Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 103109

AbstractMaterial and MethodsDiscussionKey MessageReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
Knowledge is treasure of a wise man. The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help ones reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journalsNo manuscriptsNo authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : November | Volume : 5 | Issue : 6 | Page : 1137 - 1139 Full Version

Accessory Mandibular Foramina: Prevalence, Embryological Basis and Surgical Implications

Published: November 1, 2011 | DOI:
B.V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, M.D. Prameela, C. Mohammed Ashraf, Ashwin Krishnamurthy, C. Ganesh Kumar

Corresponding Author MD, Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, Manipal University, Centre for Basic Sciences, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. MD, Asst. Professor, Department of Anatomy, Manipal University, Centre for Basic Sciences, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. Postgraduate Student, Department of Anatomy, Manipal University, Centre for Basic Sciences, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. MD, Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Manipal University, Centre for Basic Sciences, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. MD, Asst. Professor, Department of Anatomy, Manipal University, Centre for Basic Sciences, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Correspondence Address :
BV Murlimanju
MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy,
Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University,
Mangalore – 575004, India.
Telephone No. : 91 824 2211746
Telefax No. : 91 824 2421283


Introduction: Our objective was to determine the incidence of accessory mandibular foramina (MA) in mandibles of south Indian origin.

Methods: The study comprised 67 adult, human, dry mandibles which were procured from the departments of anatomy of our university. The prevalence rate and the laterality were analyzed.

Results: The accessory mandibular foramina were observed in 11 mandibles (16.4%). They were present unilaterally in 6 (8.9%) mandibles (3 on the right side and 3 on the left side) and bilaterally in 5 (7.5%) cases. The accessory foramen was single in 9 cases and it was found to be double in 2 cases.

Conclusion: In the current study, the incidence rate of the accessory mandibular foramina was 16.4%. The morphological knowledge of these foramina is important as they transmit the branches of the nerves which supply the roots of the teeth. The local anaesthetic drug which is given in this region may fail if these nerves or their branches pass through the accessory foramina.


Accessory foramen; anaesthesia; foramina; inferior alveolar nerve; mandible

The mandibular foramen (MF) is a prominent feature (1) on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible which is located just above its centre (2). There are a few cases which have been reported on the accessory mandibular foramina (AMF) and the incidence of the AMF has been found to be greater on the medial surface than on the lateral surface (3),(4),(5). The branches of the facial, mylohyoid, buccal and the transverse cervical cutaneous nerves are known to pass through these accessory foramina (2). Przystanska and Bruska (6) studied these foramina immunohistochemically and proved that their contents included an artery and a nerve. Injecting an anaesthetic solution into the pterygomandibular region where the inferior alveolar nerve is found in the MF, is an anaesthetic technique which is commonly employed in the dental clinic. It was reported that the local anaesthesia which was given during dental extractions might fail if the branches of the inferior alveolar nerve pass through these accessory foramina and thus escape the drug. The AMF are also known to provide the route for tumour spread following radiotherapy (7),(8),(9),(10). Since detailed anatomical studies are not found in the literature, this osteological investigation was undertaken. The objective of this study was to assess the morphology of AMF and to determine the prevalence of AMF in south Indian mandibles.

Material and Methods

The study included 67 (37 male and 30 female) dry human mandibles of south Indian origin, which were procured from thedepartments of anatomy of our university. All were adult mandibles, the exact ages of which were unknown. The mandibles were observed for the presence of AMF and if they were present, a further observation was made about their numbers. Their prevalence rate and laterality were also analyzed. A magnifying lens was used for the observations.

From our observations, it was found that the accessory mandibular foramen (Table/Fig 1) and(Table/Fig 2) was present in 11 mandibles (16.4%). It was present unilaterally in 6 (8.9%) mandibles (3 on the right side and 3 on the left side) and bilaterally in 5 (7.5%) cases. The gender wise frequency was recorded as 6:5 in the male and female mandibles. The accessory foramen was single (Table/Fig 1) in 9 cases and double in 2 cases (Table/Fig 2). In all the cases, the accessory foramen was directed downwards towards the alveolar margin. Mandibles with an absent mandibular foramen were not observed.


The morphological knowledge of the MF is of paramount importance during the dental procedures of the lower jaw, as structures that go through this foramen should be preserved. The AMF are known to transmit the branches of the inferior alveolar nerve. It has been described that the presence of an AMF in the mandible also indicates that extra blood vessels traverse it, which supply the bone (11). Hence, the passage of the blood vessels and nervesmakes the AMF clinically important. It was reported that in 60% of the cases, the mandibular canal was found to have the entire inferior alveolar nerve passing through it, while in the remaining 40% cases, the nerves were found to be scattered (12). This observation of the spread of the inferior alveolar nerve suspects the possible presence of some other nerves which pass through the mandibular canal, probably the nerves to the mylohyoid (11). Das and Suri (3) passed a metallic wire through the AMF and examined the mandible radiographically. They observed that the canal which led from the AMF had terminated close to the root of the 3rd molar. This alternate route of passage of the nerves through the AMF and their supply to the 3rd molar might lead to the failure of the nerve block during dental surgeries. Lew et al. (13) reported a case in which the presence of an accessory canal resulted in inadequate anaesthesia at the time of the inferior alveolar nerve block. Hence, it is obvious that the awareness of the presence of these AMF is important for achieving a successful inferior alveolar nerve block. Some authors advised that the anaesthesia could be best performed at a higher level before the division of the mandibular nerve (14) by using a technique which is known as the Gow-Gatestechnique (15). The embryological basis of the occurrence of the AMF and the fact that during the development, initially there will be three inferior alveolar nerves which innervate each of the 3 groups of the mandibular teeth, have been explained (16). Later, there will be fusion of these nerves and a single inferior alveolar nerve is formed. The incomplete fusion of these 3 nerves leads to the development of double mandibular canals (16). From the clinical observations, it has been found that there is a wide range of incidence of the bifid mandibular canals which are reported between 0.08% and 15.6% (17). But the anatomical reports about this subject are not available in literature. In the present study, the incidence of the AMF was slightly higher as compared to other studies and it might be because of racial variations.

