Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 47910

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionKey MessageReferences
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2010 | Month : June | Volume : 4 | Issue : 3 | Page : 2421 - 2426 Full Version

Prescribing Pattern For Osteoarthritis In A Tertiary Care Hospital

Published: June 1, 2010 | DOI:

*(MD), Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore; **(MD), Department of Pharmacology, JJM Medical College, Davanagere; ***(MS), Department of Orthopaedics, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore; ****(MD), Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore; *****( MS), Department of Orthopaedics, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore; ******( MS), Department of Orthopaedics, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Sheetal Dinkar Ullal, Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Light house hill Road, Mangalore. 575001. Ph:9448306242.


Background: Treatment of osteoarthritis aims at reducing pain and improving mobility. NSAIDs are widely prescribed for symptomatic relief despite well-known adverse effects. Paracetamol with its better safety profile is recommended as the initial analgesic of choice. SYSADOA is a generic term used for symptomatic slow acting drugs for osteoarthitis, and includes glucosamine sulphate and related compounds, chondroitin sulphate, and diacerein. SYSADOA when compared to NSAIDs, are safer, comparable in symptomatic efficacy and better in structure modifying efficacy in osteoarthritis. A drug utilization study is considered to be one of the most effective methods to assess and evaluate the prescribing attitude of physicians. Despite the considerable socio-economic impact of OA, not many studies have established the drug-prescribing trend in India. Hence we decided to study the prescribing pattern of SYSADOA, paracetamol and NSAIDs in OA vis-Ă -vis the standard recommendations and in the process provide constructive feedback to prescribing clinicians.
Methods: Prescriptions for osteoarthritic patients collected cross-sectionally for six months from an orthopaedic outpatient unit in a tertiary care hospital, were analysed.
Results: Out of 154 prescriptions analysed, 7% were prescribed glucosamine and chondroitin, while 4% received diacerein. Paracetamol was prescribed in 17% cases. NSAIDs were prescribed in 84%, with 27% receiving two or more NSAIDs simultaneously.
Conclusion: SYSADOA and paracetamol were under-prescribed while NSAIDs were probably over-prescribed.


: SYSADOA, glucosamine sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, diacerein, osteoarthritis

Material and Methods

Prescriptions of patients diagnosed with OA were collected from an orthopaedic outpatient unit in a tertiary care hospital, for a period of six months. Relevant data (including age, sex, duration of disease, drugs prescribed and doses) were recorded and the prescribing pattern of SYSADOA, paracetamol and NSAIDs analyzed. Drugs accounting for drug utilization 90% (DU 90%) segment were noted. DU 90% segment is the number of drugs accounting for 90% of drug use (13). This method is inexpensive, flexible and simple for assessing the quality and quantity of drug use in routine health care. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Descriptive statistical analysis was done.


One hundred and fifty four patients with the diagnosis of OA visited the orthopaedic outpatient unit during the six months in which data was collected. Prescriptions of all 154 patients were analyzed, out of which 66 (43%) were male and 88 (57%) female. (Table/Fig 1) shows the demographic characteristics of the patients. One hundred and fifty three (99%) patients were affected with osteoarthritis of the knee alone, either unilateral or bilateral. In one patient along with the knees, the right wrist was also involved. Thirty nine patients were newly diagnosed cases of OA, 115 were old cases.

(Table/Fig 2) shows the details of the drugs used. Only ten (7%) patients were prescribed glucosamine; nine received a combination of glucosamine and chondroitin while one received glucosamine alone. Six (4%) patients were prescribed diacerein.

A total of 174 NSAIDs were used. Forty two (27%) prescriptions contained more than one NSAID. Twenty four (16%) patients were not prescribed any NSAID. In 5 (3%) patients only topical NSAIDs were prescribed. In 28 (18%) patients both topical and systemic NSAIDs were prescribed simultaneously. Diclofenac, paracetamol, naproxen and aceclofenac accounted for the DU 90% segment. The most common NSAID used was diclofenac, totaling to 68 (44%). Paracetamol was prescribed in 26 (17%) cases, either alone or in combination with NSAIDs. Etoricoxib, the only COX – 2 inhibitor used, was prescribed in 10 (7%) patients. Various gastroprotective agents were used along with the oral NSAIDs in 29 (19%) patients, pantoprazole being the most preferred one.


