Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"



Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2009 | Month : April | Volume : 3 | Issue : 2 | Page : 1389 - 1394

Effects Of Edible Oils In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

DINESHKUMAR B, MUKHERJEE S, PRADHAN R, MITRA A*, CHAKRABORTY C Correspondence Address :
Dr. Analava Mitra
School of Medical Science and Technology
IIT Kharagpur-721 302
Email: amitra@adm.iitkgp.ernet.in
Tel: 03222-282220
Fax: 03222-282221

Abstract

The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes along with dyslipidaemia is increasing alarmingly in India and in some parts of South-East Asia. The causes of this malady are yet to be known though urban life-style and diet are considered to be the two most important factors. Indians are mostly lacto-vegetarians. The intake of fats and oils are less in the Indian diet. Edible oils act as important dietary sources of fats and oils. Some oilseeds are cultivated in India, while a portion is imported to satisfy the need of the population. Indians have a predilection towards fried items and a large portion of fat requirements are fulfilled through this habit. Oils have different biological effects in different conditions, especially in patients suffering from Type 2 Diabetes with dyslipidaemia. Hence, there is a need to have a comprehensive study of all these edible fats and oils in human beings, both in normal and in disease conditions. Our study highlighted the effect of different edible oils such as Sunflower oil, soyabean oil, sesame oil, groundnut oil, mustard oil, coconut oil, ghee and palm oil on humans and the results indicated that sesame oil has the most benefit, followed by mustard oil.

Keywords

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Oilseeds, Edible, Fats and Oils.

Introduction
Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder characterized by increase in the blood sugar along with alterations in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, associated with defects in insulin secretion and/or insulin action, or both (1),(2). Diabetes mellitus is of two main types – Type1 and Type 2. The prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes is increasing at epidemic proportions worldwide and in the recent years, it has become a major global health problem in economically developed countries as well as in countries undergoing rapid economic expansion (3). According to WHO (1997), there is a marked increase in the number of people affected with diabetes and this trend is expected to grow in geometric proportions in the next couple of decades. In the developed countries, there will be a 42% increase from 51 to72 million and in the developing countries, there will be a 170% increase from 84 to 228 million.



This disease may be consequence of nature and nurture (4). The presence of a genetic factor (nature) and environmental causes (nurture), faulty dietary intake in excess, proneness to infections, poverty and malnutrition, improper concepts of hygiene and health and reduced physical activities etc, may lead to increased incidence of the condition. In a country like India, there is an alarming increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, especially of Type 2. The causative factors are its vast rural population, its minimum health infrastructure with heterogeneity of origin or race, geography and habits, dietary habits, socio-economic status, methods of cooking and preservation, use of pesticides, cultural diversities etc [5 ].

Fats and oils are a specific component of the diet which provide essential fatty acids and facilitate the delivery of various other nutrients that are vitally important for normal physiological functions. Fats and lipids are the integral parts of the structural units such as cellular and sub-cellular membranes, and nerve sheathing. These dietary fats are also responsible for normal growth, development and maturation in all spheres. Body fat or adipose tissue also helps to protect vital organs from injuries and shocks, and provides a source of energy during prolonged exercise. Vegetable oils are important sources of natural antioxidants such as tocopherols, tocotrienols and carotenoids (6). Dietary lipids also play an important role in the vital body functions by modulating the production of eicosanoid (7), (8), (9). Fats and oils are consumed for caloric as well as non-caloric functions such as flavour, palatability, appearance, consistency and texture. Intake of different oils and fats takes place primarily through cooking oils, baked products, margarines and spreads, various fried products, chocolate and sugar confectionery, dairy products and desserts, salad oils, mayonnaise and other dressings (Table/Fig 1).

Here, the climatic conditions are favourable for the growth of a variety of oilseeds. India accounts for 9.3 per cent of the oilseed production in the world. It has the world's fourth largest edible oil economy (10). Sesame, Groundnut, Mustard, palm and Sunflower are some of the major edible oilseeds used in the country. Besides, ghee, coconut oils and others are also commonly used in Indian kitchens. Here, an attempt has been made to compare the effects of different edible fats and oils commonly used like Sunflower oil, soyabean oil, sesame oil, mustard oil, coconut oil, palm oil, groundnut oil and ghee.in the rural Indians

Based on unpublished data from the Hamadan province, it was observed that most of the Giardiasis cases presented with bloating and malaise. Because of its wide spectrum clinical manifestations and the relatively high prevalence of this infection in the Hamadan province of Iran, this study was conducted to determine the most frequent clinical signs and symptoms of Giardiasis in the Hamadan province of Iran.

