Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 36992

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionAcknowledgementReferencesTable and Figures
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Experimental Research
Year : 2008 | Month : February | Volume : 2 | Issue : 1 | Page : 699 - 705 Full Version

Cardioprotective Effect Of Momordica Cymbalaria Fenzl In Rats With Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Injury

Published: February 1, 2008 | DOI:

Dept. of Pharmacology, Visveswarapuram Inst. of pharmaceutical sciences, K R Road, Bangalore. AND Dept. of Pharmacy, Faculty of Engineering Tech., M S University, Vadodara.

Correspondence Address :
Raju Koneri PhD, Professor of Pharmacology, Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Banashankari, BANGALORE. E mail


Momordica cymbalaria (M. cymbalaria) holds medicinal value and is used traditionally for treatment of various disorders. In the present study, we tested cardioprotective potential of M. cymbalaria against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac injury. Pretreatment with ethanolic extract of M. cymbalaria at 250 and 500 mg/kg prevented the elevation of serum marker enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine kinase-MB Fraction (CK-MB), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alterations in the oxidative stress markers like lipid peroxidase (LPO), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) caused by ISO (60 mg/kg s.c, 2days)- induced myocardial infarction in rats. The protective effect was confirmed by histological findings and was more prominent at 500 mg/kg. Hence, we conclude that pretreatment with ethanolic extract of M. cymbalaria protects against isoproterenol- induced myocardial injury.


Isoproterenol, cardioprotection, Momordica cymbalaria, myocardial ischemia, antioxidant.

Animals develop 'infarct-like' lesions when injected with isoproterenol (ISO), a potent synthetic catecholamine. These lesions are morphologically similar to those of 'coagulative myocytolysis' (COAM) or myofibrillar degeneration, one of the findings in acute myocardial infarction in humans (1). Diabetic patients are more vulnerable to myocardial damage resulting in heart failure than nondiabetic patients (2). It is suggested that heart failure subsequent to myocardial infarction may be associated with an antioxidant deficit, as well as increased myocardial oxidative stress (3). Higher serum concentrations of enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and creatinine kinase (CK) act as markers and are associated with higher incidence of stroke after acute myocardial infarction (4). Elevated serum uric acid lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine kinase-MB fraction (CK-MB) may also act as marker enzymes of tissue ischemia (5). An increase in the concentration of total and LDL cholesterol and a decrease in HDL cholesterol are associated with raised risk of myocardial infarction (6).

Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl (Cucurbitaceae) is a species found in the Indian states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The tuber is traditionally used as an abortifacient and for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (7). We experimentally confirmed its antiovulatory and abortifacient activity (8). Fruit powder and extract of M. cymbalaria are reported to possess antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activies in experimental diabetic models. (9),(10),(11). The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of this plant suggest a possible cardioprotective effect. Many herbal extracts (12),(13),(14),(15),(16) and formulations (17),(18),(19) are reported to have cardioprotective activity. However, our exhaustive literature review could not reveal any published data on the effect of M. cymbalaria on experimental-induced myocardial injury. Therefore, this study was carried out to elucidate the effect of M. cymbalaria on ISO- induced cardiac damage with reference to biochemical markers, antioxidant enzymes, lipid profile and histology.

Material and Methods

Experimental animals
Twenty four male Wistar rats weighing 120-150 g were purchased from NIMHANS (National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences), Bangalore (India). The animals were housed in polypropylene cages maintained in controlled temperature (27 ± 2°C) and light cycle (12 h light and 12 h dark). They were fed with standard rat pellet diet (Amrut rat and mice feed, Pranav agro industries Ltd. Sangli, India) and water ad libitum. The animals were given a week time to get acclimatized with the laboratory conditions. All the animal procedures were performed according to the CPCSEA (Chennai, India) norms. The Institutional Animal Ethics Committee approved the experimental procedures.

Plant Material
The fresh roots of M. cymbalaria were collected from Gadag district, Karnataka. The powdered roots were soxhlet extracted with ethyl alcohol to get a yield of 14.1% w/w. Dried extract dissolved in distilled water was used for the study. Oral acute toxicity study was performed using the up and down procedure (OPPTS guidelines) (8).

Experimental Procedure
The rats were divided into four groups. Group I: control (distilled water p.o.), Group II: ISO (60 mg/kg, s.c.) at an interval of 24 h for two days (19). Group III and IV: ethanolic extract of M. cymbalaria roots (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o., respectively) for 45 days followed by ISO (60 mg/kg, s.c.) at an interval of 24 h for two days.