As has been reported in the existing medical literature, (14), (15) in this study too, OA was found to be overwhelmingly more common in the knee than in other joints and was more common in females than in males. Despite the huge international hype and claims of recent increase in consumption of drugs like glucosamine in OA (16), this study found that SYSADOA (glucosamine, chondroitin and diacerein) have been used sparingly, despite these drugs being very safe and so far the only ones having both symptom modifying and structure modifying effects in OA. Many reports including the recent EULAR and OARSI recommendations have favoured their use (3), (4),[ 7], (8), (9), (10), especially in early OA. Their under-prescription probably reflects the lack of faith in the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of these drugs. Large scale randomized clinical trials are needed to clear the air regarding the benefits of using these drugs. In the meantime, SYSADOA should be welcomed if the patient can afford them, even if they only marginally delay the progression of this chronic disabling disease while safely improving the symptoms.

Paracetamol has been recommended as the oral analgesic to be used first and if effective, for long durations owing to its gastrointestinal safety. Analgesic efficacy of paracetamol has been found to be comparable to that of ibuprofen and naproxen (17), (18). NSAIDs are to be started only if the patient is unresponsive to paracetamol. However, paracetamol too was under-prescribed, with only 17% patients receiving it, and only 3% receiving it as monotherapy. This could be because the symptom-modifying efficacy of paracetamol in OA is suspect, as found in some studies (19), and as perceived by most physicians.

As against the use of SYSADOA and paracetamol, NSAIDs were prescribed in 84% of patients, with 27% patients receiving two or more NSAIDs at the same time. Simultaneous use of two or more NSAIDs, which essentially act by the same mechanism, defies logic. Inspite of the disturbing statistics of the adverse effects of oral NSAIDs and their limited disease modifying efficacy, these drugs have been found to be the most preferred. Diclofenac was the most common NSAID used (44%). Though ibuprofen has been rated as the safest conventional NSAID (20), only two prescriptions contained it. Selective COX-2 inhibitors (used in 7% patients) seem to have lost the race, probably owing to reports of associated cardiovascular risks. Topical NSAIDs were used in only 21% of patients, either alone or in combination with systemic NSAIDs. There is growing evidence that topical and oral NSAIDs have equivalent efficacy; moreover, topical NSAIDs display better gastrointestinal safety than their systemic counterparts (21). With doubts about the analgesic efficacy of paracetamol in OA, and concerns about cardiovascular effects of selective COX-2 inhibitors, topical NSAIDs should be used more often for symptomatic relief in OA. However, this study found that in patients with gastrointestinal risk, conventional NSAIDs combined with gastroprotective agents (19%), mainly proton pump inhibitors were preferred instead. Results of similar drug utilization studies in OA have been tabulated in (Table/Fig 3). Only one study (25) found the management of OA being followed was satisfactorily close to the standard guidelines.

In conclusion, this study has found that in the treatment of osteoarthritis NSAIDs, especially oral diclofenac is the most preferred drug. Paracetamol, SYSADOA and topical NSAIDs are being under-prescribed.

Key Message

• The prescribing pattern for osteoarthritis in the study setup differs from the guidelines recommended by the Osteoarthritis Research International and European League against Rheumatism.
• Gastrointestinal adverse effects of NSAIDs requiring the use of gastro-protectives can be minimized by increasing the use of paracetamol and SYSADOA


