Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 98864

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionAcknowledgementReferencesTable and Figures
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2008 | Month : February | Volume : 2 | Issue : 1 | Page : 627 - 633 Full Version

Age and Gender Related Changes in Total Antioxidant Response and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Schizophrenia

Published: February 1, 2008 | DOI:

*Post Graduate and Research Department of Biochemistry, Dr.N.G.P.Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. ** Director, Institute of Laboratory Medicines, Kovai Medical Center and Hospitals, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Uma Devi P, e-mail:


This study aims to measure total antioxidant response (TAR) and total peroxides (TP) in schizophrenia patients using the ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP), and to evaluate their relationship with oxidative stress. The effect of age, gender and severity on the levels of these total antioxidants-oxidants in the selected subjects were analyzed. We measured the plasma total antioxidant potential and total peroxides in 60 schizophrenia patients and in 60 well-matched non-schizophrenic control subjects. Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a major role in aging. Total antioxidant capacity/total peroxide of the clinical samples was measured using the latest spectrophotometric measurement method. Results showed that Plasma TAR was found to be lower in patients with schizophrenia than in those of the control group. On the contrary, the patients had high total plasma peroxide levels. Oxidative stress index (OSI) values of the patients were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.001). Total peroxide levels were found significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the elderly subjects, as compared to the young and adult population; in addition, TAR was higher in young and adults, than in the elderly people (p < 0.001). We also found more oxidative stress in schizophrenic males than in schizophrenic females (P > 0.01). This study indicates that schizophrenia is associated with increased oxidative stress and depleted antioxidant status in elderly people, and the clinical utility of antioxidants needs to be further evaluated in schizophrenia patients.


Schizophrenia, Antioxidant defense system, Total antioxidant status, Total peroxides, Oxidative Stress Index.

Free radicals and reactive oxygen species play a number of significant and diverse roles in neurodegenerative diseases, including schizophrenia. The brain and the nervous system are particularly prone to free radical damage. As the membrane lipids are very rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and areas of the human brain are very rich in iron, these factors play an essential role in generating free radical species .The ability of a tissue or fluid to buffer the effects of reactive oxygen species is called total antioxidant capacity (1).

Free radicals adversely modify biologically active molecules and whole cells, and are implicated in a variety of complications and ageing (2), (3). Blood contains many antioxidant molecules that prevent and/or inhibit harmful free radical reactions (4). Plasma concentrations of antioxidants can be measured separately in the laboratory, but these measurements are time-consuming, labour intensive and costly. Since antioxidative effects of antioxidant components of plasma are additive, the measurement of total antioxidant potential (TAOP) reflects the antioxidative status of plasma. We evaluated the total antioxidative status of plasma with by FRAP assay, as proposed by Benzie IF, Strain JJ, 1996 (5); Benzie IF, Strain JJ, 1999 (6). The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) parameter summarizes the overall activity of non-enzymic antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. It provides information about antioxidant types and their concentrations, without exact qualitative differentiation. We evaluated the total oxidative status of plasma by measuring the total peroxide level.

The free radical theory of aging, proposes that age-dependent deterioration in the cell function is related to the accumulation of molecular oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. These age–associated alterations in the antioxidant status could also contribute to increased oxidative stress in aging. Several studies have explored the effect of aging on total antioxidant capacity of plasma and tissues. They showed reduced (7), (8), (9) or unchanged (10) antioxidant defence.

There is a large amount of convincing data demonstrating that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the initiation and development of many different forms of schizophrenia. The levels of oxidants and antioxidants in schizophrenia have been evaluated. However, measurements of total antioxidant response (TAR) and total peroxides in schizophrenia patients in different age groups and gender-based abnormalities are not evaluated up to date. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate plasma TAR-TP levels in schizophrenia patients with different age groups and gender. Severity based abnormalities were also investigated.

Material and Methods

The study was conducted in the Postgraduate and Research Department of Biochemistry, Dr.N.G.P.Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, during the month of September 2004 to June 2007. A total of 60 schizophrenic patients of age group 18-65 years of both sexes (30 males and 30 females), from good socio-economic backgrounds, were selected from Udhayam Mananala Kaapagam, a mental Health care centre, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. They all met DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV) criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) (11) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenic subjects were divided into three groups: (1) Schizophrenia patients with age range between 15-30 years, (2) schizophrenics with age range between 31-45years, (2) schizophrenics in the age range of 46-65 years.

