Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 61156

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionReferences
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2008 | Month : December | Volume : 2 | Issue : 6 | Page : 1186 - 1190

Baseline Ophthalmic Data Of School Children Aged 15 Years Or Younger In Leh, Jammu And Kashmir, India

JHA K N Correspondence Address :
Kirti Nath Jha,ProfessorDepartment of Ophthalmology,Manipal College of Medical Sciences,Pokhara,(Nepal)


Background:Due to extreme cold climate and its remoteness, Ladakh remains one of the least accessible parts of the India. Consequently, epidemiological data about this region is scarce.
Purpose: This study was carried out to present baseline ophthalmic data of school children aged 15 years or younger from two schools at Leh, Jammu and Kashmir, India, which is climatically situated in a high altitude cold desert.
Design: School-based cross sectional study.
Methods: Trained ophthalmic assistants performed visual acuity measurements using Snellen chart and examination of external eye with torchlight, for children aged 15 years or younger, from two selected schools with the largest student strength. Any student with visual acuity of 20/40 or below in either eyes or any other obvious abnormality, were referred to the local eye centre at the Military Hospital. At the hospital, an ophthalmologist further examined subjects. Examination by an ophthalmologist involved repeated visual acuity measurements with Snellen chart, refraction under cycloplegia with 1 % cyclopentolate eye drops, slit-lamp anterior segment examinations, and dilated fundus examinations.
Results: An ophthalmic assistant screened 843 (90.06%) of 936 children enumerated, and identified 91 (10.79%) children as requiring further clinical examination. Refractive errors (5.69 %) were found to be the major cause for ocular morbidity in children in this region. Conjunctival inflammatory diseases are the other important cause of ocular morbidity in this population.
Conclusions: Refractive errors and conjunctival inflammatory conditions are the major ocular cause of ocular morbidity among the school children in Leh.

While the health problems of school children vary from one place to another, surveys carried out in India indicate that the main emphasis will fall on malnutrition, infectious diseases, diseases of eye, skin and ear and dental caries (1).

All of these problems need attention. However, eye care needs special emphasis in so far as visual impairment, and eye disorders with blinding potential need to be detected and remedied in time, as they would not only affect the learning abilities of the child, but may lead to permanent disablements.

There are an estimated 200,000 blind children in India (2),(3),(4). Studies have reported that Refractive error is the leading cause of moderate visual impairment and the second major cause of blindness in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh.An estimated 3.7 % of this population has moderate visual impairment, and 0.3 % is blind due to refractive error (5),(6). Another study has further pointed out that 46.69 % of the ocular morbidity is directly attributable to refractive errors (7).

To address this problem, facilities do exist to screen the children for eye disorders in developing countries under the programs initiated by the World Health Organization (6), but many areas remain out of its purview due to apathy of the local authorities or the remoteness of the areas.

Ladakh, with its headquarters at Leh, is a geographically vast region (96901 Sq. Km which includes 37555 Sq. Km under the occupation of China). It has remained outside the realm of epidemiological research in the ophthalmic field.

Ladakh region, situated at an average altitude of about 4000-5000 meters above sea level, is a vast mountainous territory, which extends from Zanskar in the south to Karakoram, Nun-Kun and Nangaparbat in the north. This region experiences extreme climatic conditions with very severe winters, with minimum temperature dipping to -30°C.The total population of the region in 2001 was 2, 25,000, with a population density of about 2 persons per square kilometers and a low sex ratio of 888 females per 1000 males. Less than 20% of the population lives in urban areas, and the overall literacy is 54%.This part of the world remains closed from the rest of the world for almost six months a year. Therefore, it is economically the least developed region of the Jammu and Kashmir state of India (8).