Marker Enzymes in serum
Twelve hours after the second injection of ISO, the animals were sacrificed by cervical decapitation, blood was collected and the heart was dissected out. The serum was separated immediately by cold centrifugation and used for determination of the myocardial infarction marker enzymes LDH, CK-MB, AST, ALT, and ALP along with serum uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and HDL. The enzymes, lipids and uric acid were estimated using commercial diagnostic kits (SPAN India Ltd, Surat, India).

Oxidative Stress in Heart tissue
Heart was immediately washed with ice-cold saline and a homogenate was prepared in 0.1 N Tris HCl buffer (pH 7.4). The homogenate was centrifuged and supernatant was collected, which was used for the assay of LPO, GSH, CAT, and SOD.

Estimation of LPO
The extent of lipid peroxidation in tissues was assessed by measuring the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) as described by Wilbur et al (20). Briefly, 1 ml of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 20% and 2 ml of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) 0.67% were added to 2 ml of homogenate supernatant. The absorbance of the mixture was recorded at 530 nm and the values were expressed as ηM of MDA formed /mg of protein.

Estimation of GSH activity
GSH in the cardiac tissue was assayed by the method previously described by Ellman (21). Briefly, 0.02 ml of the homogenate supernatant was added to 3 ml of Ellman reagent. The samples were mixed and kept at room temperature for at least 1 h. The changes in absorbance were read at 412 ηm. The amount of glutathione was expressed as µg of GSH/mg protein.

Estimation of SOD activity
The level of SOD was measured by the method of Kono (22). Briefly, 1.3 ml of solution A (0.1 nM EDTA containing 50 nM Na2CO3, pH 10.3), 0.5 ml of solution B (90 M) nitro blue tetrazolium dye (NBT) and 0.1 ml of solution C (20mM Hydroxylamine hydrochloride, pH 6.0) were mixed and the rate of NBT reduction was recorded for 1 min at 560 ηm. SOD activity was expressed as unit/mg protein change in optical density per min.

Estimation of Catalase activity
Catalase activity was estimated by determining the decomposition of H2O2 at 240 ηm in an assay mixture containing pho


Mortality in the acute toxicity test was not seen in the limit test at the dose of 5000 mg/kg. Therefore, 1/10th and 1/20th of the dose were selected for the study.

ISO treatment caused significant elevation in the serum levels of marker enzymes AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, CPK and uric acid as compared to control group (Table/Fig 1). M. cymbalaria pretreatment at both doses significantly reduced the levels of the marker enzymes and uric acid. The effect was more prominent at the higher dose.

The serum lipid parameters- total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, & VLDL showed a significant elevation upon ISO treatment. M. cymbalaria pretreatment prevented the elevation of these parameters when compared to ISO treated rats. The effect was more prominent at 500 mg/kg (Table/Fig 2).

The levels of GSH, CAT, and SOD were significantly increased while malondialdehyde (MDA) which is a measure of LPO was significantly reduced following ISO treatment. Prophylactic treatment with M. cymbalaria at 500 mg/kg significantly (P<0.001) changed these oxidative marker levels when compared to ISO treated rats (Table/Fig 3).

The cardiac sections of the ISO–treated animals revealed degenerative changes in the muscle fiber, showing a coagulative necrosis characterized by more homogenous eosinophilic cytoplasm. The nuclei of myofibril revealed pyknotic nucleus. Interstitial edema was present in the connective tissue spaces. Pretreatment with M. cymbalaria (500 mg/kg) exerted a protective effect as evident from the normal myofibrillar structures with striations (Table/Fig 4).


M. cymbalaria fruit powder and extract were previously reported to have antidiabetic activity(9),(10),(11). Diabetes is associated with a marked increase in the risk of coronary heart disease. It is recommended that patients with diabetes who do not have myocardial infarction should be treated as aggressively for cardiovascular risk factors as patients who had myocardial infarctions (24). Hence antidiabetic medications with additional cardiovascular protective activity will have greater therapeutic advantage.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed at an accelerated rate in ISO-treated myocardium. Cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, and infiltrating neutrophils contribute to this ROS production and can lead to cellular dysfunction and necrosis (25). 'Infarct-like' lesions are produced in the myocardium when injected with ISO. These lesions are morphologically similar to those of 'coagulative myocytolysis' (COAM) or myofibrillar degeneration (1) Milei et al (26) suggested that myocardial necrosis induced by ISO is probably due to a primary action on the sarcolemmal membrane, followed by stimulation of adenylate cyclase, activation of Ca2+ and Na+ channels, exaggerated calcium inflow and excess of excitation-contraction coupling mechanism leading to energy consumption and cellular death.

