Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 64036

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferencesTable and Figures
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"



Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2009 | Month : December | Volume : 3 | Issue : 6 | Page : 1885 - 1890

Evaluation Of Communication Apprehension Among First Year And Final Year Pharmacy Undergraduates

KHAN T M* ,EJAZ M A**,AZMI S***

*(MSc) Clinical Pharmacy, ** M.Pharm Post graduate Student, School of Pharmaceutical sciences,Universiti Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang (Malaysia) ,Lecturer Department of Pharmacy, Island College of technology, 11000 Balik Pulau Penang(Malaysia)***D PharmAssociate Professor School of Pharmaceutical sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang(Malaysia)

Correspondence Address :
Tahir Mehmood Khan,Lecturer,Department of Pharmacy Island College of technology 11000 Balik Pulau Penang (Malaysia)
tahirmehmood@kict.edu.my
+60174676052

Abstract

The goal of the present study was to assess and compare the level of communication apprehension (CA) among pharmacy undergraduates. To accomplish this aim, a modified version of Zimbardo's scale was used. A total of 268 pharmacy students showed participation in this study. A higher participation was observed in respondents in the age group of 21-25 years. Our findings demonstrated a high level of CA among first year pharmacy students. Overall, it was seen that Chinese female students were at a high risk of CA. Race, age, gender and year of study were found to the factors associated with CA.

Keywords

Communication apprehension, pharmacy undergraduates

Introduction
One can share their thoughts and ideas in an affective way only if they have good communication skills (4). In general, communication among individuals takes place either intentionally or unintentionally in verbal or non-verbal ways (2). According to Berko et al., 1992, one spends 42% of the time of communication as a listener and 40% of the communication time is spent in speaking. However, about 15 % of the time is spent in reading and 1% is spent in writing (2).

In the current scenario, good communication skills are counted as one of the essential assets of a professional. Different professions have different communication level demands. However, for pharmacists, effective communication skills are the most vital part of their practice (1). Whilst fulfilling the job demands, pharmacists interact with different individuals like patients, their family members, medical staff and other pharmacists. In pharmacy, practice effective patient care is one of the milestones that every pharmacist wants to achieve; this is possible only if the pharmacist has good communication skills. It is observed that in some cases effective communication is hindered due to the shyness or lack of confidence of the pharmacist to communicate. In other words, Communication Apprehension (CA) on the part of the pharmacist acts as a barrier to effective communication (1). According to Baldwin et al. 1979, Communication Apprehension can be a possible factor for a pharmacist that result in avoiding patient communication or counseling and discussion forums with professional peers (1).

CA is defined as "The level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or a group of persons"(12). There are two types of CA; writing apprehension and oral CA (5). Among all types, oral CA is considered to be the most important aspect of communication and it happens due to an intense personal fear or anxiety about communicating (9),(15). In other words, oral CA is the lack of capability to communicate verbally with people, which afterwards results in an ineffective communication.

Zimbardo, 1977, has associated CA with shyness. Shyness is the lack of tendency to talk and engage in communication with others (16). According to Mc,Croskey and Richmond, (1980), shyness can result in oral CA and lack of verbal skills (7), (8),(11). This can be reduced by means of cognitive intercession to ensure better quality future professionals (11). Cognitive intercession strategies consist of systematic desensitization; cognitive restructuring and assertiveness training (15). Communication apprehension exists in every person; the level of shyness or hesitation to participate in discussion is a marker which defines the level of CA (7),(11). This study aims to evaluate the level of CA among first year and final year pharmacy undergraduates.

Material and Methods

Methodology
In August 2007, a cross sectional study was conducted among pharmacy students at University Sains Malaysia (USM). Mainly, there were four groups at USM, Malays, Chinese, Indians and other ethnic minorities. However, at the undergraduate level, there were a high percentage of Malays, Chinese and Indians.

