Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 130039

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionAcknowledgementReferences
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2009 | Month : February | Volume : 3 | Issue : 1 | Page : 1297 - 1301 Full Version

The State Of Birth Weight in the North of Iran

Published: February 1, 2009 | DOI:
Veghari G *,Marjani A **, Rahmati R ***,Hosseini ***

*Ms in Nutrition,**Asso. Prof.,(Dept of Biochemistry),***Asst.Prof.(Dept.of Physiology),Golestan University of medical Sciences.

Correspondence Address :
Veghari Gholamraza,Golestan University of medical sciences.Faculty of Medicine –Biochemistry and Metabolic Disorders,Telfax:+981714421289


Introduction and object: This study was designed for determining the birth weight and some other factors affecting rural newborn children in the north of Iran (south east of Caspian sea).
Material and Method: A sample size of 695 cases was chosen by cluster and random sampling from 20 villages. The birth weight of the newborn and the mother’s socio-economic status were recorded by a questionnaire. The data was analyzed by SPSS windows software.
Results: The prevalence of LBW, NBW and HBW was observed to be 11.1%, 84.1% and 4.8%, respectively. The birth weight among children whose mothers had iron supplements was lower than that of children whose mothers did not take iron supplement (3173gr vs 3246gr) and statistical differences between the two groups were not significant. Birth weight have a positive correlation and significant statistical differences with both maternal age (r=0.2 , p=0.01) and maternal BMI(r=0.24 , p=0.01).The birth weight in the 5th birth order was more than that in the1st birth order and statistical differences were significant (P=0.01). Birth weight had a positive correlation with familial income (P<0.05).
Discussion: Our study showed that maternal BMI, birth order and socioeconomic factors were associated with intrauterine weight gain, but iron supplements didn’t have a positive outcome.


weight, BMI, Social-Economic, Iron supplementation, Iran

Birth weight is strongly associated with the health and survival of infants in the developing world, where 90% of the 250 million low birth weight babies (<2500 g) are born each year (1). Studies of food supplementation have typically reported increases in birth weight of 25-84 g per 10 000 kcal of maternal energy intake during pregnancy (2), although mean increases of about 135 g may be observed with higher energy intakes (3). A recent study indicates that anaemia in pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery and is associated with low birth weight (LBW)(4),(5).

Despite the potential benefits of such interventions on pregnancy outcomes, the effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on birth weight and intrauterine growth have not been well studied. Individual micronutrients such as folic acid, iron, zinc and vitamin A have received awareness. An overview of five controlled trials showed a 40% reduction in the prevalence of intrauterine growth retardation with folic acid supplementation although these trials were small and were not well considered. (6)Trials in Bangladesh(7) and Peru (8) did not verify the improvemence in birth weight with antenatal zinc supplementation, which was reported in previous studies A randomized placebo controlled trial in Niger showed no perfection in birth weight after maternal iron supplementation during pregnancy, although length at birth was found to be improved(9). The effectiveness of iron supplementation in improving pregnancy outcome is currently debated. Although there is evidence for lower birth weight among mothers with anaemia, there are no data to set up a causal association (10). Other studies have reported that maternal vitamin A or β carotene supplementation failed to influence either infant mortality(11) or neonatal weight (12), but was associated with a 44% decline in pregnancy related maternal mortality(13) .

Gorgan is the capital city of the Golestan Province in the north of Iran and according to the report of the Iranian Statistical Center (14), it has a population of more than 300,000 and is one of the agricultural regions of the country. Based on the above report, the village population in this town is 56.1% as a whole, which is mainly engaged in the agricultural occupation. There are different ethnic groups living in this region. The main ethnic groups are: Fars (native), Turkman and Sistanee. Sistanee and Turkman ethnic groups are mainly the residents of the villages. Due to the restriction in executing epidemiological projects, there were no studies on the iron supplement intake in the villages of this area, up till now; therefore, it was necessary to design a research project to determine the iron intake and effect on birth weight. The Iranian Health System recommended that all rural pregnant women should intake iron supplements from the 4th month for prevention of anaemia.

Material and Methods

This is a retrospective and cross-sectional descriptive study, and 690 cases from 20 villages were chosen by cluster and simple sampling by 20 trained interviewers using a questionnaire. We recorded the birth weight of newborn children, the iron supplementation status during pregnancy and the family’s socio-economic status. The data was analyzed by the version 14 software. The logistic regression model was applied to evaluate variables that were associated with the likelihood of being LBW.

