Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"

Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Important Notice

Experimental Research
Year : 2009 | Month : April | Volume : 3 | Issue : 2 | Page : 1460 - 1465

NIDDM Antidiabetic Activity Of Saponins Of Momordica Cymbalaria In Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide NIDDM Mice


**RR College of Pharmacy, *Visveswarupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Bangalore.

Correspondence Address :
S. M. Firdous Mumtaz, Dept. of Pharmacology,
R R College of Pharmacy, Bangalore: 560090,
Karnataka, India. Phone 09886501454
E mail:


Objective: To evaluate the Type 2 anti-diabetic activity of saponins obtained from Momordica Cymbalaria in Streptozotocin–Nicotinamide Induced Type 2 diabetic mice.
Materials and Method: Type 2 diabetes in BALB/c mice was induced by a single intra-peritoneal injection of Streptozotocin (100 mg/ kg, i.p), 15 min after the intra-peritoneal administration of Nicotinamide (240 mg/ kg, i.p). Hyperglycaemia was confirmed by elevated blood glucose levels determined on day 7 after the injection. The saponin mixture was obtained from the ethanolic extract of Momordica Cymbalaria. Saponins of MC (SMC) 175mg/kg,p.o/30 days and Metformin350mg/kg,p.o/30 days were administered to the Type 2 diabetic mice. At the end of the treatment, their serum was analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin; The pancreas of each mouse was studied to check whether there were any histological changes.
Result: Treatment of Type 2 diabetic mice with SMC (175mg/kg, p.o/30 days) and Metformin (350mg/kg,p.o/30 days) produced a significant fall in blood glucose (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.001), triglycerides (p<0.001) and an increase in the serum insulin level (p<0.001). Pancreatic islets and beta cells showed an increase in numbers.
Conclusion: Saponins of MC have significant Type 2 anti-diabetic activity and the activity may be due to increasing insulin secretion, probably by the regeneration of pancreatic beta cells.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease caused by inherited and/ or acquired deficiency in the production of insulin by the pancreas, or by the ineffectiveness of the insulin produced (1) . Reports from the World Health Organization (WHO) indicate that diabetes mellitus is one of the major killers of our time, with people in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific being most at risk (2).

Plants have always been an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. The ethno-botanical information reports about 800 plants that may possess anti-diabetic activity when being assessed using the presently available experimental techniques (3).

Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl (MC) (Cucurbitaceae) is a species found in the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, India. Its tuber is traditionally used as an abortifacient (4) and it is also used locally for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. We have reported its anti-ovulatory, abortifacient, anti-implantation and cardio-protective activities (5),(6),(7). Fruits of MC are also reported to have antimicrobial activity (8).The fruit powder and extracts of MC were previously reported to have Type 1 anti-diabetic activity in experimental diabetic models (9),(10),(11) .Researchers have reported that SMC have anti-diabetic activity and the anti-diabetic activity may be due to reversing of the atrophy of the pancreatic islets of β-cells, as a result of which there may be increased insulin secretion and increase in the hepatic glycogen level and these may attenuate Hyperinsulinaemia. The alpha-adrenergic blocking effect might contribute to their insulin secretion and sensitizing effects (12).

Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent than Type 1 but interestingly, the effect of Momordica Cymbalaria on Type 2 diabetes is not being reported. Hence, in the present study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the effect of Momordica Cymbalaria on Type 2 diabetes.