Face to face interviews were conducted using a prevalidated Zimbardo's scale (16). Zimbardo, 1977, came up with a scale to evaluate CA among students. This scale was previously validated by McCroskey 1970; 1977 (9),[10,]. In order to make the Zimbardo's scale compliant with the Malaysian students, content validation was conducted. The Zimbardo's scale was further modified according to the local needs; the details are described under the heading of the content validation process.

Participants
This study encompassed a non-experimental method. A cluster random sampling method was used to approach the potential participants. Two clusters were defined on the basis of the types of participants; pharmacy undergraduates from the first and final years. Those willing to participate were a part of the study. Ethical approvals from the research ethics committee of University Sains Malaysia were taken for this study. Moreover, a verbal consent was also taken from the respondents in order to assure the confidentiality of the information.

Content Validation
The content validation process comprised of two phases. In phase one, preliminary content validation was done in consultation with professionals at the School of Pharmacy, USM. Twenty two items out of twenty four were considered as best to attain the objective of the study. Moreover, certain items were modified or restructured to make it compatible according to the local needs. Furthermore, in order to make the scoring more accurate, the previously used five items likert scale were reduced to three items (Agree, Undisclosed and Disagree). In order to enhance the clarity of the questions by the respondents, the questionnaire was further translated to the Malay language (Bahasa Malaysia). The translation of the questionnaire was done by experts at the School of Linguistics, USM. The translated version was rechecked by professionals at the School of Pharmacy in order to check the appropriateness of the word according to the study objectives. After the first phase , content validation of the questionnaire was subjected to phase two validation.

In phase two, a pilot survey was conducted among the twenty five students. Keeping in view the responses of the students, the reliability scale was applied and the internal consistency of the study tool was estimated on the basis of Cronbach's Alpha (α = 0.63). Furthermore, to assure the validity of the contents, factor analysis was carried out. The content validity was estimated by using Bartlett’s test of sphericity and the Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy. The results showedthat Bartlett’s test of sphericity had a significance of 0.0000 and the Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy had a significance of 0.790. According to Sheridan and Lyndall (2001), a measure of more than 0.6 reflects the adequacy of the contents of the questionnaire (14). Thus, these results showed a considerable evidence of reliability and validity of the sampling tool.

Contents Of The Questionnaire
The questionnaire comprised of two parts. One was the demographic part and the second was the part which evaluated the shyness level. The demographic part comprised of four questions i.e age, sex, race and school. However, the second part comprised of twenty two items. Of these twenty, only sixteen items were used to evaluate the level of CA among the students. Furthermore, on the basis of the responses form this section, scoring was done. The list of the items considered for scoring are illustrated in (Table/Fig 1).

Scoring Of The Responses
The responses obtained from the items mentioned in (Table/Fig 1) were used to evaluate the level of communication apprehension. These responses were scored in order to categorise the communication apprehension into further levels. The maximum possible score for the questionnaire was 32. However, the maximum score attained by the respondents was 21. Quartiles were applied to classify the communication apprehension into sub levels i.e no communication apprehension, slight communication apprehension, moderate communication apprehension and high communication apprehension. Those who scored 1-5, ranked with no communication apprehension, those who scored 6-10 ranked with moderate communication apprehension, those who scored 11-15 ranked with high communication apprehension and those who scored 16 and over ranked with the highest communication apprehension.

Ethical Approval
The research protocol was approved by the School of Pharmacy, USM. A verbal consent was taken from the respondents. Moreover, keeping in view the ethical requirements, no personal information of the respondents was obtained.

Data Analysis
For the purpose of data analysis, the Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS13.0®) was used. Parametric statistics was used. In order to compare the difference in CA among the two genders and among the first year pharmacy students and final year pharmacy students, the Student’s t- test was applied. However, in order to compare the level of CA among the ethnic groups, One way ANOVA was used. Moreover, to identify the communication among the different racial groups, Post-Hoc analysis was conduced.

