Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"



Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Reviews
Year : 2008 | Month : June | Volume : 2 | Issue : 3 | Page : 879 - 886

Bioinformatics And Proteomic Approaches To Disease: In Vivo And In Silico Proteome Analysis Tools

RAHIM F Correspondence Address :
Fakher Rahim Msc. Bioinformatics, Physiology research Center, Ahwaz Jondishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz, Iran.

Abstract

The availability of human genome sequences and transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data provides us with a challenging opportunity to develop computational approaches for systematic analysis of metabolic disorders. Mass spectrometry represents an important set of in vivo technologies for protein expression measurement. Among them, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI TOF-MS), because of its high throughput and on-chip sample processing capability, has become a popular tool for clinical proteomics. Bioinformatics plays a critical role in the analysis of SELDI data, and therefore, it is important to understand the issues associated with the analysis of proteomic data. A variety of protein sequence databases exist, ranging from simple sequence repositories, which store data with little or no manual intervention in the creation of the records, to expertly curated universal databases that cover all species, and in which the original sequence data are enhanced by the manual addition of further information in each sequence record. As the focus of researchers moves from the genome to the proteins encoded by it, these databases play an even more important role as central comprehensive resources of protein information. In this review, we discuss such issues and the bioinformatics strategies and several leading protein sequence databases used for proteomic in silico analysis technologies associated with in vivo techniques.

Keywords

proteinchip, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS), bioinformatics, proteomic, in vivo, in silico

Introduction
One of the major goals of the post-genomic era understands the structures, interactions, and functions of all cell proteins. Since the cellular proteome is a dynamic profile, subject to change in response to various signals through posttranslational modification, translocation, and protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, the task becomes even more complex, looming to a million or more modification events. Proteomics encompasses the study of expressed proteins, including identification and elucidation of the structure-function interrelationships, which define healthy and disease conditions. Information at the level of the proteome is critical to understand the function of the cellular phenotype and its role in health and disease. Since posttranslational events, and indeed, an accurate assessment of protein expression levels cannot always be predicted by mRNA analysis, proteomics, used in concert with genomics, can provide a holistic understanding of the biology underlying the disease process. The challenge in deciphering the proteome is the development and integration of analytical instrumentation combined with bioinformatics, that provide rapid, high-throughput, sensitive, and reproducible tools. Continual advancement in proteome research has led to an influx of protein sequences from a wide range of species, representing a challenge in the field of Bioinformatics. Genome sequencing is also proceeding at an increasingly rapid rate, and this has led to an equally rapid increase in predicted protein sequences. All these sequences, both experimentally derived and predicted, need to be stored in comprehensive, non-redundant protein sequence databases. Moreover, they need to be assembled and analyzed to represent a solid basis for further comparisons and investigations. Especially the human sequences, but also those of the mouse and other model organisms, are of interest for the efforts towards a better understanding of health and disease. An important instrument is the in silico proteome analysis. The term “proteome” is used to describe the protein equivalent of the genome. Most of the predicted protein sequences lack a documented functional characterization. The challenge is to provide statistical and comparative analysis, and structural and other information for these sequences as an essential step towards the integrated analysis of organisms at the gene, transcript, protein, and functional levels. Especially, whole proteomes represent an important source for meaningful comparisons between the species, and furthermore, between individuals of different health states. To fully exploit the potential of this vast quantity of data, tools for in silico proteome analysis are necessary. In this article, some important sources for proteome analysis like sequence databases and analysis tools will be described, which represent highly useful proteomics tools for the discovery of protein function and protein characterization.

Material and Methods

In vivo Techniques
Now that the human genome is completed, the characterization of the proteins encoded by the sequence remains a challenging task. The study of the complete protein complement of the genome, the “proteome,” referred to as proteomics, will be essential if new therapeutic drugs and new disease biomarkers for early diagnosis are to be developed. Research efforts are already underway to develop the technology necessary to compare the specific protein profiles of diseased versus non-diseased states.

2D gel electrophoresis:
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) is by far, the most widely used tool in proteomics approaches for more than 25 years (1). This technique involves the separation of complex mixtures of proteins, first on the basis of isoelectric point (pI) using isoelectric focusing (IEF), and then, in a second dimension, based on molecular mass. The proteins are separated by migration in a polyacrylamide gel. By use of different gel staining techniques such as silver staining (2), Coomassie blue stain, fluorescent dyes (3), or radiolabels, few thousands proteins can be visualized on a single gel. Fluorescent dyes are being developed to overcome some of the drawbacks of silver staining, in making the protein samples more amenable to mass spectrometry (4),(5). The data can be analyzed with software such as PDQuest by Bio-Rad Laboratories (Hercules, Calif, USA) (6), Melanie 3 by GeneBio (Geneva, Switzerland), Imagemaster 2D Elite by Amersham Biosciences, and DeCyder 2D Analysis by Amersham Biosciences (Buckinghamshire, UK) (7). Ratio analysis is used to detect quantitative changes in proteins between two samples. 2DE is currently being adapted to high-throughput platforms (8). Periplaneta americana is the predominant cockroach (CR) species and a major source of indoor allergens in Thailand. Nevertheless, data on the nature and molecular characteristics of its allergenic components are rare. There was a study to identify and characterize the P. americana allergenic protein. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and peptide mass fingerprinting were used to identify the P. americana protein containing the MAb-specific epitope that show in (Table/Fig 1),(Table/Fig 2) and(Table/Fig 3)(9).

