Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
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Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
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Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
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As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
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Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2008 | Month : June | Volume : 2 | Issue : 3 | Page : 827 - 832

Status Of Lipid Peroxidation, Glutathione, Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin E And Antioxidant Enzymes In Neonatal Jaundice Patients

SURAPANENI K M * , VISHNU PRIYA V **

*Department of Biochemistry,Saveetha Medical College & Hospital, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, INDIA. ** Department of Biochemistry,Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, INDIA.

Correspondence Address :
Surapaneni Krishna Mohan, Assistant Professor Department of Biochemistry, Saveetha Medical College & Hospital, Saveetha University, Chennai,Tamil Nadu, INDIA.E-mail: krishnamohan_surapaneni@yahoo.com

Abstract

The exact pro-oxidant and antioxidant status in neonatal jaundice is still not clear. To add a new insight to the question, changes in the erythrocyte lipid peroxidation products (MDA), levels of glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid and plasma vitamin E (non enzymatic antioxidant parameters) and activities of antioxidant enzymes super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase in erythrocytes were studied in forty-eight neonatal jaundice patients and forty-eight healthy subjects. It was observed that there was a significant increase in erythrocyte MDA levels, activities of SOD, GPX and a significant decrease in erythrocyte GSH, ascorbic acid, plasma vitamin E levels and catalase activity in patients with neonatal jaundice when compared to controls. The results of our study have shown higher oxygen free radical production, evidenced by increased levels of MDA and decreased levels of GSH, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and catalase activity, supports the oxidative stress in neonatal jaundice patients. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes may be a compensatory regulation in response to increased oxidative stress. The decreased concentration of the glutathione and antioxidant vitamin status supports the hypothesis that neonatal jaundice is an important causative factor in the pathogenesis of lipid peroxidation. These data reveal that antioxidant defense mechanisms might be impaired in neonatal jaundice patients. These findings also provide a theoretical basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, such as antioxidant supplementation.

Keywords

Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid, vitamin E, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), neonatal jaundice.

Introduction
A homeostasis between rate of formation of free radicals and the rate of their neutralization of free radicals if not maintained, oxidative damage accumulates and is known as oxidative stress(1). Neonatal Jaundice is a normal physiological event that is being treated on a belief of pathology. Commonly neonatal jaundice occurs for two reasons. A) Infants have too many red blood cells. It is a natural process for the baby’s body to break down these excess red blood cells, forming a large amount of bilirubin. It is this bilirubin causes the skin to take an yellowish colour. B) A newborn’s liver is immature and can not process bilirubin as quickly as the baby will be able to when he/she gets older. This slow processing of bilirubin has nothing to do with liver disease. It merely means that the baby’s liver is not as fully developed as it will be, and thus, there is some delay in eliminating the bilirubin(2). Neonatal jaundice affects 60% of full term infants & 80% of preterm infants in the first 3 days after birth (3). Although transient, the condition accounts for upto 75% of hospital re-admissions in the first week after birth (4). Antioxidant activity in the serum of term neonates is lower than that of adults and is still lower in preterm and low birth weight babies as compared to term babies (5),(6). Red blood cells are extremely susceptible to lipid peroxidation since they are rich in unsaturated membrane lipids, have rich supply of oxygen and transitional metal catalysts. Neonatal erythrocyte membrane is more susceptible to oxidative damage due to its predominant pro-oxidant potential (7). The erythrocytes are particularly prone to the free radical damage since the membrane lipids are very rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids which play an essential role in generating free radicals. Free radicals, primarily the reactive oxygen species, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals which are highly reactive having an unpaired electron in an atomic or molecular orbit are generated under physiological conditions during aerobic metabolism. As free radicals are potentially toxic, they are usually inactivated or scavenged by antioxidants before they can inflict damage to lipids, proteins or nucleic acids. Alteration in the oxidant – antioxidant profile is known to occur in Neonatal jaundice (8),(9). Moreover the body’s defense mechanisms would play an important role in the form of antioxidants and try to minimize the damage, adapting itself to the above stressful situation. Antioxidants are compounds that dispose, scavenge, and suppress the formation of free radicals, or oppose their actions(1) and two main categories of antioxidants are those whose role is to prevent the generation of free radicals and those that intercept any free radicals that are generated (10). They exist in both the aqueous and membrane compartment of cells and can be enzymes or non enzymes. The human body has a complex antioxidant defense system that includes the antioxidant enzymes super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX ) and catalase (CAT). These block the initiation of free radical chain reactions (11). The non enzymatic antioxidant components consists of molecules such as glutathione (GSH), vitamin E, ascorbic acid and beta-carotene that react with activated oxygen species and thereby prevent the propagation of free radical chain reactions.

