Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
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Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
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Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
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Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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On Aug 2018




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Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
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An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
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Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2010 | Month : August | Volume : 4 | Issue : 4 | Page : 2733 - 2736

A Pilot Study Of The Normal Measurements Of The Liver And Spleen By Ultrasonography In The Rajasthani Population

MITTAL R*, CHOWDHARY DS**

*Department of Anatomy, J.N.Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University, Wardha (MH).(INDIA) **Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi of Medical College and Hospital (MGMCH), Jaipur (Raj.).(INDIA)

Correspondence Address :
Rashee Mittal
Department of Anatomy,
J.N.Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University, Wardha-442001 (MH), (India).
Tele:+919764853564
E-mail: grasheemittal@yahoo.com

Abstract

Aim :To determine the normal standards of liver and spleen by ultrasonography in the Rajasthani population.
Materials And Methods :Two hundred subjects (100 males and 100 females) from Rajasthan were evaluated. The dimensions of the organs were measured 3 times and the mean values were recorded. The subjects were divided into 5 groups according to their ages (11-70 yrs.).
Results :The average longitudinal diameter of the right lobe of the liver was 12.99±0.76 cm (males) and 12.66±1.07 cm (females) and of the left lobe was 9.28±0.81 cm (males) and 9.17±1.03 cm (females). The average length of the spleen was 9.40±0.91 cm (males) and 9.34±0.95 cm (females). The average width of the spleen in males as well as in females was 3.45±0.59 cm.
Conclusion: The normal values of the dimensions of the liver and spleen are important parameters during a sonographical examination. This study provides valuable data from the Rajasthani population. So, this study will be of importance in the daily practice in radiology clinics.

Keywords

dimensions; liver; spleen; sonography.

How to cite this article :

MITTAL R, CHOWDHARY DS. A PILOT STUDY OF THE NORMAL MEASUREMENTS OF THE LIVER AND SPLEEN BY ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN THE RAJASTHANI POPULATION. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2010 August [cited: 2019 Oct 21 ]; 4:2733-2736. Available from
http://jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2010&month=August&volume=4&issue=4&page=2733-2736&id=828

Introduction
The variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, races and regions are an established fact. The climate of the zone and the socio-economic status of Rajasthan make the population of this region special. There is no comprehensive anthropometric study on the normal measurements of liver and spleen by ultrasonography in Rajasthan and therefore, it was thought pertinent to undertake the present study to evaluate the normal measurements of liver and spleen in the population of Rajasthan. Ultrasonography is the method of first choice for the rational work-up of abdominal pathologies (1). Liver and spleen size vary widely according to age. Many diseases can affect their size, ranging from infective processes to malignant disorders [2, 3]. Palpation and percussion are the standard bedside techniques to document liver and spleen size, but are far from accurate to detect the small increase in size (2), (3). The spleen has to be enlarged to two to three times its normal size to be clinically palpable (4). The clinical assessment of hepatomegaly by palpation and percussion has also been shown to lack both accuracy and reliability (3). Radiography and radionuclide studies expose the patient to gamma radiation (3),(4),(5),(6). Sonography is routinely used to determine the internal structures of the body because the examination is real time, three-dimensional and independent of organ function. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, established, safe, quick and accurate method for the measurement of liver and spleen size (6). It allows a doctor to see inside a patient without resorting to surgery.

Material and Methods

This study was conducted in Jodhpur city (Rajasthan) on persons between the age groups of 11 and 70 years. A total of 200 subjects (males: females- 1:1) were examined. Only healthy subjects were included in this study. It was ensured by detailed history, examination and medical record review (if available), that these subjects did not have any pre-existing suspected inflammatory, metabolic, traumatic, collagen or haematopoietic diseases and malignancies that could affect liver and spleen size. Informed written consent was obtained from all the subjects.

