Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
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Consultant
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Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

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Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


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Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
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Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2008 | Month : August | Volume : 2 | Issue : 4 | Page : 942 - 945

Lipase And Ca2+ Ions As Biomarkers In Blood Serum Of NIDDM

VERMA N*, MITTAL M, VERMA R K**

*Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala.**Synthetic Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Punjabi University, Patiala.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Verma N, Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala, India.Tel: 9815710298 Email:neelam_verma2@rediffmail.com minakshimittal@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) is a metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, often associated with hypertension, lipid disturbances and obesity. Blood serum of normal healthy subject and NIDDM patients are considered for study. Lipase and Ca2+ ions concentrations have been compared in NIDDM and normal healthy subjects along with glucose concentration. Lipase activity is increased (287-325 U/L) in blood serum of NIDDM than normal healthy range (30-250 U/L). Ca2+ ions concentration has been decreased (1.5-3.4 mg/dL) below the normal range (8.9-10.4 mg / dL ). Hence lipase can be used as a biomarker for disease diagnosis and low Ca2+ ions concentrations observed in NIDDM may be alarming leading to multiple diseases.

Keywords

Ca2+ ions, glucose, insulin, lipase and Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

Introduction
Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) has become a major health problem worldwide. At present, there are about 125 million people affected by this disease, globally. Over 90% of cases of diabetes worldwide are in the form known as NIDDM. Insulin resistance is a prominent biological marker of NIDDM, particularly when it is associated with obesity, and it is defined as an impaired biological response to either exogenous or endogenous insulin. This response is not strictly confined to the relationship between insulin and glucose, but it extends to other actions of this hormone, including its effect on lipid and protein metabolism, vascular endothelium function and gene expression(7). As a further proof of the importance of fat distribution as the determinant of insulin resistance by Sumo Wrestlers(8), lipids are found to play a complex role in glucose homeostasis under both normal and pathological conditions(2). Lipases are involved in insulin secretion, and the pharmacological inhibition of lipase activity in ß-cells impairs insulin secretion(9). The Ca2+ ions are unique among all the mineral ion species due to their large intra extra gradient. Intracellular free Ca2+ ions are the determinants in regulating cardiac function and smooth muscle contraction, and act as a final common factor in the non cellular responsiveness to various stimuli(1). Up to now, there have been no studies on lipase and Ca2+ions as biomarkers in the blood serum of NIDDM. For this reason, we have now studied the lipase and Ca2+ ions concentrations in normal healthy subjects and NIDDM patients.

Material and Methods

Selection of Samples
Samples were divided into two groups – Normal healthy subjects and NIDDM subjects. The blood serum of each group, aged around 35 – 45 years, was collected from the clinical laboratory, Patiala . Each group comprised of eight subjects who belonged to both male and female sexes. Samples were selected on the basis of age, as NIDDM manifests after age 40.

Chemicals
Lipase enzyme was procured from Hi media Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai. All other chemicals and solvents of highest grade were procured from Loba Chemie. Pvt. Ltd., Sd fine, Mumbai.

Equipment used
Systronics UV- VIS Spectrophotometer119, Systronics Photoflourometer151 of Naroda, Ahmedabad, India.

Glucose estimation
Glucose levels were estimated in normal healthy subjects and NIDDM subjects by estimation of unreduced copper(11).

Lipase activity
Lipase activity was determined in normal healthy subjects and NIDDM subjects by measuring the formation of p-Nitrophenol from p-Nitrophenol palmitate(10). SDS-PAGE of 20X diluted normal individual and NIDDM patients was run by adjusting it at an isoelectric point pH=4.65 of lipase(6)

Ca2+ ions detection
Concentration of Ca2+ ions in the blood serum of normal healthy subjects and NIDDM subjects was determined by developing the formation of a fluorescent chelate between Ca2+ ions and calcein in an alkaline solution. Fluorescence intensity measured at 540 nm with excitation at either 330 nm or 480 nm(12).

Statistical Analysis
Results are reported in triplicate as mean, which is a single value selected from a group of values to represent in some way – a value which is supposed to stand for the whole group of which it is part, as typical of all values in the group.