It is because of this reason that statistics relating to visual impairment and refractive errors from this region is practically non-existent in the literature. The people of Ladakh are a mixture of Mongoloid and Aryan races, and bear a close resemblance with the Tibetans in facial features, food habits, religion, cultural customs and social beliefs. Daily life is hard, since it is governed by deep-rooted traditional and cultural norms. Thus, the poverty, topography, extreme climatic conditions and traditional values impact the health of the people of Ladakh in one way or the other.

In this large area, access to ophthalmic care for the population is difficult, except for a couple of referral hospitals and eye camps when they are organized by government agencies including army / voluntary organizations during good weather only.
It is in this background, that a screening of school children were carried out during Mar- Apr 2004 at Leh, to obtain a base line ophthalmic data on visual disorders on children aged 15 years and below in a high altitude and extreme cold climate area of our country. To the best of our knowledge, no such data is currently available in the literature from this area.

Material and Methods

A descriptive study was carried out on the data generated during the screening of school children carried out during Mar- Apr 2004 at Leh, for obtaining a base line data on refractive errors on children below 15 years of age from this high altitude region.

Two schools with largest strength, where students from all the regions of Ladakh viz., Central Ladakh (Leh valley), Suru valley, and Zanskar, Changthang and Nubra valley study, were selected for the purpose of the study.

A trained ophthalmic assistant performed visual acuity measurements and examination of the external eye with torchlight, for children aged 15 years or younger and using Snellen chart. He referred any child with ocular problem or with uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in either eye, to the ophthalmologist. A single ophthalmologist again repeated the visual acuity measurements with Snellen chart, performed cycloplegic refraction, slit-lamp anterior segment examinations, and dilated posterior segment examinations on the referred children at our ophthalmology department.

An ophthalmic assistant examined a total 843(90.06%) of 936 children enrolled. Amongst them, 91were referred for examination by an ophthalmologist. Findings of the study are presented as results.
Enumeration and clinical data were collected using prepared data collection forms.

Prevalence of significant visual impairment (visual acuity of 20/40 or worse) was calculated for uncorrected visual acuity. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent refractive error of at least –0.5D, and hyperopia as + 2.0D or more.


Study Population
Of 936 children enrolled for examination, the ophthalmic assistant examined 843..The participation rate was (90.06%). Distribution of the examined children by age and gender is shown in (Table/Fig 1). A total of 470 males and 373 female children were examined. The M: F ratio was 1.26:1. Out of them, 91 (10.79 %) were referred for examination by an ophthalmologist.

Visual Acuity
Patients with uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in either eye, underwent refraction under cycloplegia. Amongst the children, 795(94.3%) had visual acuity better than 20/40 in either eye. 48(5.69 %) children had visual acuity of 20/40 or worse, at least in one of the eyes. In this group of children with subnormal visual acuity, the male /female ratio was 0.77:1(21 /27) (Table/Fig 2) gives the details of children with subnormal vision. Causes of subnormal visual acuity were refractive errors, cataract, corneal opacity, and squint.

Refractive Errors
Uncorrected refractive errors constituted the most important cause of subnormal vision. Among the 48 children (5.1 % population) with visual acuity ≤ 20/40, 33 (3.91%) had refractive errors below +/- 1.0 D. 6(0.71 %) had refractive errors between +/-1.25 to +/- 3.0 D. 9 (1.06 %) children had refractive errors above +/- 3.0D.

Myopia with or without astigmatism, was found to be the commonest (35/48) form of ametropia. Myopia accounted for 4.1 % of the study population. As regards refractive error blindness, we did not find any such case among the school children in our series.

Other Ocular Abnormalities
Among other ocular abnormalities and causes of visual impairment, amblyopia due to strabismus or refractive error was noticed in 4 cases. Corneal opacities were found in four cases. Strabismus was noticed in two cases. Mild ptosis was found in one child. Two children with pseudophakia following traumatic cataract removal were also among the cases with subnormal vision. Details of subnormal vision due to other ocular abnormalities are given in (Table/Fig 3) also. Rest of the referred children (43) suffered from conjunctival inflammatory diseases, in particular allergic conjunctivitis.