In the present study, the following parameters were assessed in the erythrocytes and plasma to elucidate the oxidant-antioxidant status in patients with neonatal jaundice. Erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured as thio barbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) w

Material and Methods

The study was conducted in department of biochemistry, Dr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Foundation, Chinoutpally, Gannavaram (Mandal), A.P, INDIA. The study was carried out on forty eight full term jaundiced neonates with appropriate weight, delivered normally in the labour room of Dr.PSIMS &RF general hospital, Chinoutpally. It was ensured that the jaundice was of non-hemolytic with the help of relevant investigations. Bilirubin levels were monitored for all babies at 24 hour interval. All the parameters were estimated in these babies. The results were compared with those of forty eight neonates that did not develop jaundice in the neonatal period who comprised the control group. Informed consent was taken form parents before drawing blood. Due permission was obtained from the ethical committee of the Dr.PSIMS&RF General Hospital, Chinoutpally before the start of the work.
The controls and patients were divided into two groups.

Group 1: Forty-eight healthy age & sex matched babies as Controls.
Group 2: Forty-eight Neonatal jaundice patients.

The heparinised venous blood samples obtained from these subjects were used for the analysis. Plasma was separated by centrifugation at 1,000 g for 15 minutes. Separated plasma was used for the estimation of vitamin E. The buffy coat was removed and the packed cells were washed three times with physiological saline. The erythrocyte suspension was prepared by the method of Dodge et al.,(12) modified by Quist (13). The packed cells were used for the analysis of GSH, ascorbic acid, MDA, SOD, catalse, GPX. Serum bilirubin was estimated by bilirubinometer. Erythrocyte GSH was estimated by the method of Beutler et al (14) using di thio bis nitro benzoic acid (DTNB). Ascorbic acid levels were estimated in plasma by the method of Tietz (15). Plasma vitamin E levels were estimated by the method of Baker H et al (16). Erythrocyte MDA was determined as the measure of thio barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (17). SOD (EC 1.15.1.1) activity was determined in the hemolysate according to the method described by Murklund and Murklund (18) with some modifications as described by Nandi and Chatterjea (19). Catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) activity was measured in the hemolysate by the method of Sinha (20) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.9) was measured as described by Paglia and Valentine (21) in erythrocytes. All reagents used were of analytical reagent grade. DTNB and thio barbituric acid were obtained from sigma chemicals, St.Louis, MO. Statistical analysis between group 1 (controls) and group 2 (patients) was performed by the student t – test using the stat -view package. The data were expressed as mean + SD. P < 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results

The mean + SD of serum bilirubin, erythrocyte GSH, ascorbic acid, MDA, SOD, neonatal jaundice patients. Impaired antioxidant defense and increased lipid catalase, GPx , plasma vitamin E were indicated in the (Table/Fig 1). There was a statistically significant increase in the erythrocyte MDA levels in neonatal jaundice patients compared to controls. The activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPX were significantly increased in group2 compared to group1. The levels of erythrocyte GSH, ascorbic acid, plasma vitamin E and catalase activity were significantly decreased in patients with Neonatal jaundice compared to controls.

Discussion

The results indicate that there is increase in free radical generation and antioxidant defense is impaired in peroxidation have been reported in neonatal jaundice patients (8).

In the present study the lipid peroxidation product i.e. malondialdehyde (MDA) levels have been increased significantly in erythrocytes of the neonatal jaundice patients than that in control group. This may show the presence of increased oxidative stress. Rise in MDA could be due to increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to the excessive oxidative damage generated in these patients. These oxygen species in turn can oxidize many other important biomolecules including membrane lipids. The raised MDA level reflects the oxidative injury due to neonatal jaundice, which is attributed to free radical formation that abstracts hydrogen atoms from lipoproteins causing lipid peroxidation, of which MDA is the main product (22),(23). The membrane phospholipids, specifically polyunsaturated fatty acids are converted to MDA by peroxidation, which can be analysed by reactivity to thiobarbituric acid. Increased levels of thiobarbituric acid reaction products have been found in the erythrocytes of neonatal jaundice patients(8).

