Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

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Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
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Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

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Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
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Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
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Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

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Assistant Professor
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Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
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Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Year : 2011 | Month : April | Volume : 5 | Issue : 2 | Page : 402 - 403 Full Version

Emphasizing a new developmental Variation of the Mandibular Molars - A Mermaid In Dentistry?

Published: April 1, 2011 | DOI:

Dept of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Dept of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics M.M College of Dental Sciences & Research, M.M University, Mullana, Ambala. Haryana, India Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology

Correspondence Address :
Madhushankari G.S (Associate Professor), Dept of Oral and
Maxillofacial Pathology, M.M College of Dental Sciences & Research,
M.M University Mullana, Ambala – 133203. Haryana,
E-mail:, Phone: +91-9729006930


Dental size and morphology are easily recorded aspects of phenotypic variations. The majority of pathological variations in shape affect the crown of the tooth. The variations in the crown of the mandibular permanent molars include the occurrence of the sixth cusp on the first molars and the fifth cusp on the second molars.

As the variations are always varied, we present here, a unique case of bilateral, mandibular, first permanent molars with an oblique ridge resembling the crown of the maxillary molars.


Crown morphology, Unique, Mandibular molar, Oblique ridge, Variation

The anomalies of the teeth have always been of great interest to the dentist from the scientific as well as from the practical view point (1).

These are the abnormalities of the tooth form, that range from common occurrences such as the permanent maxillary peg shaped lateral incisors to rare ones such as complete anodontia (2).

Most anomalies occur in the permanent than in the primary dentition and in the maxilla than in the mandible. They can be localized to one tooth, can be generalized to involve all the teeth or they may be a part of systemic or syndromic disorders (3).

Abnormal variations however, do occur in many cases (4) and deformities or abnormal formations of the teeth occur slightly more often, since it is frequently difficult to determine whether the deviation is a true anomaly or simply an extreme variation in tooth morphology (2).

The commonly occurring anomalies of the shape of the tooth include dens invaginatus, talon cusp, dens evaginatus, gemination, fusion, root dilaceration, taurodontism and concrescence (5).

The majority of the pathological variations in shape affect the crown of the tooth, some of which are relatively frequent, while others are less prevalent or may only affect only specific ethnic groups (6).

The reported variations in the crown of the mandibular molars of the Chinese and negroes include the tuberculum sextum, which is the sixth cusp which is located between the distal cusp and the distolingual cusp and the tuberculum intermedium which is located between the two lingual cusps on the first molars and the five cusps on the second molars. The pattern of grooves on the occlusal surface of the mandibular molars also show considerable variation (2).Apart and away from these above mentioned variations in the crown of the mandibular molars, we are presenting an unusual and unique case of mandibular first permanent molars with a normal root anatomy, but with the crown morphology resembling that of the maxillary molars, bilaterally.

Case Report

A 20 year male student came to the institute with a chief complaint of carious teeth. Intra oral examination revealed class I caries in relation to 16,17,18,26,27,28,36,37,38,46 and 47.

The mandibular first molars also revealed a unique feature of having four cusps with an oblique ridge running from the mesiolingual to the distobuccal cusp, without any carabelli trait, resembling the maxillary second molar, while the occlusal contour resembled the maxillary first molar with a square to parallelogram outline and as wide on the lingual as on the buccal, unlike the maxillary second molar where it tapers more from the buccal towards the lingual surface due to the smaller distolingual cusp (Table/Fig 1).A class I molar occlusion was found along with the normal overjet and the overbite. (Table/Fig 1)The intra oral periapical radiograph revealed a mesial and a distal root which was normal for the mandibular molars (Table/Fig 2).

(Table/Fig 3). The patient was treated conservatively for the carious lesions and was kept on a follow up. (Table/Fig 3)


Early in the twentieth century, the world renowned paleontologist, Williamking Gregory (1922), expressed the view that tooth crown morphology varied hardly at all among the major races of human kind. Exceptions to this generalization are the shovel shaped incisors, carabelli’s cusp and the molar cusp pattern and number (7).

Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed in the dental clinic. However, these anomalies account for a relatively low number as compared to the more common oral disorders such as dental caries and periodontal diseases (4).

The first molars are considered as key teeth which are stable in morphology than the second and the third molars, but the mandibular first molar can display several anatomical variations (8).

The variations in the root anatomy are commonly reported than those in the crown morphology. Variations in the mandibular molar crowns are sometimes seen, as an extra cusp on the buccal surface of the mesiobuccal cusp (9) or the prostostylid (10), and as a sixth cusp called the tuberculum sextum or the tuberculum intermedium (2).

The maxillary molars differ from the mandibular molars in many aspects, but the major and the important features which can be used in distinguishing them are the presence of an oblique ridge, which is unique to the maxillary molars2 and the presence of a carabelli trait on the maxillary first molars.

Our case was rare in the aspect that the crown of the mandibular first permanent molars presented with an oblique ridge running from the mesiolingual to the distobuccal cusp, resembling the maxillary molar without the carabelli cusp, while the roots were of the mandibular molars itself. Literature search did not divulge any reported case of this kind, except the case of 23 year male, where the mandibular premolars and the molars of the left arch were remarkably similar to the maxillary posteriors, while the mandibular first molar on the right side was a mixture of both the maxillary and the mandibular molars. However, the radicular aspects of these teeth were not discussed (2).

The aetiology for this kind of presentation is questionable, but mutations in those genes which encode transcription factors and signaling molecules which are involved in odontogenesis could be responsible for the numerous abnormalities of the teeth (11).


Developmental anomalies of the teeth are clinically evident abnormalities and hence a careful examination of the oral cavity abets the clinicians for planning a better treatment. In the present case, for any conservative and endodontic procedures of the abnormal mandibular molars, assessment of the crown morphology and the internal anatomy needs to be considered. Further, a new finding for the forensic odontologists and a question of what do we name it as… ‘A Mermaid’?


Reddy YN, Jain U. Congenitally missing teeth: a case report. Annals and Essences of Dentistry 2010; 2 (1) (Online).
Woelfel JB, Scheid RC. Dental Anatomy: Its Relevance to Dentistry. 5th ed. USA: Williams and Wilkins; 1997.
Winter GB, Brook AH. Enamel hypoplasia and anomalies of the teeth. Dent Clin North Am 1975; 9: 3-24.
Ghaznawi HI, DaasH, Salako NO. Aclinical and radiographic survey of selected dental anomalies and conditions in Saudi Arabiain population. The Saudi Dental Journal 1999; 11(1): 8-13.
Guttal KS, Naikmasur VG, Bhargava P, Bathi RJ. Frequency of developmental dental anomalies in the Indian population. Eur J Dent. 2010; 4(3): 263-9.
Curzon ME, Curzon JA, Poyton HG. Evaginated odontomes in the Keewatin Eskimo. Br Dent J. 1970; 129(7): 324-8.
Scott GR, Turner CG. The Anthropology of Modern Human Teeth: Dental morphology and its variation. 1st ed. Cambridge University Press; 1997.
Barker BCW, Parsons KC, Mills PR, Williams GL. Anatomy of root canals. III. Permanent mandibular molars. Australian Dental Journal 1974; 19(6): 408-13.
Vertucci FJ. Root canal anatomy of the human permanent teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1984; 58(5): 589-99.
Berkovitz BKB, Holand GR, Moxham BJ. A Color atlas and text of Oral Anatomy, Histology and Embryology. 2nd ed. Times Mirror International Publishers Limited; 1995.
Kavitha B, Priyadharshini V, Sivapathasundharam B, Saraswathi TR. Role of genes in oro-dental diseases. Indian J Dent Res 2010; 21(2): 270-4.

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