Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 174785

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferencesTable and Figures
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2010 | Month : August | Volume : 4 | Issue : 4 | Page : 2714 - 2720

Should Mucin Histochemistry Be Routinely Done For Carcinoma Cervix

PREETI* , KALHAN S**, ALKA ***, JAIN K****, ARORA K S*****

*(M.D.Pathology),***(M.D.Pathology) ****(M.D.Pathology) Department of Pathology, Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences and Research,Bathinda,(INDIA). ** ( M.D. Pathology)Department of Pathology Army College of Medical Sciences, Delhi Cantt,(INDIA). *****Department of Physiology Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Bathinda,(INDIA).

Correspondence Address :
PREETI( M.D. Pathology)
Department of Pathology
Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Bathinda(INDIA).
E. mail:


Aim: The primary objective of our study is to find out prevalence of mucin secretion in cervical carcinoma by mucin histochemistry with special reference to squamous cell carcinoma; diagnosed by Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain and to find the relative incidence of invasive carcinoma on the basis of H&E stain versus mucin stains.
Materials & Methods:Biopsies from 223 cases of carcinoma cervix were subjected to H&E stain and mucin stains i.e. Periodic acid schiff with diastase (DPAS) and Alcian blue at pH 2.5. Interpretation of cases on the basis of H&E staining alone and on the basis of mucin stains was done and the results were compared with each other.
Results: Morphological assessment on the basis of H&E stain showed 201(90.1%) cases of squamous cell carcinoma, out of these 132(59.2%) cases were moderately differentiated and 62(27.8%) cases were poorly differentiated. On application of mucin stains 29(13.0%) cases and 2(0.9%) cases out of 201 cases of squamous cell carcinoma were re-classified as squamous carcinoma with mucin secretion and adenosquamous carcinoma respectively.
Conclusion: Mucin stains should be done routinely on moderately and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma for evidence of mucin secretion which can be missed on H&E stain. Such carcinomas are known to have a more aggressive clinical course associated with a poorer survival when compared to non-mucin secreting squamous cell carcinoma.


Mucin, cervix and carcinoma

Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is an important malignancy and accounts for 20 -25% of all the cancers in women. Approximately 80% of cervical cancer occurs in developing countries (1). Carcinoma cervix has been the important cancer in women in India over the past two decades. Based on data generated by Population Based Cancer Registries (PBCRs) under ICMR in year 2009, changing trends have been seen in the incidence of carcinoma cervix. Since over 70% of the population in India resides in the rural areas, cancer cervix still constitutes the number one cancer in the rural population (2). Squamous cell carcinoma constitutes the majority of all cervical cancers about 70% and primary adenocarcinoma make 10 -20 % (3).

Approximately 25-35% of carcinoma lacking definitive glandular structure have intracellular mucin demonstrable with the use of mucin stains (3),(8) .This lesion has been named as squamous cell carcinoma with mucin secretion or mixed carcinomas as classified by Fox system of classification (9).So, routine application of mucin stains have shown that 20 -30% of cervical carcinomas regarded as squamous cell carcinomas have to be re-classified into squamous cell carcinoma with mucin secretion or mixed adenosquamous carcinomas or adenocarcinoma (3). Such classification has prognostic significance as majority of squamous cell carcinoma cases with mucin secretion are seen in younger patients (3), (9) and it runs an aggressive clinical course and has poorer prognosis as compared to squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma (3),(4),(9),(10).

The primary objective of our study is to find out prevalence of mucin secretion in cervical carcinoma by mucin histochemistry with special reference to squamous cell carcinoma (diagnosed by H&E stain) and to find the relative incidence of invasive carcinoma on the basis of H&E stain versus mucin stains.