Material and Methods

Raw ingredients (Sunflower oil, soyabean oil, sesame oil, mustard oil, coconut oil, palm oil, groundnut oil and ghee) were collected in sealed containers from a local market at Kharagpur in West Bengal (India) and were inspected to check whether they were of standardized grades or not (ISI approved). Blood bio-chemistry tests like Total Cholesterol (TC), High-density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Very low-density Lipoprotein (VLDL) were estimated using diagnostic kits from local vendors of Merck (Germany). The tests were conducted by skilled professionals using a Semi Auto Analyser (Merck, Microlab 300). All plastic measuring devises like 1000 ml measuring cylinders, were purchased from the local agents of Tarson (India). Disposable syringes were collected from the B.C. Roy Technology Hospital (BCRTH) of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) at Kharagpur. Height and weight of the volunteers were observed at BCRTH and BMI and were calculated accordingly.

Samples Collection
20 sealed cans (5 liters ISI approved), each of different raw ingredients as mentioned, were purchased after careful inspection from a local market in Kharagpur (West Bengal, India).

Selection of Volunteers
For the present study based on the data available from different villages such as Kharagpur, Khajra, Kulbani, Nachipur, Keshiyari, Balarampur and Kaushalya in the West Midnapore District, 3245volunteers were identified (in the age range of 45-55 years and apparently non-obese). From these, 3245 patients and 815 volunteers were screened, based on the following criteria- they were not taking any drugs for Reevan’s pathosis and for hepato-billiary impairment, they agreed to participate in the study and were free from any diabetic/hypertensive/dyslipidaemic complications and were symptomatically normal. Out of these 815 volunteers, 140 volunteers were randomly selected (lottery), mainly based on financial reasons (inadequacy of funds) and daily monitoring conveyance. They were divided into seven groups by the random selection (lottery) of 20 patients each (Table/Fig 4). The volunteers were informed about the details of the study including the benefits and risk involved in vernacular and strict compliance was emphasized. The Institute Ethical Committee was approached, highlighting the fact that there was minimum risk involvement in this experimental work and clearance was obtained from them. The written consents from volunteers were taken prior to the study. The volunteers mainly resided in three villages and it was being observed though the random selection process was being followed for selecting twenty volunteers in a group the sex biasness was not there as male: female ratio in different groups were either 11:9 or 10:10 (adult M: f = 1.1:1 in these village).

Processes are being involved in the study. The research team prior to use will check the quality and quantity of oils being used in the study. Two Ayurvedic doctors are present in the research team and written permission of the patients is obtained for the study.

Experimental Design
The experiments were designed to maintain identical conditions for all the groups. The volunteers underwent clinical, anthropometrical and biochemical evaluations before and after the study (Table/Fig 2). The volunteers were made to adhere strictly to the conditions laid down for the study to maintain identical conditions in all groups. For this purpose, six associates were appointed by the researchers to look into the maintenance of identical conditions of diet and life-style patterns. The associates held regular discussions amongst themselves and the volunteers to fix up and settle the issues, but at the same time, also to make sure to not fix the schedule into non-acceptable limits. Monotony in diet and freedom of life-styles in human beings was reduced through a consensus. The researchers were intimated daily of the proceedings and weekly meetings amongst volunteers, associates and researchers were held. Any change in the schedule, difficulties faced, clinical assessments, drop outs, follow up processes etc, were in the agenda. Such meetings were usually presided by the local panchayet pradhan and other pertinent health issues like vaccination, heath awareness camps, qualitative and quantitative diet planning etc, were also discussed.

Administration Of Oils
The associates employed for the process measured the oil/day consumption in volunteers and accordingly provide. They further kept the records and also preserved the sanctity involved in the process. A daily dose of 35ml was administered to each volunteer (11). The health of volunteers were observed and enquired daily by the associates. The associates further maintained the records of individual oil consumptions in the family and particularly of the volunteer who was not permitted the use of any other oils as his/her cooking medium during the study.

Collection of Blood Samples and Measurement of Biochemical parameters
Blood samples were collected from each group before the study and at monthly intervals for three months. Blood was collected by professionals using strict aseptic techniques from the anti-cubital vein of volunteers using adult size tourniquets supplied by BCRTH. The professionals were not told of the study earlier, to reduce bias. The collected blood (5ml) was kept in two vials, one vial containing 2ml of blood with anticoagulant (potassium oxalate and sodium fluride in 1:4) for the estimation of FBS and the other vial containing 3ml of blood without anti-coagulant for serum separation in order to estimate the desired lipid fractions. The vials were sent immediately to the School of Medical Science and Technology in IIT at Kharagpur.

