Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 51585

Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Year : 2008 | Month : February | Volume : 2 | Issue : 1 | Page : 674 - 680 Full Version

Novel Dual-Acting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha and Gamma Agonists

Published: February 1, 2008 | DOI:

Post-graduate Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Govt Medical College, Jammu-J&K (India), Clinical Pharmacologist, J&K Health Services Jammu (India).

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Rashmi Sharma, R/O 216-A, Last-Morh Gandhi-Nagar, Near Govt Flats, Jammu (Tawi) J&K (India), Pin 180004. Email:,


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear transcription factors, and play a central role in insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and inflammation. PPAR -γ appears to improve glycaemic control by increasing peripheral insulin sensitivity and reducing hepatic glucose production, thereby helping to preserve beta-cell function. However, they have modest beneficial effects on lipid parameters. It has been observed that fibrate drugs which activate PPAR- α, produce significant improvements in dyslipidaemia and decrease atherosclerotic lesions, but do not affect glycaemia. Theoretically, a compound targeting both the α and γ PPARs simultaneously, might combine the benefits of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates. Hence, there is a resurgence of interest in the development of new antidiabetic drugs that combine the insulin-sensitizing effects of PPARγ activation with the additional lipid-modifying activity of the other PPAR subtypes. Muraglitazar, Tesaglitazar, Ragaglitazar, Isohumulone, Farglitazar, and Naveglitazar are on the deck in late-stage clinical trials, and may be effective in reducing cardiovascular risk, but their long-term clinical effects are still unknown. The ongoing basic studies have elucidated the cardio protective role of PPAR delta. Therefore, further studies are on the track to develop PPA α/δ and PPARγ/ δ dual agonists and PPAR α/γ/δ pan agonists for the treatment of diabetic cardiovascular complications


Muraglitazar, Tesaglitazar, Ragaglitazar, Farglitazar, Naveglitazar

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear transcription factors, and play a central role in insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and inflammation. They help in the regulation of storage and catabolism of dietary fats and glucose, adipocyte differentiation, inflammatory responses, and cancer. Each PPAR consists of three functional domains;- The N-terminal, and DNA binding and ligand binding domains. PPAR forms a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor, which recognizes DNA sequences in the promoter region of their target genes.(1) Four forms of PPARs have been described to exist, namely; PPAR-α, PPAR-β, PPAR-γ and PPAR-δ (Table/Fig 1).(1),(2),(3)

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) or glitazones like rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are higher affinity PPAR-γ agonists for type 2 diabetes.[4,5] Glitazones cause an increase in insulin sensitivity and produce hypoglycaemic effects by increasing fatty acid extraction by adipose tissues, shifting the energy metabolism of myocytes towards glucose consumption, up- regulating or activating molecules involved in insulin signaling and glucose uptake, producing a protective effect on pancreatic beta-cells, and inhibiting tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α.(2) The TZDs have also been shown to have antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects, with a potential role in the treatment of diabetic complications, inflammatory-proliferative diseases in non-insulin-resistant euglycaemic individuals, autoimmune, atopic and inflammatory diseases, sepsis, and reperfusion injury.(6),(7) Patients with diabetes have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease that contributes to a decreased life expectancy. Various observational and interventional studies have indicated that some insulin sensitizers appear to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events, and improve survival.(8),(9) A randomized clinical trial in patients with advanced atherosclerosis indicates that addition of pioglitazone to therapy for hyperglycaemia, may reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. (8),(9)

Novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gama agonists:

Search Methodology: Prominent general/internal medicine journals (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PUBMED between 2000 and 2007) were searched for review papers, and pre-clinical and clinical trials published on dual PPAR α / γ agonists. All the data was collected, and important evidences regarding therapeutic uses and pharmacology of dual PPAR α / γ agonists are summarized in the present article.

Muraglitazar (BMS-298585): Muraglitazar is a non-TZDs, oxybenzylglycine dual PPAR α / γ agonist, that is in advanced clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and its associated dyslipidemia.[8,9] It shows potent activity in vitro at human PPAR α ( effective concentration (EC50) = 320 nM) and PPAR γ (EC50) = 110 nM).(11), (12) Various animal studies have documented the beneficial effect of muraglitazar on plasma lipids, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance.
In obese diabetic db/db mice muraglitazar treatment (0.03-50 mg/ kg/ day) for 2 weeks resulted in dose-dependent reductions of glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and cholesterol levels. (13) In older hyperglycaemic db/db mice, longer-term muraglitazar treatment (30 mg/kg/ day for 4 weeks) prevented time-dependent deterioration of glycaemic control and development of insulin deficiency.


The new generation of dual-action glitazars are on deck in late-stage clinical trials, and may be effective in reducing cardiovascular risk, but their long-term clinical effects are still unknown (table-2 and 3). The novel PPARγ modulating drugs like Gw0072, Mcc-555, and NC-2100, with efficacious insulin sensitizing properties and minimum potential side-effects, are also under development.(1) The ongoing basic studies have elucidated the cardio protective role of PPAR δ.(35) Therefore, further studies are on the track to develop PPAR α/ δ and PPAR γ/δ dual agonists and PPAR α/γ/δ pan agonists for the treatment of diabetic cardiovascular complications. More powerful new compounds with pan-PPAR activity and proven long-term safety should be highly effective in a clinical setting of patients, with coexisting relevant lipid and glucose metabolism disorders. These discoveries pave the way for the development of drugs for treating chronic multigenic cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, for which therapy is presently insufficient or non-existent.


Shearer BG, Hoekstra WJ. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs): Choreographers of metabolic gene transcription.Sigma, RBI. vol 18, no 3, accessed on 9-04-2005.
Muayed M El, Lavis VR, Safi HJ, Fuentes F. Use of glitazones in cardiac patients: A case for B-type Natriuretic Peptide Monitoring? Am J Cardiol 2004; 93:600-1.
Caring for diabetes>treatment and prevention> emerging therapies. Emerging therapies.www.caring for, accessed on 9-04-2005.
Skrumsager BK, Pedersen PC, Nielsen KK, Müller M.Ragaglitazar: no pharmacokinetic differences between young and elderly, male and female subjects, fasted and non-fasted state including impact of hepatic recycling on the plasma elimination half-life /abstracts/ps53.html. accessed on 19-04-2005.
Bodes G. Free fatty acids as target for therapy.Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes 2004;11:258-63.
Pershadsingh HA. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ: therapeutic target for diseases beyond diabetes: quo vadis? Expert Opinion On Investigational Drugs 2004;13(3):215-28.
Zingarelli B, Cook JA. Peroxisome proliferators- activated receptor-gamma is a new therapeutic target in sepsis and inflammation. Shock 2005 ; 23(5):393-9.
Sobel BE. Optimizing cardiovascular outcomes in diabetes mellitus. Am J Med. 2007 ;120 (9 Suppl 2):S3-11.
Mazzone T. Prevention of macrovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus: opportunities for intervention. Am J Med. 2007 ; 120(9 Suppl 2):S26-32.
Cox SL. Tesaglitazar: a promising approach in type 2 diabetes. Drugs Today (BARC) 2006 ; 42(3):139-46.
Devasthale PV, Chen S, Jeon Y, Qu F, Shao C, Wang W, et al. Design and synthesis of N-[(4-methoxyphenoxy)carbonyl]-N-[[4-[2-(5methyl-2-phenyl-4oxazolyl)ethoxy]phenyl] methyl]glycine [Muraglitazar/BMS-298585], a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/gamma dual agonist with efficacious glucose and lipid-lowering activities. J Med Chem 2005 ; 48(6):2248-50.

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)