Free radicals generated by ISO (27), initiate lipid peroxidation of the membrane bound polyunsaturated fatty acids, leading to impairment of membrane structural and functional integrity. The metabolic damage of myocardium results in increase in the concentration of the marker enzymes like LDH, CK-MB, AST, ALP and uric acid. This was also evident in our findings. The GSH, CAT, and SOD were decreased while LPO increased in the myocardial homogenate of ISO-administered rats indicating oxidative stress.

M. cymbalaria (500 mg/kg) prevented the alterations in marker enzymes of myocardial infarction, and oxidative stress along with uric acid. Myofilamental alterations such as myocytosis and myofibrillar degeneration are reported in ISO-treated rats (19). Cardiac sections of the ISO-treated animals showed infiltration of inflammatory cells and continuity in the muscle fiber was lacking suggesting an irreversible cell injury. Rats pretreated with M. cymbalaria showed normal myofibrillar structures with striations and revealed a marked protection by the extract against myocardial necrotic damage.

Administration of ISO raised LDL cholesterol and decreased HDL cholesterol level in the serum. An increase in concentration of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, and a decrease in HDL cholesterol are associated with raised risk of myocardial infarction (6). High level of circulating cholesterol and its accumulation in heart tissue is accompanied with cardiovascular damage. M. cymbalaria elevated HDL level and decreased LDL cholesterol level. There is a growing body of evidence from epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory data indicating that elevated triglyceride levels are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemic patients at a risk for cardiovascular disease often develop a lipoprotein profile characterized by elevated triglyceride, dense LDL, and low HDL cholesterol which causes myocardial membrane damage (28). Hypertriglyceridemia observed in ISO- treated rats is clinically reported in ischemic heart disease. Pretreatment with M. cymbalaria prevented the elevation of triglycerides cholesterol and LDL in serum, signifying that the myocardial membrane is intact and not damaged. Antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant and antidiabetic activity along with cardioprotective properties of Momordica cymbalaria adds to the acc


JCDR paid services were used by the authors in redrafting this manuscript. Dr Atif Ali, Department of Physiology, University of Utah School of Medicine, USA, contributed towards redrafting and partly rewriting the manuscript.


Milei J, Nunez RG, Rapaport M Cardiology. Pathogenesis of isoproterenol-induced myocardial lesions: its reaction to human 'coagulative myocytolysis'. Cardiology. 1978;63(3):139-51
Richard W, Nesto, Stuart Z, Acute Myocardial Infarction in Diabetes Mellitus Circulation. 1998; 97:12-15
Hill MF, Singal PK. Antioxidant and oxidative stress changes during heart failure subsequent to myocardial infarction in rats. Am. J. Pathol. 1996;148: 291-300
Thompson PL, Robinson JS. Stroke after acute myocardial infarction: relation to infarct size. Br Med J. 1978; 2 (6135):457-9.
Waring WS, Webb DJ, Maxwell SRJ. Uric acid as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease Q J Med 2000; 93: 707-713
Mediene-Benchekor, Brousseau T, Richard F, Benhamamouch S, Amouyel P. Blood lipid concentrations and risk of myocardial infarction. The Lancet 2001;358 (9287):1064-1065
Nadkarni AK, Nadkarni KM. Cucurbitaceae. Indian Metria Medica 2nd ed. Bombay: Popular Book Depot; 1982. p.755
Koneri R, Balaraman R, Saraswati CD. Antiovulatory and abortifacient potential of the ethanolic extract of roots of Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2006;38:111-114
Kameswararao B, Kesavulu MM, Apparao C. Evaluation of antidiabetic effect of momordica cymbalaria fruit in alloxan-diabetic rats Fitoterpia 2003; 74:7-13 .
Kameswararao B, Kesavulu MM, Apparao C. Antihyperglycemic activity of momordica cymbalaria in alloxan diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol 2001; 78: 67-71
Kameswararao B, Kesavulu MM, Giri R, Apparao C. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of Momordica Cymbalaria Hook. Fruit powder in alloxan-diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol 1999; 67:103-109
Ahmed KK, Rana AC, Dixit VK Effect of Calotropis procera latex on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in albino rats. Phytomedicine. 2004; 11(4):327-30.
Karthick M, Stanely Mainzen P

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)