Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
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Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



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Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
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I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
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Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




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Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2010 | Month : August | Volume : 4 | Issue : 4 | Page : 2758 - 2762

Effect Of Radiofrequency Radiations Emitted From Mobile Phones On Plasma Oxidants And Antioxidants In Mobile Phone Users

AWANTI SM, INGIN JB, JEEVANGI SR, PATIL RB, PATIL GA, AWANTI BS

Department of Biochemistry, M.R Medical college, Gulbarga,Karnataka, INDIA

Correspondence Address :
Dr Sharanabasappa.M. Awanti, Associate Professor,Department of Biochemistry,
M.R Medical college, Gulbarga,Karnataka, INDIA.
Telephone: 0091-9844030529 (mobile).
Email: drawanti73@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

Introduction: Wide spread concerns have been raised about the possibility that exposure to the radiofrequency (RF) radiations emitted from mobile phones could affect people’s health. The radiofrequency radiations emitted from mobile phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals which mainly enhance lipid peroxidation and by changing the antioxidant activities in human blood, thus leading to oxidative stress. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of the exposure to the radiofrequency radiations emitted from mobile phones on the plasma parameters of oxidants and antioxidants in 50 volunteers using mobile phones. The plasma obtained, was used for the estimation of lipid hydroperoxide, total thiols and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). There was a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxide (p<0.05) and a significant decrease in FRAP (p<0.05) and total thiols (p<0.05). FRAP correlated negatively with lipid hydroperoxide and positively with thiols. This decrease in antioxidants like FRAP and total thiols and an increase in oxidants like lipid hydroperoxide prove the existence of oxidative stress in mobile phone users.

Keywords

: FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma), Total thiols, Lipid hydroperoxide, Oxidative stress, Antioxidants.

How to cite this article :

AWANTI SM, INGIN JB, JEEVANGI SR, PATIL RB, PATIL GA, AWANTI BS. EFFECT OF RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATIONS EMITTED FROM MOBILE PHONES ON PLASMA OXIDANTS AND ANTIOXIDANTS IN MOBILE PHONE USERS. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2010 August [cited: 2019 Oct 23 ]; 4:2758-2762. Available from
http://jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2010&month=August&volume=4&issue=4&page=2758-2762&id=841

Introduction
There has been considerable public, scientific and media interest in the possible adverse effects which are associated with radiofrequency radiations emitted from these mobile phones on human health. The mobile phone combines the technology of the wireless communication with that of the telephone and specific frequencies called as microwave radiations as emitted by mobile phones. A mobile phone is a low power single channel two way radio and emits signals via radio waves, which comprise of radiofrequency energy, a form of electromagnetic radiation. Mobile phone systems operate within the radio frequency section (30 KHz – 300GHz) of the electromagnetic spectrum. The analogue phones operate between 450MHz – 900MHz and the digital phones operate between 900 MHz- 1800MHz. The specific frequencies used by cell phones are called as microwaves. The electromagnetic fields with frequencies in the microwave range do not have sufficient energy to induce DNA damage directly. However, exposure to a microwave field can cause an increase in the temperature, thus resulting in “thermal” effects. For this reason, the current recommendations related to the exposure to radiofrequency radiations are based on the lowest exposure, which is known to result in observable effects due to heating (1) .

Recent reports have suggested that exposure to RF radiations is capable of altering protein levels which are indicative of the induction of cellular stress responses (2),(3) . Oxidative stress is a well characterized phenomenon that is inducible by a variety of agents, including heat (4) .Thus, the evaluation of oxidative stress allows the evaluation of both the thermal and the non thermal actions of RF radiations. Further, oxidative stress is known to arise through the production of oxygen radicals. It has been hypothesized that electromagnetic fields can alter the kinetics of enzyme-mediated reactions by a mechanism which is consistent of a radical pair mechanism (3),(6),(7). Such effects could conceivably change oxidative stress because the cellular response to oxidative stress involves in part, enzymatic cascades that process oxidative free radicals. Thus, the goal of the present study was to determine whether RF radiations emitted by mobile phones are capable of altering parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidants.

Material and Methods

Subjects and methods
The study was conducted on 50 volunteers who were using mobile phones for a period of 2-4 years and 25 age matched volunteers who never used mobile phones formed the control group. Informed consent was taken from all the subjects and it was approved by the institutional review board. The investigation confirms to the ethical guidelines for biomedical research on human subjects.
Under aseptic conditions, blood samples (5ml) were drawn into heparinized vacutainers. The blood was centrifuged at 2000g for 15 minutes at 4oC for the clear separation of plasma and all assays were performed immediately.
All chemicals were purchased from Sigma Chemicals Co (St.Louis, MO, USA). Total thiols in plasma were measured by a spectrophotomteric method by using 5’ 5’ dithio-bis (2- nitrobenzoic acid) DTNB (8) ; 900µl of 0.2 M Na2HPO4 containing 2Mm of Na2EDTA, 100 µl of Serum and 20 µl of 10Mm DTNB in 0.2 M Na2HPO4, which were taken in an eppendorf tube and warmed to 37oC. The solution was mixed in a vortex mixer and was transferred to a cuvette. The absorbance was measured at the end of 5minutes at 412nm by using a Genesys 10 UV spectrophotometer. Appropriate samples and reagent blanks were prepared and corrected absorbance values [absorbance of T-(absorbance of standard blank + absorbance of reagent blank] were used to calculate the concentrations of the thiols by using a calibration curve. The values were expressed in µmoles/L for plasma thiols.
The lipid hydroperoxide content of plasma was determined by using the Fox version II assay for lipid hydroperoxides (Fox2) (9) . The Fox2 reagent was prepared by dissolving ammonium ferrous sulphate (9.8mg) in 10 ml of 250mmoles/L of H2SO4 to give a final concentration of 250µmoles/L of ferrous ion in acid. This solution was then added to 90ml of HPLC grade methanol containing 79.2mg of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). Finally, 7.6 mg of xylenol orange was added with stirring, to make the final working reagent (250 µmol/L of ammonium ferrous sulphate, 100 µmol/L of xylenol orange, 25mmol/L of H2SO4 and 4mmol/L of BHT in 90% vol/vol methanol in a final volume of 100ml). The working reagent was routinely calibrated against solutions of H2O2 of known concentrations.
Aliquots (90µl) of serum were transferred to two test tubes. Triphenylphosphine (TPP) in methanol (10 µl of 10mmol/L) was added to one to remove hydroperoxides. Methanol (10 µl) was added to the other test tube. This generated the blank and the test samples respectively. The aliquots were then vortex mixed and incubated at room temp for 30 minutes before the addition of 900 µl of FOX2 reagent, with mixing. After incubation at room temperature for a further 30 min, the vials were centrifuged at 2000g for 10 minutes. The absorbance of the supernatant was then determined at 560nm. The hydroperoxide content in the serum sample was determined as a function of the mean absorbance difference of the samples with and without the elimination of the hydroperoxides by TPP. The concentration of hydroperoxides was calculated by using the extinction coefficient 4.5×10-4M-1 CM-1 and the results were reported as micromoles per liter (µmol/L).
The FRAP assay was done according to Benzie and Strain (10) , with some modifications. The stock solution included 300Mm of acetate buffer (3.1g C2H3NaO2.3H2O and 16 ml C2H4O2), pH 3.6, 10mM of TPTZ (2,4,6 tripyridyl-3-triazine) solution in 40mM HCL and 20Mm of Fecl2.6H2O solution. A fresh working FRAP solution was prepared by mixing acetate buffer, TPTZ and Fecl2 in a 10:1:1 ratio. 50 µl of plasma was made to react with the working FRAP solution. The solution was mixed in a vortex mixer, it was transferred to a cuvette and the absorbance was measured at the end of 6 minutes at 593nm by using a Genesys 10 UV spectrophotometer. The standard curve was linear between 25-80 µM.

Statistical analysis
All the values were expressed as mean ± SEM. A p value less than 0.05 wasconsidered as significant. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS ( Statistical Package for Social Sciences, SPSS-10, Chicago, USA). An independent sample t test was used to compare the mean values. Pearson’s correlation was used to correlate between the parameters.

Results

There was a significant increase in plasma lipid hydroperoxide levels (p<0.05) and a significant decrease in FRAP (p<0.05) and total thiols (p<0.05) in volunteers using mobile phones as compared to the non-users. Total thiols correlated negatively with lipid hydroperoxide (r =-0.282, p<0.01) and positively with FRAP (r =0.331, p<0.01).

Discussion

Free radicals are a very reactive and unstable molecular species that can initiate chain reactions to form new free radicals. Although formed by means of a wide range of normal biochemical processes, they are potentially damaging. Several mechanisms are in place to neutralize their effects; which include a defence system of nutritional and indigenous antioxidants that generally hold the production of free radicals and prevent oxidative stress and subsequent tissue damage (11) . The balance between the oxidants and the antioxidants may be disturbed by an increase in free radical production or by a reduction in the antioxidants (12) .This imbalance between the oxidants and antioxidants can lead to oxidative stress in a series of peculiar and potentially damaging reactions (12) which are particularly susceptible to oxidative damage by free radicals like the polyunsaturated fatty acids and the acyl chain of phospholipids, which lead to lipid peroxidation. Uncontrolled lipid peroxidation is a toxic process, resulting in the deterioration of biological membranes (13) . Lipid peroxidation products eg; malondialdehye has been taken as a biomarker to oxidative stress in biological systems, which is relatively non-specific in biological samples like plasma (14) . Therefore, we have estimated lipid hydroperoxide along with antioxidants like thiols and FRAP. Radiofrequeny waves are a very important part of the electromagnetic spectrum, with respect to their applications and possible health consequences. Epidemiological studies still remain inconclusive with regard to the health effects of prolonged exposure to electromagnetic fields (15),(16),(17),(18),(19),(20). Wireless communications, especially mobile phones, are rapidly gaining popularity, while only little is known about the effects of the radiofrequency fields of these phones on human health. The present study showed that decrease in FRAP and thiols and increase in oxidants like lipid hydroperoxide indicated increased oxidative stress in this population. The negative correlation of FRAP and total thiols with lipid hydroperoxide depicts the increased consumption of antioxidants in such an oxidative environment.
In conclusion, our study shows that decrease in antioxidants like FRAP and total thiols and increase in oxidants like lipid hydroperoxide prove the existence of the oxidative stress in mobile phone users. Whenever the balance of antioxidants is outweighed by prooxidant factors, as shown by the radiofrequency of mobile phones, oxidative stress may develop in cells. Therefore, these results support the theory of the interaction of the radiofrquency fields of mobile phones with biological systems, thus resulting in oxidative stress.
Note: This work has been presented in the International conference “Free Radical and Natural Products in health” and the 7th Annual meeting of SFRR-INDIA 2008.
I acknowledge that this particular work has not been published elsewhere.

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