Results

A total of N=268 respondents participated in the survey. A majority [186 (69.4%)] of the respondents were females. A higher participation was observed in respondents from the age group of 18-25 years. About 160 (59.7%) respondents were Chinese, followed by Malay and Indians. Details about the demographics of the respondents are mentioned in (Table/Fig 2).

Communication apprehension among pharmacy undergraduates was evaluated on the basis of the sixteen items mentioned; detailed responses are mentioned in (Table/Fig 3). Further, the scoring of the responses was done. The minimum score of the respondents was two and the maximum was 20. Those who scored 1-5 ranked with no communication apprehension, those who scored 6-10 ranked with moderate communication apprehension, those who scored 11-15 ranked with high communication apprehension and those who scored 16 and over ranked with the highest communication apprehension. Furthermore, to compare the CA among groups, evaluation was carried out in terms of gender and race. The details are described in (Table/Fig 4).

Discussion

Malaysia is a multiethnic society and pharmacy is one of the most propagating professions in Malaysia. For a pharmacist to practice, communication skills play a very vital role. Evaluation of CA among undergraduate pharmacy students is the only factor which helps the academician to put in some additional effort for eradication of the factors resulting in CA. Negligence in this regards will affect the pharmacist’s capability to conduct an affective counselling session with the patients and will act a barrier in his/her discussion with their professional peers. The findings of this study reported a higher CA among female pharmacy students. A majority (69.4%) of the respondents were females and in terms of ethnic distribution, a majority (59.7%) were found to be Chinese. About 45.5% of the respondents were from the age group of 18-20 years.

The findings of this study demonstrated that pharmacy students were not that good in their communication with their professional peers, in meetings, and in speech and group discussions (Table/Fig 3). Especially, if the evaluation was done on the basis of problems faced while delivering a speech, the majority who faced these problems were found to be first year pharmacy students. Scoring on the basis of the responses mentioned in (Table/Fig 4) revealed the significant high CA among first year pharmacy students in comparison with final year pharmacy students (<0.001, t= - 40.639) (Table/Fig 4). Further exploration on the basis of gender showed that CA was significant among females (0.001, t=-43.569) (13). Findings demonstrated that regardless of gender and the year of study, Chinese students were found to have a higher level of CA than Malays and Indians.

CA is found in almost every individual at a certain level. Not only do students face these problems, but any one who is involved in any type of social or professional communication is at risk (10). Those facing CA are not only at a risk of having a low academic profile, but also at the risk of poor self esteem and lack of social skills. Friedman, 1980 has associated CA with anxiety (17); few relate it to personality problems, while McCroskey, 1977 has associated CA with the situation. However, McCroskey, 1980 and Bond, 1984 believe that CA can be a result of the following seven items (11),(3).
• Lack of intellectual skills or low intellectual skills
• Poor speech skills
• Social shyness
• Social isolation
• Nervousness while conducting a communication
• Low social self-esteem
• Ethnic/cultural issues

In spite of all these facts, one cannot ignore the Negative Cognitive Appraisal Model (NCAM) (6). In NCAM, Glaser, 1981 stated that CA is a result of poor early language performance of the individual (6). In response to the poor language performance, an individual fears to speak and this leads to CA. Bond, 1984 has further refined this aspect of CA and has associated it with negative remarks on the poor language performance of an individual by classmates, teachers or family members (3). Such responses put an individual at a risk of high CA (3).