Muirden KD. Community oriented program for the control of Rheumatic diseases: Studies of rheumatic diseases in the developing world. Curr opin Rheumatol 2005; 17: 153 – 6.
Yelin E. The economics of osteoarthritis. In: Brandt KD, Doherty M, Lohmander LS editors. Osteoarthritis. Oxford, Oxford University Press 2003: 17-21.
Jordan KM, Arden NK, Doherty M, et al. EULAR Recommendations 2003: an evidence based approach to the management of knee osteoarthritis: Report of a Task Force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutic Trials (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62:1145-1155.
Zhang W, Moskowitz RW, Nuki G, et al. OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, Part II: OARSI evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008; 16(2):137-62.
Abramson SB: The role of NSAIDs in the treatment of osteoarthritis. In Osteoarthritis. Edited by: Brandt KD, Doherty M, Lohmander LS. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2003:251-258.
Wolfe MM, Lichtenstein DR, Singh G. Gastrointestinal toxicity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. New Engl J Med 1999; 340: 1888-1899.
Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulphate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet 2001; 357: 251-256.
Towheed TE, Anastassiades TP, Shea B, Houpt J, Welch V, Hochberg MC. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis (Cochrane review): In: Cochrane Library. Issue 2. In: Oxford: Update Software, 2001.
Pavelka K, Trc T, Karpas K, et al. The efficacy and safety of diacerein in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with primary end points at two months after the end of a three-month treatment period. Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56(12): 4055-64.
Toegel S, Wu SQ, Piana C, et al. Comparison between chondroprotective effects of glucosamine, curcumin, and diacerein in IL-1beta-stimulated C-28/I2 chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008; 16(10): 1205-12.
de Isla NG, Mainard D, Muller S, Stoltz JF. In vitro effects of diacerein on NO production by chondrocytes in response to proinflammatory mediators. Biomed Mater Eng. 2008; 18(1 Suppl):S99-104.
Yuen YH, Chang S, Chong CK, Lee SC, Critchlev JA, Chan JC. Drug utilization in a hospital general medical outpatient clinic with particular reference to antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs. J Clin Pharm Ther 1998; 23:287-94.
Bergman U, Popa C, Thomson Y, et al. Drug utilization 90%--a simple method for assessing the quality of drug prescribing. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1998; 54(2):113-8.
Mangat G, Balakrishnan C, Venkatachalam S, Joshi VR. Pattern of Osteoarthritis in India: a hospital based study. Journal of Indian Rheumatism Association. 1995 3(4): 125-8.
Brandt KD. Osteoarthritis. In: Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL editors. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine.16th ed. McGraw-Hill; 2005. pp. 2036–2045.
Chard J, Dieppe P. Glucosamine for osteoarthritis: magic, hype, or confusion? BMJ 2001; 322: 1439-1440
Bradley JD, Brandt KD, Katz BP, Kalasinski LA, Ryan SI. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis: relationship of clinical features of joint inflammation to the response to a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug or pure analgesic. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 1950–4.
Williams HJ, Ward JR, Egger MJ, et al. Comparison of naproxen and acetaminophen in a two-year study of treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum 1993; 36: 1196–206.
Pincus T, Koch GG, Sokka T, et al. A randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial of diclofenac plus misoprostol versus acetaminophen in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 14: 1587-98.
Henry D, Lim LLY, Rodriguez LAG, et al. Variability in risk of gastrointestinal complications with individual non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: results of a collaborative meta-analysis. British Medical Journal 1996; 312:1563-1566.
PS Tugwell, Wells GA, Shainhouse JZ, et al. Equivalence study of a topical diclofenac solution (PENNSAID) compared with oral diclofenac in the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled study. Journal of Rheumatology 2004; 31: 2002-2012.
Rosemann T, Laux G, Szecsenvi J. Osteoarthritis: quality of life, comorbidities, medication and health service utilization assessed in a large sample of primary care patients. J Orthop Surg Res 2007; 2: 12.
Bishnoi M, Kumar A, Kulkarni SK. Prescription monitoring of management pattern of osteoarthritis with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs at PUHC, Chandigarh in India. Indian J Pharm Sci 2006;68:525-7
Janhsen K, Thiem U, Engin E, Pientka L. Are clinical practice guidelines adequately considered in drug treatment of osteoarthritis patients? Results from the HERAS survey. In: 16. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft fĂĽr Arzneimittelanwendungsforschung und Arzneimittelepidemiologie. Berlin, 19.-20.11.2009.
Jawad AS, Irving K. Drug treatment modalities in patients with chronic osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. Saudi Med J 2007; 28(3): 375-8.

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)