Material and Methods

The present study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2009 in the Department of Pathology at Adesh Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Bathinda. Two hundred and twenty three cases of carcinoma cervix were studied. The tissues were fixed by using 10% formalin and processed through alcohol and chloroform to form paraffin blocks. The tissues were sectioned at 4µm thickness and subsequently stained with H&E, DPAS and Alcian blue. Separate tissue controls were put for DPAS and Alcian blue.
The tumors were classified initially on H&E stained sections according to WHO classification (11). After mucin stain they were re-classified into Fox classification system (9). According to this, tumors with squamous growth pattern, keratin formation, intercellular bridges and no mucin positivity were classified into squamous cell carcinoma. The latter is subdivided into well, moderate and poorly differentiated. Tumors with acinar differentiation or widespread mucin secretion in atleast 75% of the tumor volume were labelled as adenocarcinoma. A Lesions exhibiting both squamous and acinar differentiation with the minor component constituting at least one third of the tumor were considered as adenosquamous carcinoma. Squamous carcinoma exhibiting smaller quantities of mucin (not more than 30% of the tumor volume) were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma with mucin secretion.

Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistical analysis like percentages; while univariate statistical method of Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the two methods. p value <0.05 was considered significant at a confidence interval of 95%


The prevalence of the different histopathological types of cervical carcinomas was studied. The tumors were initially classified based upon H&E stain. Squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 201(90.1%) cases. Of these 132(59.2%) cases were moderately differentiated and 62(27.8%) were poorly differentiated (Table/Fig 1)(Fig.1). Adenocarcinoma comprised of 12(5.4%) cases. Seven (3.1%) and 3(1.4%) cases were that of undifferentiated and adenosquamous carcinoma respectively as shown in (Table/Fig 2) .Out of 201 cases diagnosed initially as squamous cell carcinoma with H&E stain, 31(15.4%) cases showed mucin positivity. 16 (12.1%) out of 132 cases of moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and 15 (24.1%) cases of poorly differentiated carcinoma showed mucin positivity (Table/Fig 3),(Table/Fig 4). No case of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma showed evidence of mucin. All cases of adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma were mucin positive as shown in (Table/Fig 5) .The relative incidence of the different histopathological types of cervical carcinoma with H&E stain versus mucin stains (Fox classification). This shows that the number of squamous cell carcinoma decreased from 201 (90.1%) to 170 (76.2%). Out of 31 cases 29 (13.0%) cases were re-classified as squamous cell carcinoma with mucin secretion and two cases were reclassified as adenosquamous carcinoma as shown in (Table/Fig 6).


Worldwide, cervical cancer is the fifth most deadly cancer in women (12).It affects about 16 per 100,000 women per year (13). In developed countries like United States endometrial carcinoma has taken over due to extensive and successful screening by Pap smear (14). Classification of invasive carcinoma given by Buckely and Fox is most widely accepted (15). Benda et al. (4) were the first to demonstrate the importance of mucin secretion in cervical cancer which was confirmed later on (1), (9), (10). Broadly cervical cancer is categorized into squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and mixed carcinoma ,however lesion diagnosed as moderately or poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas on H&E stain may turn out to be squamous cell carcinoma with mucin secretion, adenosquamous carcinoma or adenocarcinoma after staining with mucin stains depending upon the amount of mucin present. This emphasizes the importance of mucin stain as a routine for diagnosis of cervical carcinoma. A similar variation in tumor is seen in other anatomical sites with epithelial junction, such as anal canal and gastroesophageal junction. Poorly differentiated neoplasms render more complexity by the fact that a single tumor can exhibit features suggesting an origin from multiple cell types. Mucin stain is integral for correct classification of the tumors (17).

In our study assessment of cervical cancer was done on H&E stain alone and then on both H&E and mucin stains. The results showed that majority of cases were that of squamous cell carcinoma i.e. 201(90.1%) out of 223 cases on H&E stain. After application of mucin stains the number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma was reduced to 170(76.2%). Buckley et al. (9) observed that number of squamous cell carcinoma changed from 187(76.0%) to 152(61.7%) and Misra et al. (7) found that the number of squamous cell carcinoma decreased to75 (76.5%) from 90(91.8%) after applying mucin stains. Squamous cell carcinomas with mucin secretion was the second in list, cases accounting to 29(13%). Misra et al. (7) reported 12 (12.3%) cases of squamous cell carcinoma with mucin secretion out of 98 cases originally reported as squamous cell carcinoma. Other authors have reported cases of squamous cell carcinoma with mucin secretion to be 20%, 7.8% and 8.5% respectively (5), (9), (18). In the present study mucin secretion was mostly seen in poorly and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, which is in accordance with other studies (7), (8). None of the well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas showed mucin positivity. Other studies have also reported a similar observation (4), (9), (18), (20).

In the present study we have been able to identify squamous cell carcinoma with mucin secretion from the subgroup of moderately and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. Identification of squamous cell carcinoma with mucin secretion should be considered separately from pure squamous cell carcinoma and pure adenocarcinoma because such neoplasms runs an aggressive clinical course and is associated with worse prognosis as compared to their squamous and adeno counterparts (4), (9), (10). Furthermore these tumors occur with increased frequency in women aged less than 40 years and account for poor prognosis in young patients who present with rapidly metastasizing tumors (4),(9).

The survival in mixed tumors was significantly worse than with squamous cell cancers (P= 0.006), 5-year survival rates being 52% and 75% respectively (10). Poorer prognosis of mixed carcinomas is because of high incidence of myometrial invasion, pelvic node metastasis and vascular invasion by tumor (9), (10].


The application of mucin stains should be done routinely on moderately and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas to detect cases of carcinoma with evidence of mucin secretion which can be missed on routine haematoxylin and eosin stain.
Tumors so identified are likely to have a more aggressive clinical course associated with poorer survival when compared to non-mucin-producing squamous carcinomas. This is a cost effective investigation with a great bearing on the ultimate treatment and prognosis of the patient.


Kent A. “HPV vaccination and Testing”. Reviews in obstetrics and gynecology 2010; 3(1): 33-34.
Nandakumar A, Ramnath T, Chaturvedi M. The magnitude of cancer in India. Ind J Med Res 2009; 130: 219-221.
Ireland D, Cole S, Kelly P, Monaghan JM. Mucin production in cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and in stage 1b carcinoma of the cervix with pelvic lymph node metastasis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1987; 94 :467-472.
Benda JA, Platz CE, Buchsbaum H, Lifshitz S. Mucin production in defining mixed carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a clinicopathologic study. Int J Gynaecol Pathol 1985; 4:314-327.
Colgan TJ, Auger M, McLaughin JR. Histopathological classification of cervical carcinoma and recognition of mucin secreting squamous carcinoma. Int J Gynaecol Pathol 1993; 12:64-69
Dilek FH, Kucukali T. Mucin production in carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Eur J obstet Gynaecol Reprod Biol 1998; 79:149-151.
Misra V, Gupta SC, Goel A, Singh PA. Reclassification of carcinoma cervix uteri by mucin histochemistry. Ind J Pathol Microbiol 1997; 40:463-468.
8.Mathur SK, Marwaha N, Arora R,et al. Significance of mucin secretion in carcinoma of uterine cervix. Ind J Pathol Microbiol 2002; 45:261-264.
Buckley CH, Beards CS, Fox H. Pathologic prognostic indicators in cervical cancer with particular reference to patients under the age of 40 years. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1988; 95:47-56.
Bethwaite P, Yeong ML, Holloway L et al. The prognosis of adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1992; 99:745-750.
Poulsen HE, Taylor CW, Sobin LH. Histopathological typing of female genital tract tumors.International histological classification of tumours, no.13, Geneva, Switzerland World Health Organization 1975.
World Health Organization (February 2006). “Fact sheet No.297: Cancer”. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
“GLOBOCAN 2002 database: Summary table by cancer”. Retrieved 2008-10-26.
Canavan TP, Doshi NR (2000). “Cervical cancer”. Am Fam Physician 61(5); 1369-1376. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
Buckley CH, Fox H. Carcinoma of cervix, In: Recent advances in Histopathology. Number Fourteen,Churchill Livingstone 1989;63-76.
Shorrock K, Johnson J, Johnson IR. Epidemiological changes in cervical carcinoma with particular reference to mucin secreting subtypes. Histopathology 1990; 17:53-57.
Balachandra B, Marcus V, Jass JR. Poorly differentiated tumors of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist. Histopathology 2007; 50:163-174.
Sikka M, Agarwal S. Significance of mucin stain in uterine cervical cancer . Ind J Med Res 1991; 94:375-377.
Samantaray S, Mohanty RM, Satpathy B. IAPM Abstract Book 1993; P 65.
Yajima A,Fukuda M,Nada K. Histopathological findings concerning the morphogenesis of mixed carcinoma of the uterine cervix.Gynaecol Oncol 1984;18:157-64.

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)