It has been found that the presence of the AMF makes it more vulnerable to the perineural spread of the tumour cells from the cortical to the cancellous part of the bone following radiotherapy (4). The knowledge of the AMF may thus be important for the radiotherapists while planning radiation therapy. During surgical procedures which involve the ramus of the mandible, it is important to be familiar with the incidence and the configuration of these foramina, since complications including unexpected bleeding, paraesthaesia and traumatic neuroma are known to occur because of trauma to the accessory canal (17). The surgeons who perform the conservative rim resection procedures should keep in mind about the tumour involvement in the region of the AMF and they can plan the surgical procedure accordingly (3). This knowledge is also important for orthognathic or reconstructive surgeries of the mandible and dental implant procedures (10),(18). It was suggested that the morphology of the MF should be included in the orthodontic and anthropological evaluation of normal and pathological mandibles (19). A great majority of the authors suggest that the imperfectness in the attainment of anaesthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve is due to improper localization of the mandibular foramen and the lack of notice of its variations (20), which shows the lack of the professional studies of anatomy (21). Since the clinical interest about the AMF is extensive and as the anatomical references are not available, we aimed to submit this investigation for the medical and dental literature. These findings may be helpful to the oral maxillo-facial surgeons and oncologists in their clinical practice. We suggest that the surgeons who perform extraction procedures of the lower jaw should be aware of these accessory foramina and thus plan anaesthesia at an appropriate anatomical site. By pinpointing these anatomical variations, it is possible to take the necessary precautions during surgeries and avoid damaging the important neurovascular structures.

Key Message

The current study observed that some of the mandibles (16.4%) had accessory foramina (two or three mandibular foramina). These foramina are clinically important as they can lead to diagnostic and therapeutic misinterpretations. The operating surgeons should be aware of these foramina and they should plan the anaesthesia at an appropriate site.


Fabian FM: Observation of the position of the lingula in relation to the mandibular foramen and the mylohyoid groove. It J Anat Embryol. 2006; 111: 151-58.
Gray H, Williams PL, Bannister LH, Berry MM, Collins P, Dyson M, Dussek JE, Ferguson MWJ,et al : (eds) Gray’s Anatomy: 38 edition. London, Churchill Livingstone, 1995, pp 576–7
Das S, Suri RK: An anatomico-radiological study of an accessory mandibular foramen on the medial mandibular surface. Folia Morphol. 2004; 63: 511–13.
Fanibunda K, Matthews JNS: Relationship between accessory foramina and tumour spread in the lateral mandibular surface. J Anat.1999; 195: 185–90.
Haveman CW, Tebo HG: Posterior accessory foramina of the human mandible. J Prosthetic Dentistry. 1976; 35: 462–8.
Przystanska A, Bruska M: Accessory mandibular foramina: histological and immunohistochemical studies of their contents. Arch Oral Biol. 2010; 55: 77-80.
Browne JS, Browne RM: Factors influencing the pattern of invasionof the mandible by oral squamous cell carcinoma. Intern J Oral Maxillofacial Surg. 1995; 24: 417–26.
Lukinmaa PL, Hietanen J, Soderholme AL, Lindqvist C: The histologic pattern of bone invasion by squamous cell carcinoma of the mandibular region. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992; 30: 2–7.
Mc Gregor DA, Mac Donald DG: Routes of entry of squamous cell carcinoma into the mandible. Head Neck Surg. 1987; 10: 294–301.
Slootwerg PJ, Muller H: Mandibular invasion by squamous cell carcinoma. J Craniomaxillary Surg. 1989; 17: 69–74.
Jeyaseelan N, Sharma JK: A morphological study of unnamed foramina in the North Indian human mandibles and their possible role in neurovascular transmission. Int J Oral Surg. 1984; 13: 239–42.
Olivier E: Le canal dentaire inferior et son nerf chez Padulte. Annls Anat Path Anat Norm Med Chir. 1927; 4: 975–87.
Lew K, Townsen G: The failure to obtain adequate anaesthesia is associated with a bifid mandibular canal: a case report. Aust Dent J. 2006; 51: 86–90.
Sanchis JM, Penarrocha M, Soler M: The bifid mandibular canal. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003; 61: 422–24.
Meechan JG: How to overcome failed local anaesthesia. Br Dent J. 1999; 186: 15- 20.
Chavez ME, Mansilla J, Pompa JA, Kjaer I: The human mandibular canal arises from three separate canals, innervating different tooth groups. J Dent Res. 1996; 75: 1540–44.
Kuribayashi A, Watanabe H, Imaizumi A, Tantanapornkul W, Katakami K, Kurabayashi T,et al: Bifid mandibular canals: cone beam computed tomography evaluation. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology. 2010; 39: 235–39.
Quattrone G, Furlini E, Bianciotto M: Bilateral bifid mandibular canal: Presentation of a case. Minerva Stomatol. 1989; 38: 1183–5.
Palsson SR, Kjaer I: Morphology of the mandibular canal and the angulation between the mandibular and mental canals in dry skulls. Eur J Orthodont. 2009; 31: 59–63.
Simon B, Komives O: Dimensional and positional variations of the ramus of the mandible. J Dent Res. 1938; 17: 125-49.
Marzola C: Anestesiologia. 3 edition. Sao Paulo, Pancast, 1999, pp 323

DOI and Others


JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)