Material and Methods

Drugs and chemicals
The fresh roots of Momordica Cymbalaria, Fenzl, were collected from Gadag district of Karnataka and were identified and authenticated by Dr.Sreenath, Department of Botany, Bangalore University, Bangalore. The roots of Momordica Cymbalaria were isolated, chopped into small pieces, dried under shade at room temperature for seven days and were powdered. The powder was extracted with ethyl alcohol to get a yield of 14.1 % w/w. The ethanolic extract of Momordica Cymbalaria was dissolved in hot distilled water and was partitioned between water saturated n-butanol and a water layer. The organic layer (n-butanolic layer) was separated and evaporated to get a residue. This n-butanolic residue was dissolved in methanol and was poured in diethyl ether (Et2O) to obtain a flocculent precipitate. This precipitate was separated by using a filter paper and was washed with excess of Et2O and dried to yield a crude fraction of saponins –(13).The saponin mixture was dissolved in distilled water (SMC) and was used for the study. All other chemicals and reagents used, were of analytical grade

Male BALB/c mice weighing 20-25 g, of either sex and male Swiss albino mice weighing 20 ± 5 g, were procured from NIMHANS (National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Science), Bangalore, at least 2 weeks prior to the study. The animals were maintained under controlled standard animal house conditions with ad libitum access to food and water. They were fed with standard mice feed (Amrut rat and mice feed, Pranav agro industries Ltd. Sangli, India). The Institutional Animal Ethics Committee’s permission was obtained before starting the experiments on the animals. The oral acute toxicity study was performed using the up and down procedure (OPPTS guidelines).

Induction of Experimental Diabetes
Streptozotocin (STZ) was dissolved in cold 50mM-citric acid buffer and Nicotinamide was dissolved in normal saline at the time of use. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced (14) in overnight-fasted BALB/c mice by a single intra-peritoneal injection of 100 mg/ kg of Streptozotocin, 15 min after the intra-peritoneal administration of 240 mg/ kg of Nicotinamide. Hyperglycaemia was confirmed by elevated blood glucose levels determined on day 7 after the injection. Only mice which were confirmed to have permanent Type 2 diabetes were used for the anti-diabetic study (23).

Experimental Design
A total of 24 mice (18 diabetic surviving mice, 6 control mice) were divided into four groups of six mice each.

Group 1 - Control mice,
Group 2 - Diabetic mice – Administered intra-peritoneal with Streptozotocin (100mg/kg i.p.) and Nicotinamide (240mg/kg i.p)
Group 3 - Diabetic mice administered orally with SMC 175 mg/kg, p.o/30days,
Group 4 - Diabetic mice administered orally with Metformin (350mg/kg, p.o/30days).

At the end of the experimental period on the 31st day, the mice were deprived of food overnight and blood was collected in a tube containing potassium oxalate and sodium fluoride for the estimation of plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and insulin by puncturing the retro orbital. The animals were sacrificed immediately. The pancreas of each was isolated, they were fixed in 10% formalin buffer for 24 h, dehydrated in alcohol and were then embedded in paraffin. The paraffin blocks were sectioned at 5 mm intervals and were stained with haematoxylin-eosin for histological examinations (22).

Biochemical Procedures
Serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were analyzed by using an Auto span diagnostic kit. Serum insulin was measured using The ADVIA Centaur analyzer (RIA) (Bayer diagnostics.)

HPTLC Fingerprinting

The HPTLC fingerprinting of SMC was performed. Silica gel 60F254 (Merck) was used as a stationary phase. Chloroform: Glacial acetic acid (9.5:0.5) was used as a mobile phase. The dried plate was scanned to visualize the migrated components under UV radiation at 254 nm, 336 and 540 ηm using Reprostar 3 with a digital camera (CAMAG).

Statistical Analysis
All the data were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. All values were reported as mean +/- SEM.


Acute Toxicity Test
Mortality in the acute toxicity test of SMC was seen in the limit test at the dose of 5000 mg/kg. Mortality was not seen in the main test up to a dose of 1750 mg/kg and hence, 1/10th of 1750mg/kg (175 mg/kg) was selected for the study.

Effect On Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetic rats treated with SMC (175mg/kg, p.o/day/30days) showed a significant (p<0.001) decrease in serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, whereas there was a significant (p<0.001) increase in the serum insulin level. Type 2 diabetic rats treated with Metformin (350mg/kg, p.o/day/30days) also showed a significant decrease in serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels and a significant increase in serum insulin levels (Table/Fig 1).

Histopathology studies in the NIDDM control group showed reduction in the number of pancreatic islets as well as in the number of beta cells. The islets were irregularly shaped, relatively small and atrophic. Most of the beta cells were destroyed and even if present, they were destroyed partially (Table/Fig 2). Most cells of the islets were small and degranulated, with scanty cytoplasm. Insulin producing beta cells were drastically decreased, whereas glucagon producing alpha cells were predominantly present. Severe vacuolation and degranulation were present in the beta cells of a maximum number of islets. The treatment group (SMC) showed an increase in the number of pancreatic islets and in the number of beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells were seen in clusters.


Streptozotocin (STZ) is a widely used chemical inducer for Type 1 diabetes (15). STZ has been shown to produce free radicals in the body, which specifically cut DNA chains in the pancreatic beta cells, resulting in disorder of the function of the pancreatic beta cells and at a later phase, destruction of the beta cells by necrosis (16). Nicotinamide dinucleotide(NA) (17) causes activation of the poly ADP ribose synthase to repair the damaged DNA (18) and STZ/NA. The Type 2 diabetic model possesses characteristics quite similar to the Type 2 non-obese diabetes, which constitutes a majority of East Asian diabetic cases (Table/Fig 3).

Fruits of MC and its extracts have been shown to have Type 1 anti-diabetic activity(9),(10),(11). The present study showed that the anti-diabetic activity of SMC may be due to reversing of the atrophy of the pancreatic islets of the beta-cells, as a result of which there may be increase in insulin secretion, increase in the hepatic glycogen level and attenuation of Hyperinsulinemia. The alpha-adrenergic blocking effect might contribute to insulin secretion and sensitizing properties (12) .

Hypoglycaemic phytochemicals in Momordica Charantia include a mixture of steroidal saponins known as charantins which are insulin-like peptides (19). The anti-diabetic activity in the present study is also attributed to Saponins. SMC significantly lowered the serum glucose levels and increased serum insulin levels in Type 2 diabetic mice. Histopathology of the pancreas was done to study the effect of SMC on beta cells. The SMC treated group showed an increase in the number of pancreatic islets and beta cells in the pancreas. This indicated that SMC was regenerating beta cells. The regeneration of the beta cells of the STZ-destructed islets is probably due to the fact that the pancreas contains stable (Quiescent) cells which have the capacity of regeneration. Therefore, the surviving cells can proliferate to replace the lost cells. Gynmnema Sylvestre also increases insulin secretion, probably by the regeneration of pancreatic beta cells (20). Many other plants are being reported to regenerate atrophied pancreatic islets, restore the secretion of insulin, and thus correct hyperglycaemia.

Diabetes is associated with hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. STZ-diabetes showed increased plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids (21). Insulin deficiency may be responsible for dyslipidaemia. Insulin has an inhibitory action on HMG-COA reductase, a key rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the metabolism of cholesterol rich LDL particles. The mechanisms responsible for the development of hypertriglyceridaemia in uncontrolled diabetes in humans are due to a number of metabolic abnormalities that occur sequentially. SMC significantly lowered serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. As reported earlier (12), this effect may be due to increased insulin secretion and the inhibition of the HMG CoA enzyme.

Hence, Saponins of MC in the present study have shown significant Type 2 anti-diabetic activity and the activity may be due to increased insulin secretion, probably by the regeneration of the pancreatic beta cells.


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. Kameswararao B., Kesavulu MM, Ch Apparao. Antihyperglycemic activity of Momordica Cymbalaria in alloxan diabetic rats.J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001;78: 67-71
. Kameswararao B, Kesavulu MM, Giri R, Apparao C. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of Momordica Cymbalaria Hook. fruit powder in alloxan-diabetic rats J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999;67:103-9
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