Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
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Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
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On Sep 2018

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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

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Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
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An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
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Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

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Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2010 | Month : October | Volume : 4 | Issue : 5 | Page : 3091 - 3094

The prevalence of HIV–2 seropositivity in blood donors


S. N Medical College, Bagalkot

Correspondence Address :
Dr Suresh B SonthMD,
Assistant professor,
Department of Microbiology,
S. Nijalingappa Medical college,
Navanagar, Bagalkot – 587102
Karnataka, India.
Ph: 09448569200


Blood transfusion has been the transmission mechanism in 15% of all the HIV infections. The HIV pandemic brought into focus the importance of a safe blood donor pool. In India, the HIV-2 epidemic occurs along with HIV-1. The analysis of HIV-2 screening was carried out in a tertiary care hospital among all the blood donors (2005-2009). Among 43130 blood donors, 350 (0.81%) were positive for HIV infection from which 304 (0.704%) were positive for HIV-1 and 46 (0.106%) were positive for the HIV-2 infection. We are showing here, the infection rate of HIV-2 among blood donors and the importance of promoting voluntary blood donations to ensure that the donors are free from transfusion transmissible infections like HBV, HCV, HIV-1 and 2 and Syphilis.


HIV, AIDS, Blood donor, ELISA, Western Blot.

The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome continues to spread unchecked since its first demonstration in 1981. Two decades later, nearly 50 million people are living with HIV/AIDS world wide according to UNIADS and WHO (1). A major proportion of the infections is caused by the HIV-1 virus, which was identified in 1983 (2),(3).
The HIV-2 virus was first detected in West Africa (4),(5),(6). HIV-2 was reported in India from Mumbai in 1991 and was detected in a high risk group of people and in professional blood donors (7),(8),(9).
The prevalence of HIV in various parts of India is different. It is particularly high in the western and the southern parts (10),(11). The transmission of HIV continues to be a threat to safe blood transfusion. Developing countries account for >90% of all new HIV cases (12). The major transmission mechanism for HIV has been through heterosexual contact (42%), blood transfusion (15%), and IV drug use (15%) (13). Unlike in the west, India is a country with a low epidemic of HIV-2 and hence, this has implications in HIV-2 transmission through contaminated blood supply (14). Various studies have reported a gradual increase in HIV prevalence in blood donors over the last two decades and this observation generally reflects the trends seen in the sentinel surveillance (15). Ever since the first report on HIV-2 infection from our laboratory in the Northern part of Karnataka, India, we have constantly seen HIV-2 positive cases among patients coming to our institution and hence, the detection of HIV-2 is also a major concern. There are not many reports from India on HIV-2 infection in blood donors (14) and hence, this study was conducted.

Material and Methods

This study was conducted for the prevalence of HIV-2 over a period of five years from January 2005 to December 2009 in a blood bank of S. Nijalingappa Medical College and Hanagal Shri Kumareshwar, a tertiary care hospital in the northern part of Karnataka.

(Table/Fig1) Total blood collection and distribution in different categories

A total of 43130 samples were collected from blood donors. The donors included both replacement as well as voluntary ones. Care was taken to exclude professional donors by taking appropriate history and examination.

All serum samples were screened for HIV 1and 2 antibodies by following the WHO/UNAIDS approved third generation ELISA kits. The tests were performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All reactive samples were confirmed by using Western blot. The western blot positive samples were considered to be positive for HIV.

Out of 43130 blood donors, 41010 (95.09%) were replacement donors and 2120 (4.91%) were voluntary donors (TABLE-1). More than 90% of the donors were males of the middle age group, between 20-40 years. The replacement donors constitute the largest group in India (16), as in our study also, reflecting the lack of blood donation awareness among the general population.


95% (Males-89.18% and Females-5.9%) of the 43130 blood donors were replacement blood donors, whereas only 5% (Males-4.41% and Females-0.59%) constituted the voluntary blood donors. Among the 43130 blood donors, 350 (0.8115%) were reactive for the HIV antibody during screening. All the positive samples were confirmed by western blot. Among these 350, 304 (86.85%) were positive for the HIV-1 infection and 46 were positive for the monotypic HIV-2 (13.15%)

(Table/Fig 2) The number of blood donors positive for HIV infection year wise.

infection. The number of donors who were positive for the total HIV and the HIV-2 infections year wise (2005-2009) is given in TABLE-2. The age group of 15-30 years had the highest number of HIV-2 positives, accounting for 60.87% (28 out of 46) of the positivity, followed by 26% positivity in the age group of 31-45 years (12 out of 46) TABLE-3.


The HIV-2 epidemic was initially restricted to the West African countries (17). The 1st case of the HIV-2 infection in India was reported from the state of Maharashtra in 1990. Later, it was reported from other parts of the country including the south Indian states (18).

The present study showed a 0.8115% (350) HIV infection rate among all the blood donors. Out of 350 HIV positive individuals, 46 (0.105%) were positive for the HIV-2 infection and 304 (86.85%) were positive for the HIV-1 infection.

A study by Thakral B et al (19), showed 0.16% seropositivity to the HIV-2 infection (64 positives out of 39784 donor units). In a study by Bharat Singh et al (20), the seropositivity for the HIV-2 infection was found to be 0.54% among 76089 blood donations. A five years study (1994-1999) among 46957 donors in North-Western India reported the overall HIV prevalence to be 0.44% more in replacement donors (0.46%), as compared to the Voluntary donors (21) (0.279%).

A study carried out by R Kannangai et al (14), showed the frequency of the HIV-2 infection to be 0.003% and that of HIV-1 to be 0.27% in a total of 175026 blood donations.
The prevalence of the HIV infection among non-professional blood donors at Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, increased from 1.6 per 1000 in 1988-89 to 3.8 per 1000 in 1996-97 (22). It is important to promote voluntary blood donations to ensure that the donors are free from transfusion transmissible infections like HBV, HCV, HIV-1and 2 and Syphilis (23).

As no such studies on HIV-2 have been conducted in this northern part of Karnataka and as this area has the highest prevalence rate of the HIV infection in India, we have conducted this study to document the prevalence rate of HIV-2 among blood donations.

Key Message

Transmission of HIV continues to be a threat to safe blood transfusion.
Unlike in the west, India is a country with a low epidemic of HIV-2 and hence, this has implications in HIV-2 transmission through the contaminated blood supply.
Various studies have reported a gradual increase in HIV prevalence in blood donors over the past two decades.


UNAIDS/WHO AIDS epidemic update December 2003. Website: Accesed on January 2010.
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