanthes dioica, cholesterol, triglycerides, body weight, diabetic rats

From the beginning of the last century, evidences on the cholesterol-lowering properties of medicinal plants have been accumulating (1),(2). The importance of such investigations, are confirmed in the treatment of obesity, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, and atherosclerosis (3). Many scientists around the world have reported the role of medicinal plants in the control of elevated serum cholesterol, and the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to vascular diseases associated with it. The influence of diabetes mellitus on lipid metabolism is well established. The association of hyperglycaemia and alteration of lipid parameters present a major risk of cardio-vascular diseases, particularly in diabetic patients (2),[4–6].

Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is one of the most nutritive cucurbit vegetables, and it holds a coveted position in the Indian market during the summer and rainy seasons. It is a perennial crop, highly accepted due to its availability for eight months in a year (February–September). Being very rich in protein and vitamin A, it has certain medicinal properties, and many reports are available regarding its role in lowering of blood sugar and serum triglycerides (7). The fruits are easily digestible and diuretic in nature. They are also known to have antiulcerous effects (8). It grows as a vegetable all over India. It is prescribed to improve appetite and digestion (9). The decoction of TD is useful as a valuable alternative tonic, and as a febrifuge, which is given for boils and other skin diseases (10). The juice of the leaf is applied to patches of alopecia areata (11). The root is used as a hydragogue cathartic tonic and febrifuge (12). The fruits are used as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, and the juice of unripe fruits and also tender shoots, are used for cooling and as a laxative (13). The fruits and seeds have some prospects in the control of some cancer- like conditions and haemagglutinating activities (14). The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential cholesterol and triglyceride lowering activity of a single and repeated oral administrations of the TD aqueous extract in normal and streptozotocin(STZ) rats. The effect of the TD extract on body weight loss was also determined. Vanadate (0.8 mg/kg) was used as a
reference drug (2),(15) known for its both hypolipidaemic and hypoglycaemic activities.

Material and Methods

Plant material
The fruit of TD was collected from Palayapalayam, Namakkal District, Tamilnadu, India, and was authenticated by Fr. K. M. Matthew, Director, Rapinat Herbarium, St.Joseph’s College, Tiruchirapalli. Voucher Herbarium specimens have been deposited in the (collection number 23644) Rapinat Herbarium for future references.

Preparation of the aqueous fruit extract
Fresh raw deseeded fruits of TD (1Kg) were peeled, washed, cut into small pieces, and homogenized in a warring blender, with 2 litres of distilled water. The extraction was carried at a temperature of 200 ± 10C, with constant stirring overnight. The homogenate was then squeezed through a cheese cloth, and was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 10min at 0-40C. The supernatant being the TD fruit extract, it was decanted and used for experiments.

Experiments were performed in either sex of Wistar rats weighing from 200 to 220 g. The animals were housed under standard environmental conditions (23 ± 10C, with 65 ± 5% humidity and 12:12-h light/dark cycle), and maintained with free access to water and ad libitum standard laboratory diet. Six rats were housed per cage, to provide them with sufficient space, and to avoid unnecessary morbidity and mortality. All the studies were conducted in accordance with the National Institute of Health guide (16).

Induction of diabetes
STZ (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) was dissolved in 0.1M of fresh cold citrate buffer at pH 4.5 before use, and was injected intravenously into the tail vein at a dose of 60mg/kg (17). After 18 hrs, rats with stable fasting blood glucose levels over16 mmol/l were considered as diabetics, and were used in the present study.

Single oral administration
Normal and diabetic rats were randomly assigned to three different groups, containing six rats each. One control group received distilled water, a second group received the aqueous extract of TD at a dose of 50 ml/kg, and the third group received a reference drug (vanadate (Na+VO3) at a dose of 0.8 mg/kg). For single oral administration, distilled water (control), Vanadate (0.8mg/kg) (15), or the aqueous fruit extract of TD (50 ml/kg) (19), were administered, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured before and 6hrs after TD treatment.

Repeated oral administration
For repeated oral administration, rats were treated once daily at a dose of 50 ml/kg for 2 weeks, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured during this period. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein, and plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were determined enzymatically by colorimetric specific kits (Randox, UK), respectively. The kits used in this study for substrate analysis were specific for both human and rat blood samples, at the same percentage.

Statistical analysis
All experimental data were expressed as Mean ± S.D., and statistically assessed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).The difference between test animals and controls were evaluated by Student’s t-test (18).