We observed a significant decrease in the levels of erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid and plasma vitamin E (non enzymatic antioxidant defense system) in Neonatal jaundice patients when compared to controls. GSH, vitamin E, and ascorbic acid are important chain breaking antioxidants responsible for scavenging the free radicals and suppression of peroxidation in aqueous and lipid region of the cell (24),(25). The decrease in the levels of these non enzymatic antioxidant parameters may be due to the increased turnover, for preventing oxidative damage in these patients suggesting an increased defense against oxidant damage in Neonatal jaundice patients. Similar reports of decreased GSH, ascorbic acid and vitamin E levels in neonatal jaundice patients were reported by various studies (9),(26).

In our study the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme i.e. super oxide dismutase (SOD) & glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities have been increased significantly in patients with neonatal jaundice patients compared to controls. The increased activity of SOD may be indicative of increased superoxide generation by whichever mechanism like increased catecholamine metabolism. SOD is the important antioxidant enzyme having an antitoxic effect against super oxide anion. The over expression of SOD might be an adaptive response and it results in increased dismutation of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. In neonatal jaundice. But on the other hand, low erythrocyte SOD activities have also been reported in various studies (27). GPX, an oxidative stress inducible enzyme plays a significant role in the peroxyl scavenging mechanism and in maintaining functional integration of the cell membranes (28). The rise in the activity of GPX could be due to its induction to counter the effect of increased oxidative stress. GPX provides an effective protective mechanism against cytosolic injury because it eliminates H2O2 and lipid peroxides by reduction utilizing GSH. Decrease in antioxidant enzyme status was reported in various studies (26),(29).

In the present study, we have observed a significant decrease in the activity of Catalase in patients with Neonatal jaundice compared to controls. Catalase is the enzyme which protects the cells from the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide by dismutating it to form water and oxygen or by using it as an oxidant in which it works as a peroxidase (30)

References

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Sies H. Oxidative stress: From basic research to clinical application. Am. J. of Med. 1991; 91: 31S-38S.
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Jaundice & your baby, Mead Johnson & Company. 1993; 1-4.
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Kristin Melton, Henry T. Akinbi. Strategies to reduce bilirubin – induced complications. Postgraduate Medicine. 1999; Nov 106 (6).
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Britton JR, Britton HL, Beebe SA. Early discharge of the term newborn: a continued dilemma. Paediatrics 1994; 94 (3): 291-5.
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Modi N and Keay A.J. Phototherapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: the importance of dose. Arch. Dis. Child. 1983; 58: 406-409.
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Sullivan J.L and Newton R.B. Serum antioxidant activity in neonates. Arch. Dis. Child. 1988; 63: 748-757.
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Jain SK. The neonatal erythrocyte and its oxidative susceptibility. Semin. Hematol. 1989; 26: 286-300.
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Ostrea E M. Jr, Cepeda E E, Fleury C A and Balun J E. Red cell membrane lipid peroxidation and hemolysis secondary to phototherapy. Acta Pediatri. 1985; 74: 378-381.
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Turgut M, Basaran O, Cekmen M, Karatas F, Kurt A, Aygun AD. Oxidant and antioxidant levels in preterm newborns with idiopathic hyperbilirubinemia. J Pediatr Child Health. 2004; 40(11): 633-637.
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Cotgreave I, Moldeus P, Orrenius S. Host biochemical defense mechanisms against prooxidants. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1988; 28: 189-212.
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Mahadik, S.P. and Soheffer, R.E. Oxidative injury and potential use of antioxidants in schizophrenia. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 1996; 55:45-54.Review.
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Dodge J F, Mitchell G, and Hanahan D J. The preparation and chemical characterization of hemoglobin free ghosts of human red blood cells. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1968; 110: 119-130.
13.
Quist E H. Regulation of erythrocyte membrane shape by calcium ion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980; 92:631-637.
14.
Tables and Figures
[Table / Fig - 1]

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