Statistical Analysis
The data was expressed as mean ± standard deviation (S.D). Statistical comparisons were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results

Clinical, anthropometrical and biochemical evaluations of the volunteers before and after the study were performed (Table/Fig 2).

Here in all the groups, biochemical parameters of interest, that is, FBS, TC, LDL, VLDL and HDL were estimated in all 20 volunteers who comprised a group for three months(Table/Fig 3).

Statistical analysis was made and the results indicated that Sunflower oil played a more significant role in the reduction of fasting blood glucose levels (p<0.25). Soyabean oil played a role in the reduction of the total cholesterol levels (p<0.30) and it’s role was found to be more significant than that of sesame oil (p<0.40) at 5% level of significance. High-density lipoprotein levels were increased by Sesame oil (p<0.35) and mustard oil (p<0.40), while soyabean oil, palm oil, groundnut oil and ghee showed lesser effects when compared with mustard oil (p<0.50). But coconut oil and sunflower oil did not play any roles in increasing high-density lipoprotein levels. Low-density lipoprotein levels were decreased more by soyabean oil (p<0.35) than by sesame oil (p<0.50). But other oils did not have any significant roles in lowering the Low-density lipoprotein levels. Palm oil had a more significant effect on the reduction of very low-density lipoprotein levels (p<0.30) than palm oil (p<0.40) and mustard oil (p<0.45), while other edible oils showed no effects.

Discussion

The omega 3 polysaccharide fatty acids have a major role impact on thinking of medicine. The parent fatty acid in the omega 3 fatty acid family is alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), which is an essential fatty acid found in high concentrations in certain plant oils. Alpha linoleic acid is the principal of omega 3 fatty acid, which a healthy human will convert into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and later into docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and gamma linoelic acid (GLA) synthesized from linoleic acid (omega-6), are later converted into hormone like compounds known as eicosanoids which aid in many bodily functions including vital organ functions and intracellular activity. Omega-3-linoleic acid is found in Sunflower oil, soyabean oil, mustard oil, sesame oil, groundnut oil, ghee, coconut oil and palm oil (12). In the present study, we investigated whether the edible oils had any effects on the biochemical parameters in all groups. The continuous treatment with different edible oils for 90 days showed differential reduction in specific biochemical parameters of interest in all the groups. Major cardiovascular diseases are caused due to lipid abnormalities in diabetic patients. Edible oil samples not only decreased the total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels, but also increased high-density lipoprotein levels after 90 days of treatment. Several studies have shown that an increase in high-density lipoprotein levels were associated with a reduction of coronary risk (13). Mitra et al. (2007) found that beneficial changes in the blood biochemistry in persons taking sesame oil may be due to the increased uptake of PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (11). Ramesh et al. (2005) found that diabetic rats which were fed with sesame oil, when compared with controls (diabetic rats not receiving sesame oil), showed a significant reduction in the levels of blood Glucose (14). High-density lipoprotein levels were increased by a combination of Sesame oil and mustard oil, but showed a lesser increase in levels when treated with sesame oil alone. But coconut oil and sunflower oil did not show any role in increasing high-density lipoprotein levels. In summary, different edible oils such as Sunflower oil, soyabean oil, sesame oil, groundnut oil, mustard oil, coconut oil, ghee and palm oil exhibited hypolipidaemic activities.

Conclusion

Different oils exhibited different biological effects, depending on various factors. The presence of genetic factors (nature) and environmental causes (nurture), faulty dietary intake in excess, proneness to infections, poverty and malnutrition, improper concepts of hygiene and health and reduced physical activities etc, are important in a country like India. The differential effects are further compounded by its vast rural population, minimum health infrastructure with heterogeneity of origin or race, geography and habits, dietary habits, socio-economic status, methods of cooking and preservation, use of pesticides, cultural diversities etc. Various workers worked on the biological effects of oils in their respective conditions, while a few studies were done in rural Bengal. Our study highlighted that sesame oil had the most benefit, followed by mustard oil.

Acknowledgement

The authors are indebted to Dr. Arunava Mitra of Mumbai, an industrial worker, for financial support. The authors are also indebted to Prof. A. K. Nanda, Prof. A. K. Ray, Prof. J. Chatterjee, Prof S. Dhara, Dr. Seema Ray, Sri
Anil Roy, Sri R. R. Misra, Sri K. Pattanayek and Sri P. P. Maiti for the help rendered for the completion of this project. The authors are deeply thankful to the volunteers, their families, panchayets and local people of the villages for their involvement in the work.

References

1.
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