The economic status was categorized, based on the possession of 10 consumer items which were considered necessary for modern-day life, such as telephone, running water, gas pipeline, personal house, colour television, computer, video, private car and cooler. According to this list, the economic status of the sample population in this study was as follows: low 3, moderate = 4-6, and good = 7-10. In this study, ethnicity was defined as follows; 1) the Fars ethnic group (native). These people resided in this region since a long time and they were considered to be the native residents of this region. 2) the Sistanee ethnic group: people who immigrated to this region from the Sistan and Bluchestan provinces during the past decades. 3) the Turkman ethnic group: this group does not have family relation ships with other ethnic groups and therefore can be considered as an independent race. They reside in a particular rural area. BMI was calculated as weight (kg) and /height (m2) . Birth weight was defined as Low Birth Weight (<2500 gr), Normal Birth Weight (2500 to 4000 gr) and High Birth Weight (<4000 gr). There were 3 educational categories : 1:Illeterate, 2: 1-12 years schooling and 3: Beyond high school(academic education). Taking iron supplement during pregnancy has been defined as:1- None: Lack of iron supplement intake 3-Sometimes: Iron supplement intake time to time. 2- Routinely: Iron supplement intake regularly.


The prevalence of LBW, NBW and HBW were 11.1%, 84.1% and 4.8%, respectively. Birth weight had an inverse relationship with iron supplementary intake in the gestational period and in infants whose mothers took more iron supplement than others, but this difference wasn’t statistically significant(Table/Fig 1).

Birth weight has a direct and significant relationship with the mother’s age and the mean of the birth weight of children in mothers who are <18 years old, is also less than that seen in children whose mothers are >36 years old. The mother’s BMI is another factor that has a positive relationship with birth weight (P=001). Family number is related to birth weight and there are statistically significant differences between families with 5-8 numbers and over, or those families with numbers under it (p=0.001).This study shows that three economical characteristics (good, moderate and poor) have statistical significance with each other, based on the birth weight (p=0.001). Birth weight in the 3rd-5th birth order is higher than that in other birth orders and there are statistically significant differences between them (p=0.001). There are statistically significant differences between the three ethnic groups based on birth weight. Fars (native) and Sistanee groups have the most and the least mean of birth weight, respectively (p=0.001)(Table/Fig 2).

The unadjusted odds ratios show that maternal age>18 years (P=0.004, 95% CI ,OR=2.902) ,Family number<5 (P=0.038, 95% CI ,OR=1.683) , Low economic status (P=0.002, 95% CI ,OR=2.193),Birth order <3(P=0.003, 95% CI ,OR=2.7), and Sistaneesh ethnic group (P=0.032, 95% CI ,OR=1.675) are significantly related to LBW (Table/Fig 3). The adjusted odds ratios show that maternal age>18 years (P=0.031, 95% CI,OR=2.381) , Low economic status (P=0.011, 95% CI ,OR=2.002) and Birth order <3(P=0.017, 95% CI ,OR=2.767) are significantly related to LBW(Table/Fig 4).


Birth weight is influenced by some factors such as as social-economic status, anaemia, lack of pregnancy care, metabolic diseases, low maternal weight and height, maternal age, number of deliveries and the mother’s education (2),(4),(5),(7).

In present study, the prevalence of LBW is 11.1%. The Iranian ministry of health reported that the prevalence of LBW was about 10% in the year 2000 (2). The prevalence of LBW was reported in the year 2000 as follows: USA -7.6% , British -2.8% , Sweden -3.53% and Hispanic - 5.7% (4),(7),(11),(15).

The prevalence of LBW in developing countries is more than that in developed countries. For example, this criteria in India’s poor residential areas is 39.1%, among residents on the outskirts of the capital city of Bangladesh is 36.8% and in rural areas in some of the Asian countries is 20.9% (6),(16). The prevalence of LBW was reported in Babul (a city in north of Iran)- 7.7% and in a hospital in the west of Iran- 19.1% (17),(18). Based on similar studies, the LBW in this area is found to be less than that in developing countries, but it is more than that in developed countries.
Age of mother is a factor which affects birth weight. In this study, birth weight was found to have a direct relationship with the mother’s age. Cogswell (3) and Zaltnik (19) reported that the LBW incidence is low among older women and other studies (6),(16),(20),(21) reported that there are statistically significant differences between birth weight and maternal age. Maternal BMI has a direct effect on birth weight (22),(23),(24) and we found similar results in our study.

Neggers (25) showed that maternal BMI is the best predictive in birth weight assessment and other studies (26),(27) and there is a positive relationship between maternal BMI and birth weight.

In this study, the mean of birth weight among neonatals at the 3rd -5th birth order was more than in the upper or lower birth order. Zahed Pasha (17) in Iran showed that the prevalence of LBW in the first delivery was 8.8% and in secondary and tertiary deliveries was 15.2% . Maruaka (28), in Japan, reported that there was a negative correlation between birth weight and birth ranking. The study by Eghbalian (18) in a hospital in Iran did not show a correlation between birth weight and birth order.
There is a direct relationship between birth weight and economic status. Another factor affecting birth weight was economy. The birth weight was lower in poor families. Valero (10), Wood (29) and Starfield (30) confirmed the above results in their studies.
Ethnicity is another factor that can change the mean of birth weight, and socio-economic differences in ethnic groups cause changes in it. Wood’s study (29) showed that the incidence of LBW in black-skinned people was less than that in white-skinned people in the US .Fang (31) reported that the prevalence of LBW in white-skinned people was less than that in dark-skinned and Hispanic immigrants to America. Similar studies (32),(33),(34),(35),(36),(37) proved that there is birth weight differentiation among ethnic groups and immigrant people. They have made it clear that level of income, culture, education and health care is different among different ethnic groups. In the present study, there were found to be statistical differences between the three ethnic groups such as Fars(native), Turkman and Sistanee, at the point of mean of birth weight . Turkman’s neonatals had the highest birth weight.

Iron supplementation affects birth weight during pregnancy, but in this study, there wasn’t any statistically significant correlation between iron supplementation and birth weight. Probably there are other factors that can change birth weight and it is necessary to study them. Studies by Totunchi (38) in a hospital in Tehran showed that iron supplementation in pregnant women cause an increase in birth weight. Gogswell (3) reported that the prevalence of LBW among neonatals whose mothers had iron supplements was 4%, but in neonatals whose mothers didn’t have iron supplements it was 17%.

We did not have any information about medical supervision status and dosing of iron supplements and we did not determine all factors related to birth weight . These are the limitations of this study.
Briefly, our study showed that maternal age, family numbers, economic status, birth order and ethnicity are risk factors for LBW.


The authors would like to thank the medical and administrative staff in the Primary Health Care Centers of Golestan University of Medical Sciences for their valuable assistance during the field work. Also, the Research Deputy of the University is thanked for supporting this project financially.


. Child Health Research Project. Special Report. Reducing perinatal and neonatal mortality. Report of a meeting. Baltimore, MD: Child Health Research Project, 1999.
. Lechtig A, Yarbrough C, Delgado H, Habicht JP, Martorell R, Klein RE. Influence of maternal nutrition on birth weight. Am J Clin Nutr 1975; 28: 1223-33
. Ceesay SM, Prentice AM, Cole TJ, Foord F, Weaver LT, Poskitt EM, et al. Effects on birth weight and perinatal mortality of maternal dietary supplements in rural Gambia: 5 year randomised controlled trial. BMJ 1997; 315: 786-90
. Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Fischer RL, et al. Anemia vs iron deficiency: increased risk of preterm delivery in a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55: 985–8.
. Allen LH. Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71(Suppl): 1280S–4.
. De Onis M, Villar J, Gulmezoglu M. Nutritional interventions to prevent intrauterine growth retardation: evidence from randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr 1988; 52 (suppl 1): S83-S93.
. Osenderp SJM, van Raaij JMA, Arifeen SE, Wahed MA, Baqui AH, Fuch GJ. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of the effect of zinc supplementation during pregnancy and on pregnancy outcome in Bangladeshi urban poor. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 114-19
. Caulfield LE, Zavaleta N, Figueroa A, Leon Z. Maternal zinc supplementation does not affect size at birth and pregnancy duration in Peru. J Nutr 1999; 129: 1563-68
. Preziosi P, Prual A, Golan P, Daouda H, Boureima H, Hercberg S. Effect of iron supplementation on the iron status of pregnant women: consequences for newborns. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66: 1178-82.
. Rasmussen KM. Is there a causal relationship between iron deficiency or iron deficiency anaemia and weight at birth, length of gestation and perinatal mortality? J Nutr 2001; 131: 590-603S.
. Dreyfuss ML, West Jr KP, Katz J, LeClerq SC, Pradhan EK, Adhikari RK, Wu LS, Adhikari RK, Shrestha SR, Sommer A. Effects of maternal vitamin A or -carotene supplementation on intrauterine/neonatal and early infant growth in Nepal (abstract). In: Report of the XVIII International Vitamin A Consultative Group Meeting. Cairo, Egypt. ISLI Research Foundation, Washington DC. , 1997.
. Katz J, West Jr KP, Khatry SK, Pradhan EK, LeClerq SC, Christian P, Wu LS, Adhikari RK, Shrestha SR, Sommer A. Low-dose vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation does not reduce early infant mortality: a double-masked, randomized, controlled community trial in Nepal. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 1570-76
. West Jr KP, Katz J, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Pradhan EK, Shrestha SR, Connor PB, Dali SM, Christian P, Pokhrel RP, Sommer A. Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. The NNIPS-2 Study Group. BMJ 1999; 318: 570-75.
. Statistical Center of Iran (2006).Population and Housing Census. Available from
. UNICEF. The state of the World's Children 1999. united nation children's fund. WHO 1999;p: 98-101.
. Chhabra P, Sharma AK, Grover VL, Aggarwal OP. Prevalence of low birth weight and its determinants in an urban resettlement area of Delhi. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2004; 16(2): 95-8.
. Zahed Pasha Y, Esmaeili MR, Haji Ahmadi M, Asgardoon Gh, Ghadimi R, Baleghi M, Bijani A.Effect of risk factors on low birth weight neonates. Journal of Babol of University of Medical Sciences, 2004;22(6): 24-18.
. Eghbalian F. Low birth weight, Newborn, Gestational age, Prematurity. Iranian Journal Of Pediatrics. 2007;Suppl.1(17): 27-33.
. Zlatnik FJ, Burmeister LF. Low gynecologic: an obstetric risk factor. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977: 15; 128(2):183-6.
. Reime B, Ratner PA, Tomaselli-Reime SN, Kelly A, Schuecking BA, Wenzlaff P. The role of mediating factors in the association between social deprivation and low birth weight in Germany. SocSci Med. 2006; 62 (7): 1731-44.
. Deshmukh JS, Motghare DD, Zodpey SP, Wadhva SK. Low birth weight and associated maternal factors in an urban area. Indian Pediatr. 1998; 35(1):33-6.
. Kramer MS. Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment and meta-analysis.Bull World Health Organ. 1987; 65(5):663-737.
. Garn S. Pregnancy weight. In: Krasovec K, and Anderson MA, eds. maternal nutrition and Pregnancy Outcomes: Anthropometric Assessment. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization, Scientific Publication No. 529 (1991).
. Flegal KM, Launer LJ, Graubard BI, Kestler E, Villar J. Modeling maternal weight and height in studies of pregnancy outcome among Hispanic women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993; 58(2):145-51.
. Neggers Y, Goldenberg RL, Cliver SP, Hoffman HJ, Cutter GR. The relationship between maternal and neonatal anthropometric measurements in term newborns. Obstet Gynecol. 1995; 85(2):192-6.
. Mohanty C, Prasad R, Srikanth Reddy A, Ghosh JK, Singh TB, Das BK. Maternal Anthropometry as Predictors of Low Birth Weight. J Trop Pediatr. 2006; 52 (4): 24-9.
. Miletic T, Stoini E. Influence of maternal pregravid weight, height and body mass index on birth weight of male and female newborns. Coll Antropol. 2005; 29(1):263-6.
. Maruoka K, Yagi M, Akazawa K, Kinukawa N, Ueda K, Nose Y . Risk factors for low birth weight in lapanese infants. ACTA. Paediatr .1998; 87(3): 304-9.
. Wood D. Effect of child and family poverty on child health in the United States.Pediatrics.2003; 112: 707-711.
. Starfield B, Shapiro S, Weiss J, Liang KY, Ra K, Paige D, Wang XB. Race, family income, and low birth weight. Am J Epidemiol. 1991; 134:1167–74.
. Fang J, Madhavan S, Alderman MH. The influence of maternal hypertension on low birth weight: differences among ethnic populations. Ethn Dis 1999; 9(3): 369-76.
. Fuentes-Afflick E, Hessol N, Perez-Stable EJ. Maternal birthplace, ethnicity,and low birth weight in California. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.1998; 152:1105-12.
. Fuentes-Afflick E, Lurie P. Low birth weight and Latino ethnicity.Examining the epidemiologic paradox. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997;151:665–74.
. Fuentes-Afflick E, Hesson N. Impact of Asian ethnicity and national origin on infant birth weight. Am J Epidemiol. 1997; 145:148-55.
. Fuentes-Afflick E, Hesson N. The perinatal advantage of Mexican-origin Latina women. Ann Epidemiol. 2000; 10:516–23.
. Fuentes-Afflick E, Hessol NA, Perez-Stable EJ. Testing the epidemiologic paradox of low birth weight in Latinos. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999; 153:147–53.
. Collins J, Shay D. Prevalence of low birth weight among Hispanic infants with United States-born and foreign-born mothers: the effect of urban poverty. Am J Epidemiol. 1994; 139:184–192.
. Parichehr Tootoonchi. Low Birth Weight among Newborn Infants at Tehran Hospitals. Iranian Journal Of Pediatrics 2007;suppl.2(17): 186-92.

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)