Possible Cause Of Communication Apprehension Among Pharmacy Students
This is one of the difficult issues to debate. What are the factors resulting in CA among pharmacy students? Either the student is the only one responsible for it, or there are some cultural or social factors contributing to this situation. There is a possibility that communication apprehension among pharmacy students is a blend of social and cultural factors. The findings of the study revealed that a majority of the students reporting a higher level of CA were Chinese. Maybe some underlying cultural issues are the possible factors behind this. However, from my teaching experience and the experience of my other professional peers at different Malaysian universities, Chinese students were found to be at a higher risk of CA than others. Overall, a lack of participation is observed among Chinese students in the question answer session in the lecture hall; however, Chinese students are observed to be more comfortable in asking the questions and discussing problems individually with the lecturer in his office or discussion room instead of asking the questions in the class. While discussing the issue of CA among pharmacy and non-pharmacy graduates, a possible reason can be the lack of participation of pharmacy students in the extracurricular activities in the campus. Students from other disciplines were found to be more involved in the games, cultural shows, and recreation in comparison with the pharmacy students. Lack of participation of the pharmacy students can be a possible factor which contributes to the high levels of CA.

Conclusion

Our findings demonstrated a high level of CA among pharmacy students. However, in general, Chinese females were found to be at a high risk of CA. Race, gender, age and year of study were found to the factors which were associated with CA.

Recommendation
There is an immediate need to focus on the communication skills of undergraduate pharmacy students. Negligence in this regards may result in lack of confidence in the future pharmacists to conduct an affective counselling session for the patients. Moreover, communication apprehension also hinders the learning process of the pharmacist, which can result in the inability to share and retrieve patient and pharmacy oriented knowledge from professionals and their colleagues. Furthermore, future studies should focus on the exploration of the factors responsible for communication apprehension among pharmacy students. In addition to this, evaluation of the academic staff’s attitude towards the students is also essential, which may be one of the main factors.

References

1.
Baldwin H J, McCroskey JC, TnuVson TJ. Communication apprehension in the pharmacy student. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 1979; 43: 91-93.
2.
Berko RM, Wolvin AD, Wolvin DR (1992) . Communicating: A social and career focus (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
3.
Bond BD. Silent incarceration. Contemporary Education, 1984; 55: 95-101.
4.
Cathcart Robert S, Samovar LA. (1998). Small group communication (5th ed.) Dubuque, IA: Brown.
5.
Elias RZ. . An examination of nontraditional accounting students' communication apprehension and ambiguity tolerance. Journal of education for business. 1999; 75(1): pp. 38-41
6.
Glaser SR. "Oral Communication Apprehension and Avoidance: The Current Status of Treatment Research." COMMUNICATION EDUCATION 1981; 30: 321-41.
7.
McCroskey JC. "Quiet Children in the Classroom: On Helping Not Hurting." COMMUNICATION EDUCATION 29 (1980): 239-44.
8.
McCroskey JC. . Validity of the PRCA as an index of oral communication apprehension. Communication Monographs, 1978; 45: 192-203.
9.
McCroskey JC. . Measures of communicative-bound anxiety. Speech Monographs. 1970; 37: 269-77.
10.
McCroskey JC . Oral communication apprehension: A summary of recent theory and research. Human communication research. 1977; 4: 78-96.
11.
McCroskey JC, Richmond V.1980 The quiet ones: Communication Apprehension and shyness. Dubeque, Iowa: Commcomp, Gorsuch Scaresbuch, I pp. 2 1).
12.
McCroskey JC. An introduction to rhetorical communication. 8th Ed., Massachusetts: Prentice Hall.Monograph, 2001; 37: 269-77.
13.
Rosna AH. (1994). Factors affecting communication apprehension among second language learners. Paper presented at the Thai TESOL 15`h annual convention: Diversity in the classroom, Bangkok, Thailand.
14.
Sheridan JC. Lyndall, G. S. (2001). SPSS analysis without anguish version 10.0 for Windows, Singapore: John Wiley and Sons Australia, Ltd.
15.
Stanga KG, Ladd RT. . Oral communication apprehension in beginning accounting majors: An exploratory study. Issues in Accounting education. 1990; 5(2): 180-94.
16.
Zimbardo P. (1977). Shyness: What it is; what to do about it. (Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, (pp. 92).
17.
Friedman PG. "Shyness and Reticence in Students." Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 1980. Stock No. 1675-0-00. ED 181 520.

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com