ProteinChips:
Unique ionization techniques, such as electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI), have facilitated the characterization of proteins by mass spectrometry (MS) (10),(11). Hence,a spectrum is generated with the molecular mass of individual peptides, which are used to search databases to find matching proteins. A minimum of three peptide molecular weights is necessary to minimize false-positive matches. The principle behind peptide mass mapping, is the matching of experimentally generated peptides with those determined for each entry in a sequence. The alternative process of ionization, through the electrospray ionization, involves dispersion of the sample through a capillary device at high voltage (12). Recent developments have led to the MALDI quadrupole TOF instrument, which combines peptide mapping with peptide sequencing approach [13, 14, 15]. An important feature of tandem MS (MS-MS) analysis is the ability to accurately identify posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation and glycosylatio, through the measurement of mass shifts. Another MS-based proteinChip technology

Discussion

The post-genomic era holds phenomenal promise for identifying the mechanistic bases of organismal development, metabolic processes, and disease, and we can confidently predict that bioinformatics research will have a dramatic impact on improving our understanding of such diverse areas as the regulation of gene expression, protein structure determination, comparative evolution, and drug discovery. Software packages and bioinformatic tools have been, and are being developed to analyze 2D gel protein patterns. These software applications possess user-friendly interfaces that are incorporated with tools for linearization and merging of scanned images. The tools also help in segmentation and detection of protein spots on the images, matching, and editing (44). Additional features include pattern recognition capabilities and the ability to perform multivariate statistics. New techniques and new collaborations between computer scientists, biostatisticians, and biologists are called for. There is a need to develop and integrate database repositories for the various sources of data being collected, to develop tools for transforming raw primary data into forms suitable for public dissemination or formal data analysis, to obtain and develop user interfaces to store, retrieve, and visualize data from databases, and to develop efficient and valid methods of data analysis.
In the past years, there has been a tremendous increase in the amount of data available concerning the human genome, and more particularly, the molecular basis of genetic diseases. Every week, new discoveries are being made, that link one or more genetic diseases to defects in specific genes. To take into account these developments, the SWISS-PROT protein sequence database, for example, is gradually enhanced by the addition of a number of features that are specifically intended for researchers working on the basis of human genetic diseases, as well as the extent of polymorphisms. The latter are very important too, since they may represent the basis for differences between individuals, which are particularly interesting for some aspects of medicine and drug research. Such comprehensive sequence databases are mandatory for the use of proteome analysis tools, like the proteome analysis database which combines the different protein sequences of a given organism to a complete proteome. This proteome can be regarded as a whole new unit, analyzable according to different points of view (like distribution of domains and protein families, and secondary and tertiary structures of proteins), and can be made comparable to other proteomes. In general, for using the proteomics data for healthcare and drug development, first, the characteristics of proteomes of entire species—mainly the human— have to be understood before secondly differentiation between individuals can be surveyed. But although the number of proteome analysis tools and databases is increasing, and most of them are providing a very good quality of computational efforts and/or annotation of information, the user should not forget that automated analysis always can hold some mistakes. Data material in databases is reliable, but only to a certain point. Automatic tools which use data derived from databases can thus be error-prone, rules built on their basis can be wrong, and sequence similarities can occur due to chance and not due to relationship. Users of bioinformatics tools should in no way feel discouraged in their using, provided they keep in mind the potential pitfalls of automated systems and even of humans, be encouraged to check all data as far as possible, and not blindly rely on them.

References

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O’Farrell PH. High resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins. J Biol Chem. 1975; 250(10):4007–4021.
2.
Merril CR, Switzer RC, Van Keuren ML. Trace polypeptides in cellular extracts and human body fluids detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis and a highly sensitive silver stain. Proc Natl Acad SciUSA. 1979; 76(9):4335–4339.
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patton WF. Making blind robots see: the synergy between fluorescent dyes and imaging devices in automated proteomics. Biotechniques. 2000; 28(5):944–957.
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Steinberg TH, Jones LJ, Haugland RP, Singer VL. SYPRO orange and SYPRO red protein gel stains:one-step fluorescent staining of denaturing gels for detection of nanogram levels of protein. AnalBiochem. 1996; 239(2):223–237.
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Chambers G, Lawrie L, Cash P, Murray GI. Proteomics: a new approach to the study of disease. JPathol. 2000; 192(3):280–288.
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Bergman AC, Benjamin T, Alaiya A, et al. Identification of gel-separated tumor marker proteins by mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis. 2000; 21(3):679–686.
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Chakravarti DN, Chakravarti B, Moutsatsos I. Informatic tools for proteome profiling. Biotechniques.2002; 32(Suppl):4–15.
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Lopez MF, Kristal BS, Chernokalskaya E, et al. High-throughput profiling of the mitochondrialproteome using affinity fractionation and automation. Electrophoresis. 2000; 21(16):3427–3440.
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Sookrung N, Chaicumpa W, Tungtrongchitr A, Vichyanond P, Bunnag C, Ramasoota P, Tongtawe P, Sakolvaree Y, Tapchaisri P. Periplaneta americana Arginine Kinase as a Major Cockroach Allergen among Thai Patients with Major Cockroach Allergies. Environmental Health Perspectives.2006;114:875-880
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Karas M, Hillenkamp F. Laser desorption ionization of proteins with molecular masses exceeding 10,000 daltons. Anal Chem. 1988; 60(20):2299– 2301.
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Hillenkamp F, Karas M, Beavis RC, Chait BT. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of biopolymers. Anal Chem. 1991; 63 (24):1193A–1203A.
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Andersen JS, Mann M. Functional genomics by mass spectrometry. FEBS Lett. 2000; 480(1):25–31.
Tables and Figures
[Table / Fig - 1] [Table / Fig - 2] [Table / Fig - 3]

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .