Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

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Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
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I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Letter to Editor
Year : 2009 | Month : August | Volume : 3 | Issue : 4 | Page : 1709 - 1712 Full Version

Conducting Problem-Stimulated Learning In A Nepalese Medical School

Published: August 1, 2009 | DOI:

*MD, **MPharm, ***MPharm, ****MPharm, *****MPharm, [Dept of Pharmacology], ******MD, Dept of Medicine, KIST Medical College, Imadol, Lalitpur.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. P. Ravi Shankar,
KIST Medical College,
P.O. Box 14142 Kathmandu,Nepal.
Ph: 977-1-5201680 Fax: 977-1-5201496


The problem-based learning of Pharmacology and Therapeutics has been recommended as a key intervention towards promoting the more rational use of medicines (1). Problem stimulated learning (PSL) sessions in Pharmacology had been conducted at the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal (2). In this manuscript, the authors describe the initial experiences with problem-stimulated learning in Pharmacology in a new Nepalese medical school.
KIST Medical College
KIST Medical College is a new medical school in Lalitpur, Nepal, which is committed to excellence in holistic healthcare, education and research. The college admits 75 students to the MBBS course every year on the first of the Nepalese month of Magh (around mid-November). The department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics has the vision of creating doctors who can use essential medicines rationally and to inculcate in them the capacity to keep up to date with new developments in medicine and therapeutics. This department collaborates with the department of Medicine for achieving these objectives. PSL sessions were started right from the beginning and their aim is to develop in students, the capacity for self-directed learning, problem solving and working together in small groups.
In Nepal, Pharmacology is taught during the first two years of the undergraduate medical (MBBS) course in an integrated, organized, system based manner with other basic science subjects.
Comfortable Working Environment
Creating a comfortable ‘working’ environment for the students was vital. Students were divided into two batches (each of around 37 students) for the Pharmacology PSL sessions. Each batch was further divided into five groups, each containing 7 or 8 students. The groups worked around an oval table (6 feet by 2 feet). Seating was provided in the form of plastic armless chairs which could be rotated and moved around freely. Chairs with arms were not used as these would occupy too much space and the arms could create a barrier between the group members. The sessions are usually held on Thursday and Friday afternoon for the two batches from 2 pm to 4 pm.
The Groups
We decided to keep the groups constant for a year in order to facilitate group dynamics. Each group had been named after an eminent scientist or personality in Medicine/Pharmacology. The group names are Oslers (after Sir William Osler, the famous Canadian physician), Lasagnas (after Louis Lasagna, the American Clinical pharmacologist), Paracelsians (after Paracelsus), Abels (after John Abel, the father of American pharmacology) and Ehrlich (after Paul Ehrlich, the father of chemotherapy). The group name was prominently displayed on the work table along with the names of the group members. At the beginning of the year, each group had to prepare a biographical sketch of their ‘group scientist’. These write ups were prominently displayed in the lab. We believe that this helped to create a sense of identification and belonging among the group members. They also felt pride in their group being named after a prominent scientist.

Introduction of the student participants and the facilitators was done during the inaugural session after dividing them into pairs. Each member introduced his/her partner under certain predefined headings. The introduction statements along with a photograph of all students and facilitators were grouped together according to their interests and hobbies and were displayed as a collection titled ‘Meet our gallery of experts’.

The ‘walls’
The arrangement of the laboratory (where the sessions were conducted) was also crucial. We concentrated on not having bare walls and on affixing posters, drug information sheets and other interesting and informative material. The National Prescribing Service of Australia, Health Action International and the World Health Organization (WHO) helped us with the necessary materials. The department also provided pharmaceutical (medicine) care services in the hospital and the various forms, counseling aids and promotional materials were also displayed in the laboratory.

Designing The Sessions
The team members spent considerable time thinking and discussing about what should be the key learning objectives and how these could be achieved. The member from the department of Medicine contributed a clinical perspective to the deliberations. Training sessions for facilitators were conducted by the first author who had experience of facilitating PSL sessions. Role-plays, case scenarios, problems, activities, discussions, plenary sessions, simulations and videos are used as learning modalities to make the sessions interesting and informative.

A ‘Safe’ Environment
The students had to be motivated to take greater ownership and responsibility for the learning process. An environment where they could take risks, make mistakes and not be criticized for these had to be created. We decided not to create an artificial ‘divide’ between the facilitators and the students and decided on the same seating arrangement (plastic chairs) for everyone. The group decided not to have a designated teaching area or ‘facilitator space’ towards which the students would look for answers/solutions. We had a white board at one end of the room which was also occasionally used as a projection screen and two flip boards distributed at different locations which could double up as whiteboards. There was also an alternate projection area (a blank white wall) for simulations and movies. There was a small central table with chairs for role-plays and a bench which could be used for scenarios requiring a supine patient. Two other small tables were distributed at different corners of the room for use by the facilitators.

The Group Process
Instructions on group work prepared by the facilitators were pasted on each table. Each group has to select a team leader, a recorder, a presenter and a time keeper and the roles were rotated during different sessions. For keeping the sessions on time, a big wall clock was prominently displayed in the laboratory. The students generally prepared and presented their group work using flip charts.

Topics And Lesson Plans
(Table/Fig 1) shows the topics covered during different first year Pharmacology practical sessions. The final lesson plans for each session were prepared around a week in advance. The learning objectives and the time line for various activities are finalized after discussions and deliberations. The activities, problems and the scenario were the result of intense intellectual efforts and were crucial in facilitating student learning.

Learning Material
The department had a good collection of videos and documentaries which are shown to the students. The laboratory also had a computer on which various computer-aided learning (CAL) packages were installed. Students could conduct simulated experiments on the computer, which could be hooked up to a projector for demonstrating the experiments to the entire batch. The departmental library had a collection of books and booklets related to rational prescribing. The ‘Guide to good prescribing’ and the ‘WHO ethical criteria for medicinal drug promotion’ were used as ‘textbooks’ during the sessions.

Assessment And Feedback
Formative assessment of the groups was done periodically by the facilitators using a checklist shown in (Table/Fig 2). The assessments were shared with the groups and the strengths and weaknesses discussed. The students also assessed the facilitators periodically. Session feedback was obtained periodically. The students wrote their group work on A4 sheets and after correction, put them in a ring binder. The binder contained basic information for the students about the rational use of medicines and helped them to collate and organize the material. The binder allowed greater flexibility and creativity as compared to a bound practical manual.

Involving Students
Each group by rotation provided a brief summary of the session activities at the end of the session. Student feedback was collected periodically and their suggestions were incorporated if feasible.

Preparing For Sessions
There were training sessions on small group dynamics for the facilitators before the students joined for the MBBS course. The facilitators would meet together at the end of each week’s session to analyze what went well and assess the areas which could be improved. Before the session, they also would check the preparations using a checklist. The facilitators would usually meet on Wednesdays to finalize the methodology for the next day’s session. Initially, the Thursday session would be carried out by the first author as chief facilitator, while the others acted as cofacilitators. On Fridays, one of the other authors would act as the chief facilitator and learn by doing under the guidance and support of the first author. These days, the other team members also act as facilitators. The student feedback obtained by using a written form and during informal discussions has been positive. We plan to further develop and strengthen these sessions in future.


The authors acknowledge the help of Ms. Anjali Tuladhar and Ms. Ashmita Parajuli in the general preparation for the practical sessions and of Mr. Ram B Kunwar, Department of Anatomy with the photography of the sessions. The continued support and encouragement of the management of KIST Medical College is gratefully acknowledged.


. Laing RO, Hogerzeil HV, Ross-Degnan D. Ten recommendations to improve use of medicines in developing countries. Health Policy Plan 2001; 16:13-20.
. Shankar PR. Pharmacology at the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal: new roles and new challenges. The Internet Journal of Pharmacology 2006; 4(2).

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