In the present study, the sample was drawn from children aged 15 years or younger from the school population of the two largest schools in Leh, Ladakh. The reason behind selecting this group, was that the school-going children are in a better position to co-operate with the vision testing using Snellen chart and ocular examination. Therefore, accuracy of the vision testing is rendered more reliable.

The overall examination participation was 90.06%, because of the children being absent from school on the day of exam for various reasons. As such, the paramedic did visit the school on two other occasions to net the left out children in the eye exam process.
Baseline presenting visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in at least one eye, was found in 48(5.69%) children. This number decreased to 25 (2.96 %), with best-corrected vision. The baseline visual acuity of 20/40 or less in the better eye in the urban population of New Delhi was found to be 4.9 % (9). In another study by Dandona R et al. (10), baseline visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye in rural Andhra Pradesh in India was (2.6%). Our study conducted on a smaller sample in a school setting has a comparatively higher prevalence. It is evident that data obtained from school children alone, are not representative of the population at large, and therefore this is a drawback of all school-based studies. Nonetheless, our study conducted on a seemingly smaller population, does represent 0.37 % of the total population of Ladakh, that is just about 2,25,000. In addition, as the whole population below 15 years from the selected schools were studied by the ophthalmic assistant, the possibility of selection bias is unlikely.

Nonetheless, the results cannot be generalized for the population at large, for which a separate study would be desirable.In our study population, we did not come across any cases of childhood blindness, because most of these children are taken care at the school for challenged children at ASHA clinic run by the Indian Army.

Since we did not encounter any cases of blindness, we are not in a position to comment on its prevalence or cause. Prevalence of refractive error (5.69 %) and myopia (4.1%) are higher than those reported in the larger series from southern India (4),(5). Therefore, prima facie there is a need for provision of eye check-up for school children in this far flung region.

In addition, there is also a need to evolve a model for cost-effective screening for ocular morbidity and delivery of eye care for school children.


. Park K. Preventive medicine in Obstetrics, Pediatrics and Geriatrics. In: Park’sTextbook of Preventive and social medicine, 16th ed. Jabalpur. Banarsidas Bhanot 2000.351-404.
. Rahi JS, Sripathi S, Gilbert CE, Foster A: Childhood blindness in India: Causes in 1318 blind school students in nine states. Eye 1995:9:545-50.
. Smith JS: Childhood blindness in India. Eye 1995:9:543-44.
. Nirmalan PK, Vijaylakshmi P, Sheeladevi S, Kothari MB, Sundaresan K,Rahmatullah L. Kariapatti Pediatric eye evaluation project (KPEEP): Baseline ophthalmic data of children aged 15 years or younger in south India. Am J Ophthalmol 2003; 136:703-9.
. Dandona L,Dandona R,Srinivas M,Giridhar P,Vilas K,Prasad MN,et al. Blindness in Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2001; 42:908-16.
. Dandona R, Dandona L, Srinivas M, Giridhar P, Prasad MN, Vilas K, et al. Moderatevisual impairment in India: The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.Br J Ophthalmol 2002: 86:373-77.
. Murthy GVS, Gupta SK, Bachani D. The Principles and practice of Community Ophthalmology 2002.National programme for control of blindness, Community Ophthalmology section, AIIMS, New Delhi .102-22.
. Directorate of Census Operations, Jammu and Kashmir 2001b. Census of India, 2001, Series-2 Jammu and Kashmir, Provisional Population Tables. Paper-2 of 2001, Rural Urban Distribution of Population, Srinagar.
. Murthy GVS, Gupta SK, Ellwein LB,et al.Refractive error in children in an urban population in New Delhi. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002; 43:623-31.
. Dandona R, Dandona L, Srinivas M, Sahare P et al. Refractive errors in children in a rural population in India. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002; 43(3)615-22.

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)