Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 15191

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionAcknowledgementReferences
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"

Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2010 | Month : August | Volume : 4 | Issue : 4 | Page : 2869 - 2874

A study of Psychological stress in undergraduate Medical students at S N Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka


Dept. of Community Medicine, S.Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot -587102, Karnataka

Correspondence Address :
Dr. A. S. Dorle, Associate Professor
contact number : 09448408244


Background: Medical students are known to be the victims of tremendous mental stress. In recent years, mental stress has been on the rise and this may affect their learning and academic performances. They face tremendous competition and fear of failure. Very few studies on this subject have been reported by Indian researchers.
Objectives: To study the levels of psychological stress and its relationship with personal/ curricular variables in undergraduate medical students.
Materials and Methods: Setting: Descriptive cross sectional study in undergraduate medical students.
Sample size: 251 students
Scores used in the study: The scores have been given on the basis of the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale [PSLES].
Statistical test used: Chi-square test
Results: 42.63% of the study subjects had experienced less/moderate stress and 47.01% of them had experienced severe stress. 78.26% of the smokers and 68.97% of the alcoholics had severe stress. The statistical association between the history of alcohol intake, smoking and the PSLES results was found to be significant. The stress was found to be more among repeaters and the association between them was statistically significant.
Conclusion: The students with psychological stress were found to be involved in habits like tobacco chewing and smoking, as well as alcohol intake. The repeater students had significantly higher stress as compared to their regular batch counterparts.


Psychological stress, Medical students, and Personal/Curricular variables.

Stress is a term in Psychology and Biology, which in the more recent decades, has become a common place of popular parlance. It refers to the consequence of the failure of an organism-human or animal to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats, whether are either actual or imagined (1). The term ‘stress’ was first employed in the 1930’s by the endocrinologist Hans Selye (2).
Psychological stress is common among medical students and it is associated with depression (3). Students are subjected to different kind of stresses, such as pressure of academics with an obligation to succeed and an uncertain future. The students also face social, emotional, physical and family problems which may affect their learning ability and academic performances (4),(5).Too much stress can cause physical and mental health problems, it reduces the students’ self esteem and it may affect the student’s academic achievements (6),(7). Studies have classified stress into three areas: academic pressure, social issues and financial problems(8). The students of S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot hailed from different parts of the country. The students came from diverse cultural, socio-economic and educational backgrounds. They were exposed to new learning environments. This may have caused the stress. The studies on psychological stress, its sources and severity are less among medical students. This study helps us in designing appropriate intervention strategies to enhance the students’ learning abilities. Hence, this study was undertaken with the following objectives.
1. To study the levels of psychological stress in undergraduate medical students.
2. To study the relationship between personal/ curricular variables and psychological stress, including substance abuse.

Material and Methods

Setting: This descriptive cross sectional study was designed and performed on all the currently enrolled and studying undergraduate medical students of S.Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot.
Study Period: The time taken for the study was one year, that is, from September 2008 to August 2009.
Sampling technique and Sample size: As all the students from the first year to the final year students were included and hence, no specific sampling technique was required. The total student strength was 300. In the case of the students who were absent at the time of the first session, mop up rounds were undertaken to cover the remaining subjects. (Still, few students remained untraceable after 3 rounds and incomplete and irrelevant answer forms were excluded from the study n=49). Hence, the sample size was 251 Students.
Data collection: The data for the present study was obtained through a specially designed Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) schedule which contained a set of questions which were related to
1) Socio-demographic profiles
2) Psychological stress and
3) Unhealthy habits
Pre-tested, self administered and anonymous questionnaires were provided to the individual students of each academic year. The subjects were clearly told about the aims and objectives of the study. They were requested to fill the proforma with full assurance about the confidentiality and anonymity of their information. The subjects were assured that the data would be used only for scientific purpose of the study.
Scores used in the study (9)
Psychological stress score:
This score has been given on the basis of the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale [PSLES].
The standardized and statistically tested PSLES Scale was designed by Indian scientist Gurmeetsigh. In this scale, 51 different variables (life events) were found to be experienced by the normal Indian population in the past one year. For each life event, amean stress score was given. The detailed account of the PSLES scale was mentioned in the appendix seperately. All the students were asked to tick the life events which were applicable to them (Yes/No). The total score was obtained for each student by adding all the applicable life events scores. Accordingly they were categorised into no stress, less/moderate stress and severe stress.

Score Stress

Upto 40 No stress
41-200 Less/moderate stress
More than Severe stress

Statistical test used: The Chi-square test ( to find out the association between the selected variables and psychological stress), Mean and Standard Deviation.


The mean age of the study subjects was 19.94 years, with a standard deviation of 1.29 years and a range of 17-23 years. 54.98% of the subjects were males. Most of the study subjects were Hindus (90.84%). 89.64% of the subjects had an urban background with a nuclear type of family (79.28%). A majority of the subjects (86.06%) belonged to the upper socio-economic class. Most of the students (86.06%) belonged to regular batches. 86.45% of the students were staying at hostels. The dietary pattern of the study subjects was mainly the mixed type (62.95%). 71.71% of the students were performing physical exercises. 9.16% and 11.55% of the students had a habit of smoking and alcohol intake, respectively.


In our study, 42.63% of the study subjects were found to have experienced less/moderate stress and 47.01% of them had experienced severe stress. A total of 89.64% of the study subjects had experienced stress. A similar observation was made in a study from the Agha Khan University Pakistan, wherein 90% of the students felt stress at one time or the other during the course (10). A similar study by Supe AN from India, reported that 73% of the students had perceived stress at one time or the other during their medical school course (11). Saipanish R in his study reported that 61.4% of the students in a Thai medical school had experienced some degrees of stress, as measured by the Thai stress test (12). Cesar A Aristeignieta (1998) noted that the prevalence of mental illness among medical students, including substance abuse, was more than that found in the general population (13). Amr etal, in their study during 2008, found that the mean age of the subjects was 20.6 years. Overall stress was reported by 94.5% (14) of the subjects. Abdul Ghani, in his study during 2008, stated that the mean age of the subjects was 21.4 years. 57% of the students were stressed and 20% were severely stressed (15). EL-Ghilani AH etal, in their study during 2008, found that 95% medical students in an Egyptian school and 92% medical students in a Saudi school reported one or more kinds of stress (16). Chandrashekar T et al, in their study, stated that, the overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9 % (17). Mosley Thomas H et al. in their study titled “stress, coping and well being among third year medical students”, conducted in 1992-93, found that 23% of the subjects reported clinically significant levels of stress (18). Studies from developing countries like India, Pakistan, Thailand and Malaysia have reported stress among medical students and have underscored the role of academics as a source of stress (10),(11),(12).
In our study, 68.97% of the students who had the habit of alcohol intake and 78.26% of the smokers had experienced severe stress. This meant, that the stress was more in students who had consumed alcohol and had smoked tobacco. The statistical association between the history of alcohol intake, tobacco abuse and the PSLES results was found to be significant. This indicated that the two substances were indulged in as a method of stress relief. Studies from the United Kingdom had reported the use of alcohol, tobacco and drugs as common coping strategies adopted by the medical students (19),(20),(21),(22),(23). In our study, 9.16% of the students smoked tobacco and 11.55% had the alcohol habit. Zulfikar and Vankar observed in their study, that among medical students 3% used smokeless tobacco, 12% smoked cigarettes and 12.5% had the alcohol abuse habit (24). Naskar and Bhattacharya in their study on undergraduate medical students, observed that 12.5% used tobacco and 3.6% had the alcohol abuse habit (25). Gurmeetsingh in his study on medical students, observed that 58.4% used alcohol and 36.6% used tobacco (26).
In this study, 68.57% of the repeaters had severe stress as compared to 43.52% stress cases among regular students. The stress was found to be more among repeaters and the association between them was statistically significant. Repeater students had to lose some academic terms and could not continue their education with their parent batch. They had significantly higher psychological stress as compared to their regular batch counterparts. So, any failure seemed to have put a lot of psychological stress on the medical students. Previous studies have also reported that academics/examinations are the common source of stress among medical students (19), (27), (28).


47.01% of the students showed severe psychological stress by the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLES) results and 42.63% of the students showed a moderate degree of psychological stress. Repeater students had significantly higher stress as compared to their regular batch counterparts. It was observed that a majority of the students with stress were involved in the abuse of tobacco and alcohol.

1. Scientific studies similar to this study should be undertaken in various medical colleges.
2. There is an urgent necessity to recognize the menace of psychological stress and its ill effects. This requires a selection of the best available screening methods for the early detection of students who are vulnerable to these disorders.
3. Stress releasing activities and exercises e.g. extra-curricular activities, yoga, meditation, etc should be encouraged.
4. Serious efforts in the form of health education, counseling and monitoring are required for curbing tobacco, alcohol and other drugs abuse in medical students.


We are thankful to the all the medical students who participated in the study, for their valuable time given for filling up the questionnaire.


Hans Selye. “The stresses of life, New York”,MC Graw Hill 1956;523-567.
Leo Goldberger and Shlomo Breznitz. “Handbook of stress: Theoretical and Clinical aspects”, Free press 1982;987.
Sherina MS, Rampal L, Keneson N. “Psychological stress among undergraduate Medical students”. Medical Journal of Malaysia. 59 (2): 207-211.
Fish C, Nies MA. “Health promotion needs of students in a college environment. Public health Nurse”. 1996; 13 : 104-11.
Chew-Graham CA, Rogers A, Yassin N. I wouldn’t want it on my CV or their records: Medical student’s experiences of help seeking for mental health problems”. Medical education. 2003; 37:873-80.
Silver HK, Gliken AD. “Medical students abuse, incidence, severity and significance”. JAMA. 1990; 263: 527-32.
Niemi PM, Vainiomaki PT. “Medical student’s academic distress, coping and achievement strategies during the preclinical years”. Teaching learning Medicine. 1999; 11: 125-34.
Vitaliano PP, Russo J, Carr JE, Hirwagan JH. “Medical school pressures and their relationship to anxiety”. J Nerv Mental diseases. 1984; 172: 730-6.
Singh Gurmeet et al. “Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale(PSLES)-A new stressful life events scale for use in India”. Indian Journal of Psychiatry.1984;26(2),107-114.
Shaikh BT, Kahloon A, Kazmi M, Khalid H, Nawaz K, Khan N, Khan S. “Students, stress and coping strategies: A case of Pakistani Medical school”. Education Health (Abingdon). 2004; 17:346-353.
Supe AN. “A study of stress in Medical students at Seth G.S.Medical college”. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 1998; 44:1-6.
Saipanish R. “Stress among Medical students in a Thai Medical school”. Medical teaching. 2003; 25:502-6.
Aristeignieta Cesar A. “Substance abuse, mental illness and Medical students: The role of the Americans with disabilities act” JAMA. Jan.-1998; 279(1): 80.
Amr M, E L-Gilani AH, EL-Hawary A. Does gender predict medical students stress in Mansoura, Egypt?. Medical Education Online 2008; 13:12. Accessed on 10th March, 2009 at
Abdul Ghani HM. Stress and depression among medical students: A cross sectional study at a college in Soudi Arabia. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly, 2008; 24(1): 12-17.
EL-Gilani AH, Amr M, Hammad S. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Soudi Arabia: Effects of socio-demographic factors. Annals of Soudi Medicine, 2008; 28 (6): 442-448.
Chandrashekar T. Sreeramraddy et al. BMC Medical education 2007, 7:26.
Mosly Thomas H et al. “Stress, coping and wellbeing among third year Medical students”.Academic Medicine. 1994; Vol.69:765-767.

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)