Sixty age and gender matched healthy normal control subjects with no individual and familial history of mental illness, were recruited to participate in this study. They included 30 males and 30 females. Their ages ranged from 15 to 65 years, with a mean age of (28.9±14.1) years. Both patients and controls were recruited during the same period, from Coimbatore district. Matching between the patients and controls was done according to sex and age. Study subjects were currently within normal ranges in their routine blood, urine, and faeces tests, electrocardiograph and radiographs; disorders associated with heart, brain, lung, liver, kidney and other pivotal organs were excluded.

The design and the layout of this project was carried out with the approval the Chairman, Kovai Medical Center and Hospitals, and due permission was obtained from the board of institutional review Committee of the Kongu mananala Arakkattalai, before the start of the work. Informed and written consent was obtained from all subjects prior to examination

Determination of plasma total antioxidant /Total Peroxide potential
Measurement of Total Antioxidant Response (TAR):
The TAC of the plasma was measured using a novel, automated, colorimetric measurement method developed by Benzie and Strain, and modified by Erel, 2004(12). In this method, hydroxyl radical, which is the most potent biological radical, is produced. In the assay, ferrous ion solution, which is present in Reagent 1, is mixed with hydrogen peroxide which is present in Reagent 2. The sequential produced radicals such as brown-colored dianisidine radical cation, produced by the hydroxyl radical, are also potent radicals. In this assay, the antioxidative effect of the sample against the potent free radical’s reactions, which is initiated by the produced hydroxyl radical, is measured. The assay results are expressed as mmol Trolox equivalent/L (6), (7), (12).The precision of this assay is excellent. Accurate measurements of TAC can be obtained in as little as 10 min, making this assay, eminently suitable for the clinical biochemistry laboratory (13).

Measurement of Total Peroxide Concentration (TP)
Total peroxide (TP) concentrations were determined using the FOX2 method (14), with minor modifications (13), (15). The FOX2 test system is based on the oxidation of ferrous ion to ferric ion by various types of peroxides contained within the plasma samples, to produce a colored ferric-xylenol orange complex whose absorbency can be measured. The FOX2 reagent was prepared by dissolving ammonium ferrous sulfate (9.8 mg) in 250 mM H2SO4 (10 mL), to give a final concentration of 250 μM ferrous ion in acid. This solution was then added to 90 ml of HPLC-grade methanol containing 79.2 mg butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Finally, 7.6 mg xylenol orange was added with stirring, to make the final working reagen


A total of 60 schizophrenia patients and 60 non-schizophrenia subjects were recruited. Table 1 illustrates the total antioxidant response of young, adult, and elderly schizophrenia subjects. The total antioxidant capacities were measured as FRAP assay, and total peroxides levels were measured by FOX2 method in the blood plasma of study and control subjects of different age groups.

In (Table/Fig 1) ,the comparison between the schizophrenia group and the control groups revealed that the level of TAR was significantly lower, and TP and OSI levels were significantly higher in all the study groups (p<0.01), but these changes were statistically more significant in the study group with age above 45 i-e elderly patients (p<0.001). There was also a significant decrease in the total antioxidant potential values for schizophrenia patients with age range above 45 (elderly), in comparison with schizophrenia patients with young and adult age groups, as well in elderly control subjects.
There was a significant difference in the levels of TAR, TP, and OSI of male and female study and control subjects. (Table/Fig 2). Results showed that male patients have more oxidative stress than female patients. Results showed that chronic schizophrenic patients have more oxidative damage than that of acute patients.


In the present study, we found that the oxidative/ antioxidative balance shifted towards oxidative status, namely increased oxidative stress was present in elderly patients with schizophrenia, as compared to healthy control subjects.

It was shown that ROS and other oxidants could be also formed in the normal physiological process (17). Increased ROS, in turn, enhance LPO products, and thus, lead to tissue injury. H2O2 and other derivatives of peroxides increase in some conditions, and diffuse into plasma. Here, antioxidant components of plasma overwhelm them, and they are simultaneously consumed (4).

When TP is measured, it means that the sum of many peroxides like protein peroxide, lipid peroxide and H2O2, are measured. Although it is known that H2O2 and lipid peroxides increase in schizophrenia (1), (9), (10), (18),(19), oxidative stress has not been evaluated through TP-TAR in schizophrenia. It has been reported by Bilal et al (2002) (7), that TAR level decreases in schizophrenia patients, and decreased plasma total antioxidant levels may be related to the progression of illness. It was shown in the present study, that TAR level also decreased in schizophrenia patients, as compared to control subjects.