The sonographical examinations were performed with a high-resolution real-time scanner (Toshiba, just vision 400), with a 3.7 MHz convex curved array transducer. The measurements of the dimensions of the organs were made in the supine position and during deep inspiration. Longitudinal scans of the liver were obtained in the midclavicular and midline position, while measuring the normal diameters of the right and left lobe respectively. On a longitudinal coronal image, the maximal splenic length and width (transverse diameter) was also measured. Both organs were measured three times and the mean value was recorded. All measured organs had normal position, shape, and echo texture. All the measurements were classified into 5 groups according to age, i.e., 11-20 yrs. (group1), 21-30 yrs. (group 2), 31-40 yrs. (group 3), 41-50 yrs. (group 4), and 51-70 yrs. (group 5).

Results

The average longitudinal diameter of the right and left lobe of the liver was calculated, along with standard deviation for each age group (in males as well as in females). This is shown in (Table/Fig 1) and (Table/Fig 2) respectively. The average length and width of the spleen was calculated along with standard deviation for each age group (in males as well as in females). This is shown in (Table/Fig 3) and (Table/Fig 4) respectively

Discussion

Diagnostic imaging techniques are superior to clinical examination in determining the size of organs (7),(8). Sonography is one of the most common imaging methods which are used in routine practice (9). There have been quite a few previous reports giving the standard sizes of liver and spleen by ultrasound, but none has been done in the Indian population (10). In contrast to previous studies which were mainly done on the foreign population, our data was obtained from a large age group (11-70 yrs.) of healthy subjects of the Indian (Rajasthani) population. Liver and spleen size may give information about the diagnosis and the course of gastrointestinal and haematological diseases. Thus, the determination of normal organ size can be significant. In addition to size, there are several palpatory characteristics of the liver and spleen (tenderness, liver edge, nodularity and consistency of the surface, etc.) that contribute significantly to the overall bedside assessment of the organomegaly. Thus, clinical liver span remains a simple practical measurement of liver size, while also providing additional supplemental information which is the most applicable in developing countries. The bedside assessment of liver and splenic enlargement will not obviate diagnostic imaging when such information is vital to further the therapeutic management of the patient.

Both palpating and percussing the abdomen may detect splenomegaly. These techniques appear to be complementary, as each may fail to detect splenic enlargement. Computed tomography, although useful in evaluating splenic size and structure, exposes the patients to ionizing radiation and sometimes contrast agents and is expensive. Ultrasonographical imaging is a noninvasive method which is well suited for the detection of splenic enlargement (11).

By the present study, we found that the average longitudinal diameter of the right lobe of the liver was 12.99±0.76 cm for males and for females, it was12.66±1.07 cm. In adults, the diameter was11.84±1.03cm, while in elderly subjects, the diameter was13.06±0.65cm. In a previous study done by Kratzer et al (12), the average diameter of right lobe of the liver of males was found to be 14.5 ± 1.6 cm and it was 13.5 ± 1.7 cm for females. The average diameter in males was significantly higher than in females. In adults, the diameter was 13.6 ± 1.5 cm, while in elderly subjects the diameter was 14.1 ± 2.0 cm. The diameter obtained by Kratzer et al in their studies was comparatively higher than that obtained by our study. However, if we compare our data of the right lobe of liver for adults with a previous study done by Konus et al (13); the data is almost similar to the present study. Our data for the right lobe of liver was even similar to the study done by Niederau et al (14).

In our study, we found that the average longitudinal diameter of the left lobe of the liver was 9.28±0.81 cm for males and it was 9.17±1.03 cm for females. In adults, the diameter was 8.65±0.81cm, while in elderly subjects, the diameter was 9.75±0.61cm. The present data was similar to the study done by Konus et al (13), but the data was not similar to the study done by Niederau et al (14). They reported the diameter of the left lobe to be 8.3±1.7 cm, which is lower in comparison to that obtained by our study.

In the present study, the average length of the spleen was 9.40±0.91 cm in males and 9.34±0.95 cm in females. In adults, the length was 8.69±0.93cm, while in older subjects, the length was 9.64±0.64cm. Comparatively, in a previous study done by Spielmann et al (15), the average length of the spleen was found to be 11.4 ± 1.7 cm in males and 10.3 ± 1.3 cm in females, which was higher than that found in our study. The length of the spleen obtained by Konus et al (13) was slightly higher than that found in our study. Even the value of the length of the spleen obtained by Hosey et al (16) in collegiate athletes was relatively higher than that found in our study. But the average length of the spleen obtained by Niederau et al (14) was similar to that found in our present study.

In our study, the average width of the spleen in males as well as in females was 3.45±0.59cm. In adults, the width was 3.59±0.55cm, while in older subjects, the width was 3.38±0.38cm. The average width of the spleen obtained by Spielmann et al (15) was 5.0 ± 0.8 cm in males and 4.2 ± 0.7 cm in females and both these values were comparatively higher than that found in our study. The value of the width of the spleen obtained by Hosey et al (16) was relatively higher than that found in our study. Even the values obtained by Niederau et al (14) were comparatively higher than that found in our study.

A single radiologist performing the ultrasonograhy removed the inter-observer bias. To the best of our knowledge, our study aimed to investigate the normal limits of liver and spleen is one of the few studies, which provides data from the Rajasthani population. But, there are a few limitations to this study, as our study population number was very less. The data obtained by us is not similar to that of the previous studies which were basically from the foreign population. So, a larger study is required, which might improve the precision of our estimates. We hope that this study contributes to the daily practice in radiology clinics.

References

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Krestin GP, Brennan RP. Ultrasound diagnosis of the abdomen. Ther Umsch.1992; 49(6):395-404.
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Zhang B, Lewis SM. A study of the reliability of clinical palpation of the spleen. Clin Lab Haematol 1989; 11:7-10.
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Joshi R, Singh A, Jajoo N, Pai M, Kalantri SP. Accuracy and reliability of palpation and percussion for detecting hepatomegaly: a rural hospital based study. Indian J Gastroenterol 2004; 23: 171-74.
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French J, Camitta BM. Splenomegaly. In: Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB (ed). Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 17th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders; 2004. p.1675.
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Mimouni F, Merlob P, Ashkenazi S, Litmanovitz I, Reisner SH. Palpable spleens in newborn term infants. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1985; 24: 197-98..
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Sapira JD, Williamson DL. How big is the normal liver? Arch Intern Med 1979; 139:971–73.
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Zoli M, Magalotti D, Grimaldi M, Gueli C, Marchesini G, Pisi E. Physical examination of the liver: is it still worth it? Am J Gastroenterol 1995; 90:1428–32.
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Alp Alper Safak, Enver Simsek, Talat Bahcebasi. Sonographic assessment of the normal limits and percentile curves of liver, spleen, and kidney dimensions in healthy school-aged children. J Ultrasound Med.2005; 24:1359-64.
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Bhavna dhingra, Suvasini sharma, Devendra mishra, Reema kumari, Ravindra mohan pandey, Shailendra aggarwal. Normal Values of Liver and Spleen Size by Ultrasonography in Indian Children. Indian pediatrics 2009; 03:1-6.
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Yang JC, Rickman LS, Bosser SK. The clinical diagnosis of splenomegaly. West J Med 1991; 155:47-52.
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Kratzer W, Fritz V, Mason RA, Haenle MM, Kaechele V. Roemerstein study graoup: factors affecting liver size: A sonographic survey of 2080 subjects. J.Ultrasound Med.2003; 22(11):1155-61.
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Konus OL, Ozdemir A, Akkaya A, Erbas G, Celik H, Isik S. Normal liver, spleen and kidney dimensions in neonates, infants and children: evaluation with sonography. Am J Roentgenol 1998; 171:1693-1698.
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Claus Niederau, Amnon Sonnenberg, Jurgen E, Muller, Theo Scholten, Wolf P. Sonographic measurement of normal liver, spleen, pancreas and portal vein. Radiology1983; 149:537-40.
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Audrey L. Spielmann, David M. DeLong, Mark A. Kliewer. Sonographic evaluation of spleen size in tall healthy athletes. AJR 2005; 184:45–49.
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R G Hosey, C G Mattacola, V Kriss, T Armsey, J D Quarles, J Jagger. Ultrasound assessment of spleen size in collegiate athletes. Br J Sports Med 2006; 40:251–54.

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