Single oral administration
In normal rats, a significant decrease of plasma cholesterol levels was observed in the group treated with TD, at a dose of 50 ml/kg, when compared to the control group (p< 0.05; (Table/Fig 1)), 6 hrs after the fruit treatment. The plasma triglyceride levels were also increased, 6 hrs after fruit treatment (p <0.05; (Table/Fig 2)). No statistically significant changes were observed for the vanadate-treated group ((Table/Fig 1) and (Table/Fig 2)). In STZ rats, the aqueous fruit extract of TD caused significant reduction of plasma cholesterol levels, 6 hrs after TD treatment (p <0.01; (Table/Fig 1)), while plasma triglyceride levels were increased (p < 0.01; (Table/Fig 2)). Vanadate (0.8 mg/kg) reduced both the plasma cholesterol (p <0.01) and triglyceride levels (p < 0.01), after 6 hrs, in diabetic rats ((Table/Fig 1) and (Table/Fig 2)).

Repeated oral administration
In normal rats, a significant reduction in plasma cholesterol levels was observed in the TD treated group, from the fourth day to the second week of TD treatment (p <0.05; (Table/Fig 3)). The plasma triglyceride levels were decreased from the first to the second week (p< 0.05) of TD treatment (Table/Fig 4). After 2 weeks of treatment, vanadate caused a significant decrease of plasma cholesterol levels (p< 0.01; (Table/Fig 3)) and triglyceride levels (p<0.05; (Table/Fig 4)). In diabetic rats, TD fruit extract decreased significantly, the plasma cholesterol levels from the fourth day (p< 0.05); the most significant effect was reached in the second week of treatment (p < 0.01; (Table/Fig 3)). The plasma triglyceride levels were increased 2 days after the fruit treatment (p < 0.001), and dropped significantly from the first week (p<0.01) to the second week of fruit treatment (p<0.05; (Table/Fig 4)). Daily vanadate administration (0.8 mg/kg) for 2 weeks produced a statistically significant reduction in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations ((Table/Fig 3) and (Table/Fig 4)) (p< 0.01).

Body weight loss
In normal rats, the TD aqueous fruit extract caused a significant weight loss, 2 weeks after treatment (p< 0.001; (Table/Fig 5)). The same effect was noted in STZ rats (p< 0.01; (Table/Fig 5)). Vanadate caused also a significant decrease of body weight in both normal and STZ rats (p< 0.01).


The aim of this study was to test the effect of the TD aqueous fruit extract on plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. According to the survey, TD was widely used in diabetes and cardiac diseases. We have previously reported that TD exhibited a hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in STZ rats (19),(20). The mechanism involved in this pharmacological effect seems to be the inhibition of endogenous glucose production (21). Vanadate was used as a reference drug, because it has been reported to be a potent insulin mimetic agent in many cells (22),(23). Administration of this compound to diabetic animals normalizes blood glucose concentration and reduces triglyceride levels (24),(25). The results demonstrated that the aqueous fruit extract of TD induced a significant decrease of plasma cholesterol levels both in normal and STZ-diabetic rats, for short-term (single) and long-term (repeated) administrations. However, the plasma triglyceride levels were increased when short-term treatment was considered, but decreased significantly after long-term TD treatment in both normal and STZ rats.

Vanadate treatment caused a significant decrease of plasma triglyceride levels in STZ rats. The plasma triglyceride levels were initially increased in STZ rats, because the lipolysis was stimulated by a concomitant insulinopenic state. Recent-onset insulinopenia in STZ-diabetic rats is associated with lipid overproduction in the basal (hyperglycaemic) state (17). Some studies have reported a similar lipidemic-lowering activity of some medicinal plants (26),(27). The transient increase of triglyceride levels at short-term experiments, were observed in our study. Such short-term analyses had not been performed in previous studies. This transient increase of triglycerides could be explained by the fact, that glycolysis, glucose oxidation, and lipid synthesis pathways could be activated by the TD aqueous fruit extract (28),(29). The effect of TD was more prominent, as compared to that of vanadate.

The underlying mechanism of the lipidaemic-lowering activity of TD could be the inhibition of lipid absorption due to the presence of saponins and tanins in the aqueous extract (26),[30–32], and/or inhibition of cholesterol-esterase, activation of fatty acids synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and production of triglyceride precursors such as acetyl-CoA and glycerol phosphate. The main constituents of TD are flavonoids, saponins and tanins (28). Flavonoids are considered as active constituents of many medicinal plants (32), and natural products with positive effect for human health (33). We have previously demonstrated that flavonoids are responsible of the antioxidant activity of TD in normal and STZ rats (19),(20). The effect of some flavonoids on cholesterol metabolism is known (34),(35). On the other hand, oral administration of saponins from some medicinal plants, significantly reduce triglycerides and cholesterol levels in rat (36). The usage of diet with high saponins contents is also suggested to reduce heart diseases (35),(36).

It seems then that the TD fruit extract reduced plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels without stimulating insulin secretion. The TD aqueous fruit extract causes a weight loss in rats. This effect could be explained directly by the lipid-lowering activity of the extrac


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Asolkar LV, Kakkar K

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