The possible reasons for this increase in TP, might be the inevitable increase in lipid peroxides and ROS, including H2O2 in schizophrenia. Many antioxidant molecules found in blood, prevent or inhibit the harmful effects of free radicals (4). Whenever there is a decrease in antioxidants and/or an increase in oxidants, oxidant/antioxidant balance is impaired in favour of oxidants, and this is known as oxidative stress (20), (21). It is known that oxidative stress is responsible for tissue injury in many diseases, and contributes to the development of schizophrenia.
The total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma was found to depend on the age of the donors, with older donors showing lower TAC values (Table1). Relative contribution of the total antioxidant capacity to age – related oxidative stress in schizophrenia, is not well defined so far. While some studies demonstrated that the antioxidant capacity of plasma decreases (9), others showed that it is unchanged (10). Our data supports the view that aging is associated with a loss of antioxidant capacity of plasma. Previous studies have demonstrated low antioxidant capacity in schizophrenia (18), (19), however, effect of aging was observed by few only. Our results are consistent with the results of Yao et al (2001), (22) who hypothesized that abnormal age – related changes of plasma antioxidant proteins were seen in schizophrenia. Age related decrease in the antioxidant status of the plasma observed in our study, is consistent with the previous report showing the depletion of main antioxidants: vitamin C, alpha tocopherol, vitamin A, reduced glutathione (20) and decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes (23), (24) in schizophrenia, and provides the indication that this decrease may be involved in the mechanisms of free radical-induced damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA during aging.

Bilal et al (2002) (7) have reported a decrease in TAR levels in schizophrenia patients. Similarly, TAR level was found to be low in the study groups, in the present study. In the light of these data, a possible reason for the decrease in TAR in schizophrenia may be the decrease in other antioxidants like enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxida


Based on the data presented, free radicals and impaired antioxidants play an important role in the functioning of the brain and schizophrenia in elderly patients, and male schizophrenia patients have more oxidative stress as compared to female patients and those belonging to the young and adult category. Until now, we have not found the univocal molecular basis of schizophrenia, which might be due to free radicals. In future, we think that this argument should be confirmed by controlled, multi-centered, prospective studies, which shall confirm the exact mechanisms of oxidative stress in patients with different age groups of schizophrenia.


The authors are grateful to Dr. Nalla. G. Palanisamy, M.B.B.S., MD, the Chairman, and Dr. Thavamani D.Palanisamy, M.B.B.S., DCH, the secretary, Kovai medical center and hospitals, and Dr. N.G.P. Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, India, for providing encouragement and technical support to carryout this project.


Dusica P., Vesna T. Oxidative stress as marker of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Facta Universitatis. Medicine and Biology. 2002; 9(2): 157-161.
GłĂłd BK, Czapski GA, and Haddad PR, Estimation of antioxidative properties of phenylacetic acids using Ion-Exclusion Chromatography, Acta Chromatographica 2000;15:258-68.
Tabner B.J., S. Turnbull, O.M.A. El-Agnaf, D. Allsop, Induction of Cellular Oxidative Stress by the -amyloid Peptide Involved in Alzheimer's disease. Free Radical Biol. Med. 2002; 32:1076.
Young IS, Woodside JV. Antioxidants in health and disease. J Clin Pathol 2001; 54:176–86.
Benzie IF, Strain JJ., Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods Enzymol; 1999; 299:15–27.
Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem, 1996; 239:70–6.
Ustundag B, Atmaca M, Kirtas O, Selek S, Metin K and Tezcan E. Total antioxidant response in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2002; 60:458-64
Kuloglu Murat, Bilal Ustundag, Murad Atmaca, Halit Canatan , A. Ertan Tezcan , Nadire Cinkilinc.. Lipid per oxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Cell Biochemistry and Function 2002; 20/ 2: 171 -175.
Gora Dadheech, Sandhya Mishra, Shiv Gautham, Praveen Sharma..Oxidative stress ,alpha tocopherol.ascorbic acid, and reduced glutathione status in schizophrenics. Indian J of Clinical Biochemistry 2006; 21(2): 34-38.
H Herken, E Uz, H Ozyurt, S Sogut, O Virit, O Akyol. Evidence that the activities of erythrocyte free radical scavenging enzymes and the products of lipid peroxidation are increased in different forms of schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 2001; 6: 66–73.
American Psychiatric Association,Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2000 (DSM-IV- Association; 2000).
Tables and Figures
[Table / Fig - 1] [Table / Fig - 2]

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .