Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"



Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Dentistry
Year : 2010 | Month : August | Volume : 4 | Issue : 4 | Page : 2984 - 2988

A combination of platelet rich plasma and hydroxyapatite (osteogen) bone graft in the treatment of intrabony defects – A case report

Sunitha .J *, Manjunath K ** Correspondence Address :
Dr. Sunitha .J., MDS
Assistant Professor,
Department of Periodontics,
College of Dental Sciences,
Davangere. Karnataka, India.
Phone numbers: 9480177682
E-mail address: dr_sunithaj@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

A major goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of the attachment structures such as alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and the cementum. Open flap debridement results in the formation of long junctional epithelium, which is more susceptible to microbial invasion and is thought to be a less stable attachment. Regeneration is thought to partially mimic developmental mechanisms, which require a coordinated orchestration of cellular events such as proliferation, migration and differentiation. Polypeptide growth factors are naturally occurring biological modifiers that have the potential to alter the host tissue to stimulate or regulate the wound healing process. They can regulate key cellular events in tissue regeneration, including cell proliferation, chemotaxis, differentiation, and matrix synthesis via binding to specific cell surface receptors. Growth factors (GF), either singly or in combination, have been used and experimental evidence for bone regeneration has been documented in both animal and human trials. Platelets are a rich source of naturally occurring growth factors, which can play an important role in the regeneration of periodontal tissues.

Keywords

Platelat rich plasma; bone graft; periodontal regeneration; growth factors

Introduction:
The treatment of periodontal disease has several major therapeutic goals. As stated in the 1989 proceedings of The World Workshop in Clinical Periodontics. “The immediate goal is to prevent, arrest and control or eliminate periodontal disease. However, the ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to restore the structures, integrity, and the function of the tissues that have been lost as a result of inflammatory periodontal disease.1 Traditional periodontal therapy such as scaling, root planing and gingival curettage are highly effective in reducing the likelihood of the progress of periodontal disease, but has an extremely limited capacity to stimulate regeneration. Though the reconstruction of the periodontium which has been destroyed by periodontitis is considered to be a major challenge in periodontal therapy, recently, a large number of clinical and animal studies have shown a greater promise to restore the lost alveolar bone through the use of bone grafts.(1)
In the late 1970’s, the importance of growth factors within the wound healing cascade were identified. Studies, however, have shown that a single growth factor applied into a wound is not as effective as multiple growth factors. This is not surprising, as the wound healing cascade requires multiple growth factors for different stimulatory and inhibitory functions at different phases over long periods of time within the different stages of the wound healing cascade. Over the past few years, different emerging technologies have been developed, leading to the current use of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). PRP is obtained from autologous blood by sequestering and concentrating platelets by gradient density centrifugation.(1)(2)(3) Several authors have shown superior bone regeneration in human intrabony defects when PRP was combined with several graft materials as compared to the use of the same graft materials without PRP. Addition of PRP to synthetic porous hydroxylapatite (HA) can assist in jump-starting the cascade of events that might lead to the formation of new bone, by the delivery of growth factors to the healing site. These growth factors can begin and maintain the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblastic/progenitor cells into the space occupied by the osteoconductive HA.(4)

Case Report

Case presentation:
A 28 years old female patient presented with localized periodontitis in relation to 34, 35 and 36, with no recession. The probing pocket depth was 8mm and radiographically vertical bone loss was observed [ Table/Fig 1]

Pre-surgical therapy
Preoperative haematological assessment included a complete blood count. Initial therapy consisted of oral hygiene instructions and scaling and root planing of the quadrant involving the teeth to be treated was performed. Symptoms of trauma of occlusion, if detected were corrected. Three weeks following the Phase-1 therapy, periodontal re-evaluation was performed, based on the plaque scores and on the presence or absence of the signs of gingival inflammation. Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% (b.i.d), as mouth wash, was advised two weeks prior to the surgical procedure. Platelet-rich plasma was extracted 30 minutes prior to the surgery by using venipuncture.

Platelet-rich plasma preparation
First, 20 ml of blood was drawn from each patient by venipuncture of the antecubital vein in the forearm, into a 20ml syringe. 10ml of blood was collected into two glass tubes containing 10% trisodium citrate solution as an anticoagulant. The glass tubes containing blood were centrifuged at 1200 rpm for 20 minutes, which resulted in the separation of the two fractions; plasma at the top and red blood cells at the bottom (Table/Fig 2). The plasma, along with the top 2ml of red blood cells, was aspirated with the help of “Eppendorff pipettes”. This fraction was again centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 15 minutes to get three basic fractions; platelet-poor plasma (PPP) at the top of the preparation (supernatant), PRP in the middle and the red blood cell fraction at the bottom (Table/Fig 3). The top 80% fraction corresponding to PPP was aspirated with a pipette, leaving the residual (0.5 -2 ml) platelet concentrate.(3)

Surgical procedure
Surgical sites were disinfected with chlorhexidine mouthwash prior to the administration of local anaesthesia. The surgical procedure was performed by local infiltration of 2% lidocaine containing adrenaline at a concentration of 1:100,000. Buccal and lingual sulcular incisions were used and a mucoperiosteal flap was elevated. Complete debridement of the defects, as well as scaling and root planing were achieved with the use of an ultrasonic device and hand curettes. The root biomodification was done with a tetracycline solution (125mg tetracycline/ml of saline). The area was then rinsed with saline. At the time of the application of the bone graft, the synthetic, osteoconductive, non-ceramic form of hydroxylapatite (Osteogen) was mixed with the PRP preparation in a proportion of 1:1. The coagulation of the PRP/synthetic HA mixture was achieved by its combination with 5 μml of 10% calcium chloride. Within a few seconds, it assumed a sticky gel consistency Table/Fig 4]. The synthetic HA/coagulated PRP mixture was then tightly packed into the bony defects by using a plastic condenser to the level of the bony crest (Table/Fig 5). Flaps were sutured at the original level with black braided silk (4-0) by using interrupted sutures. Antibiotics (Amoxicillin 250 mg every 6 hours for 5 days) and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate rinse (every 12 hours for two weeks) were prescribed. Oral analgesic (Ibuprofen 400 mg every 8 hours as necessary) was also prescribed.

Post-operative care
The periodontal dressing and sutures were removed two weeks postoperatively. Surgical wounds were gently cleansed with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate on a cotton swab. The patients were instructed to rinse during the second postoperative week. Mechanical oral hygiene, consisting of brushing, was initiated by the patient at the end of the second post operative week. The patients were examined weekly, up to one month after surgery and then at three and nine months. The postoperative care included the reinforcement of oral hygiene and mechanical plaque removal, wherever necessary. The post operative probing depth after 9 months showed 3mm. Standardized radiographs were taken at 9 months post-operatively, which showed the bone fill in the defect (Table/Fig 6).

Discussion

The rationalization of the use of PRP as a bone regenerative stimulating agent lies in the possibility of concentrating the growth factors contained in the platelets and carrying them into the regenerating site with an ideal carrier, like the patient’s platelets. The ability of PRP to enhance the consolidation of bone graft has been well established since 1998 by the pioneering works of Robert E Marx et al.(4) Several studies have exemplified the role of platelet formulations in the regeneration of soft/hard tissues, including the formation of new bone. In many studies, different types of bone replacement materials such as demineralized bone powder, Bio-bone/Bio-Oss, hydroxylapatite and other forms of allografts have been used in combination with the PRP gel. Siebrecht et al (2002) demonstrated increased bone ingrowths into porous hydroxylapatite in a bone chamber rat model when used in combination with a platelet concentrate.(3)(4)
Platelets isolated from peripheral blood are an autologous source of growth factors. When platelets in a concentrated form are added to graft materials, a more predictable outcome is derived. PRP can be used as an easily accessible source of growth factors to support bone and soft tissue healing. A blood clot is a center focus of the initiation of any soft tissue healing and bone regeneration. PRP is a simple strategy to concentrate platelets or to enrich a natural blood clot which forms in normal surgical wounds, to initiate a more rapid and complete healing process. A natural blood clot contains 95% red blood cells, 5% platelets, less than 1% white blood cells and numerous amounts of fibrin strands. A PRP blood clot contains 4% red blood cells, 95% platelets and 1% white blood cells. The use of PRP in place of recombinant growth factors has several advantages, in that platelets not only have their own specific action on tissues, but also interact with other growth factors, resulting in the activation of gene expression and protein production. Therefore, the properties of PRP are based on the production and release of multiple growth and differentiation factors upon platelet activation. These factors are critical in the regulation and the stimulation of the wound healing process and they play an important role in regulating cellular processes such as mitogenesis, chemotaxis, differentiation and metabolism.(5)(6)(7) Hydroxylapatite resorbs acting as a mineral reservoir, inducing bone formation via the osteoconductive mechanism. Its reported advantage is its slow resorption rate which allows it to act as a mineral reservoir, at the same time acting as a scaffold for bone replacement. OsteoGen which was used here acts as a carrier for platelet rich plasma.

Conclusion

Although a number of treatment modalities are currently available, clinicians continue to seek more predictable regenerative therapies. Platelet rich plasma has an advantage over standard grafting techniques. It offers the clinical surgeon access to growth factors with a simple and available technology. These growth factors, which are autogenous, nontoxic, and nonimmunogenic and they enhance and accelerate normal bone regeneration pathways. Platelet rich plasma also has documented reproducible scientific proof of efficacy, as well as a clinical tract record. It has been shown to increase the rate of clinical graft consolidation and PRP-enhanced grafts produce a more mature and dense bone than do grafts without PRP.

References

1.
Polson AM. Periodontal regeneration. Current status and directions; ed 1. Chicago: Quintessence; 1994.103-107.
2.
Melcher AH. On the repair potential of periodontal tissues. J Periodontol 1976;47:256-60.
3.
Marx RE. Acceleration of bone regeneration in dental procedures. In: Marx RE and Garg AK. Dental and Craniofacial Applications of Platelet Rich Plasma, ed 1. Illinosis: Quintessence, 2005: 53-86.
4.
Marx RE. Platelet-rich plasma: A source of multiple autogenous growth factors for bone grafts. In: Lynch SE, Genco RJ, Marx RE. Tissue Engineering-Applications in maxillofacial surgery and periodontics, ed 1. Illinosis: Quintessence, 1999: 71-82.
5.
Robert E Marx; PRP- Evidence to support its use; J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004, 62, 489-496.
6.
Carlson ER. Bone grafting the jaws in the 21st century: the use of platelet rich plasma and bone morphogenetic protein. Alpha Omegan 2000;93:26-33.
7.
Sanchez AR, Sheridan PJ, Kupp LI. Is platelet rich plasma perfect enhancement factor? A current review. Int J Oral and Maxillofac Implants 2003;18:93-103.

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