Results

The glucose and lipase activity and concentration of Ca2+ ions are reported in (Table/Fig 1), (Table/Fig 2) , (Table/Fig 3) respectively.

Lipase activity was also confirmed by SDS – PAGE of 20X diluted normal individual and NIDDM blood serum by adjusting it at an isoelectric point pH=4.65 of lipase(6). The lipase band found at position 57 kDa(4) was intense in NIDDM than in normal healthy subjects, as shown in [Table /Fig 1].

Discussion

Insulin stimulates lipogenesis and diminishes lipolysis. Cellular metabolism of fuel raises the ATP/ADP ratio, resulting in closure of KATP channels and concomitant β-cell depolarization. This depolarization in turn, activates voltage–gated Ca2+ channels, resulting in Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ dependent insulin exocytosis5. So on this basis, lipase and Ca2+ are selected as biomarkers. Lipase activity in NIDDM is higher than in normal healthy subjects, whereas concentration of Ca2+ ions is low in NIDDM than in normal healthy subjects. Lipases are involved in insulin secretion and the pharmacological inhibition of lipase activity in β-cells impairs insulin secretion(9). Ca2+ ions may give rise to a no. of diseases which are common in the old age, such as hypertension,arteriosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, malignancy and degenerative joint disease(3).

Conclusion

Concentration of Ca2+ ions had decreased (1.5-3.4 mg/dL) below the normal range (8.9-10.4 mg/dL). The lipase band found at position 57 kDa(4) was intense in NIDDM subjects than in normal healthy subjects. This study shows that lipase and Ca2+ ions are very important biomarkers as these can be used for disease diagnosis. Lipases are involved in insulin secretion and the pharmacological inhibition of lipase activity in β-cells impairs insulin secretion. A low concentration of Ca2+ ions observed in NIDDM may be considered as alarming, leading to multiple diseases. Further studies are needed to establish this.

Acknowledgement

The financial aid for the purchase of the instruments in the Department of Biotechnology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, by AICTE, is fully acknowledged

References

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Barbagallo M, Resnick LM, Dominguez LJ, Licata G. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and ageing: The ionic hypothesis of ageing and cardiovascular metabolic diseases. Diabetes Metabolism 1997; 23:281-94.
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Fex M, Lucas S, Winzell MS, Ahren B, Holm C, Mulder H. ß- cell lipases and insulin secretion. Diabetes 2006; 55(Suppl.2):S24-S31.
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Fujita T. Calcium paradox: Consequences of calcium deficiency manifested by variety of diseases. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 2000; 18:234-36.
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Hayashi R, Tajima S, Yamamoto A. Purification and characterization of lipoprotein lipase from human post heparin plasma and its comparison with purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase. Journal of Biochemistry 1986; 100:319-31.
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Khan AF, Goforth BP, Zhang M and Satin SL Insulin activates ATP sensitive K+ channels in pancreatic ß- cells though phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent pathway. Diabetes. 2001; 50:2192-98.
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Laemmli Cleavage of structural proteins during assembly of head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 1970; 227:680-85.
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Ludvik B, Nolan JJ, Baloga J, Sacks D, Olefsky J. Effect of obesity on insulin resistance in normal subjects and patients with NIDDM. Diabetes 1995; 44:1121-25.
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Matsuzawa Y. Pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms of visceral fat syndrome. Diabetes Metabolism Reviews 1997; 13:3-13.
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Mulder H, Yang S, Winzell MS, Holm C, Ahren B. Inhibition of lipase activity and lipolysis in rat islets reduces insulin secretion. Diabetes 2004; 53:122–28.
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Sacks, DB Carbohydrates In: Buritis, CA and Ashwood ER (ed) Teitzs textbook of clinical chemistry, 4th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, 2005.
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Shafter and Hartmann Determination of glucose by the estimation of unreduced copper. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1920-1921; 45:365.
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Vogel AI. Textbook of quantitative inorganic analysis. 4th edn. Longman, Newyork, 1969.

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