Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 100531

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : November | Volume : 5 | Issue : 6 | Page : 1209 - 1213 Full Version

A comparative assessment of the ADR profile in various anti-cancer regimens excluding gastro-intestinal and haematological toxicity at a tertiary care centre.

Published: November 1, 2011 | DOI:
M.K. Vijayalaxmi, Princy Louis Palatty, Parvathi Bhat, M. Dinesh

Corresponding Author M.B.B.S., MD, Ex-Professor & HOD, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. Ex-Professor & HOD, A.J.Shetty Medical College, Mangalore . M.B.B.S., MD, DNB, Professor, Amritha Institute of Medical Sciences

Correspondence Address :
M. K. Vijayalaxmi M.B.B.S., MD
Dept. of Pharmacology, Fr. Muller Medical College,
Mangalore – 575 002,
Ph: 2436301 – 10 lines
Mob : 9845237418


This study compared the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile in various anti-cancer regimens in 55 patients who attended a tertiary care centre. The adverse drug reactions which are caused by anticancer agents are common and they may be enhanced when the drugs are used in combinations. The cases which conformed to the inclusion criteriae were selected and the details were noted in a proforma, which were then statistically analyzed.

The results which were obtained, showed that the ADRs were common, but that they occurred in a similar frequency as in otherstudy groups and that the severity grade was low. The counter measures to tackle the adverse reactions were also effective, leading to a hundred percent survival through the six cycles and the two year survival, which in itself spoke volumes about the ADRs. These findings were in tune with the findings of various researchers in the field of anti cancer toxicity profiles.

The incidence of the neurotoxicity, the dermatological adverse effects and other miscellaneous ADRs was frequent, but not of high severity.


Anti-cancer, Adverse Drug Reaction, Compliance, Neurotoxicity, Dermatological Manifestation, Comparision of Regimen, Cancer Regimen

Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality in the modern world, both in the developing and the developed countries. The research work which is being done on cancer takes time and meticulous documentation.

Cancer is no more spells doom for the patients, with the use of a combination of therapies.

The advent of a multimodal approach including chemotherapy, radiation, surgery and gene therapy have brought down the cancer death. Cancers are very much amenable to therapy, if they are diagnosed, early. In fact, some may be cured i,e, choriocarci noma, breast and teslicular tumours and lymphomas (1),(2).

Anti-cancer drugs have been used to treat noncancerous diseases like-rheumatoid arthritis, organ transplants, sickle cell anaemias and psoriasis and as anti-infectives. Myelosuppression that is prolonged and cumulative, is produced by busulfan, leading to its use in the treatment of allogeneic bone marrow transplant cases (3).

The toxicity profiles of the anti-cancer drugs vary and the data has to be quantified in this regards. Hence, our study compared the toxicity profiles of 55 patients who had various types of malignancies. The gastro-intestinal toxicity and haematological toxicity form a major share of the anti-cancer ADRs; hence this aspect was discarded, and only all other ADR manifestations were considered. The major ADRs comprised of neurotoxicity, dermatological toxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. (4),(5).

Material and Methods

Patients and Methods
This was a prospective study which was conducted in the Department of Oncology, KMC, Attavar. Informed consent was taken from the patients who were included in the study.

Inclusion criteria
The study sample consisted of a total of 55 patients. Adult patients who were started on chemotherapy from July 1999 were included in the study. Patients who received chemotherapy for solid tumours, lymphomas and other types of cancers on an adjuvant or therapeutic basis were included in the study. Adult patients of any age group and of both sexes were included in the study.

Exclusion criteria
Old cases i.e., the patients who were already on chemotherapy were not selected. Paediatric cases were not taken up for the study.

For the selected patients, the case history was made and an examination was done, the details of which were entered on special proformas and they were regularly followed up. The period of the study was 20 months. These details were entered into a spread sheet and the percentage distribution of each of the toxicities in the different grades were found out. A statistical analysis and a comparison study were done and the toxicities of the different regimens which could be statistically analyzed, were compared. Only 6 such regimens were compared in this study. A comparison between the base line values and the last cycle was made by using Wilcoxon’s signed rank sum test, comparisons between the 6 cycles were done by using the Friedman test and comparisons within the regimens were done by using Fisher’s exact test. Thus, the probability of significance and the p-value was found out with the help of these tests (6).


(Table/Fig 1),(Table/Fig 2),(Table/Fig 3),(Table/Fig 4) ,(Table/Fig 5),(Table/Fig 6),(Table/Fig 7)


The main objective of our study was to assess the toxicity of various anti-cancer drugs by grading them as per the WHO guidelines and also to compare the toxicities of the different drug regimens.

This study was conducted on 55 diagnosed cases of various malignancies who received anti-neoplastic drugs in combination chemotherapy. Specific regimens which comprised of selected drugs were administered for individual malignancies according to the recommended schedules.

Because of ethical problems and technical difficulties, invasive procedures were not employed in this study, which limited the number of toxicities which were studied and so, only the clinically assessable toxicities were given prime importance.

Ca. bronchus was treated with a regimen of Etoposide and Cisplatin and the patient completed all the cycles of the chemotherapy, while experiencing only allergy, pigmentation, alopecia and renal toxicity (increase in blood urea and serum creatinine) as the adverse effects.

The VMCP regimen for multiple myeloma showed allergy, pigmentation, alopecia and a slight increase in blood urea and serum creatinine as the adverse effects.

The CMF, CC and FL regimens showed a higher degree of allergy in grade 0 as opposed to the other regimens(7),(8),(9),(10),(11),(12),(13),(14),(15),(16),(17),(18),(19),(20),(21),(22),(23),(24).

The CMF, FL and the FC regimens showed raised blood urea in grade 1.

Most of the anti-cancer drugs damage the hair follicle. They produce either partial or complete alopecia, especially paclitaxel, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, methotrexate and dactinomycin. Alopeica, nail changes, dermatitis, increased pigmentation and atrophy of the skin may be encountered3. Alopecia is also very common with the CMF regimen.

In our study, out of the 55 patients who were studied, only 12 (21.8%) patients were not affected by alopecia, whereas most of the patients, i.e., 43 (78.2%) were affected by alopecia. 13 (23.6%) patients showed grade 1 or mild hair loss and 30 (54.6%) showed grade 2, i.e., pronounced or total hair loss.

Other dermatological toxicities which were observed were allergy and hyper pigmentation (of the nails and skin).

Most of the patients were not much affected by allergy i.e., 41 (74.5%). Only 14 (25.5%) patients showed grade 1 allergy. The allergy was only mild.

Hyper pigmentation was seen in the nails and skin. A blackish discolouration of the skin and nails was observed. Most of the patients were affected with either grade 1, i.e., 13 (23.6%) or grade 2, 24 (43.6%) hyper pigmentation. 18 (32.7%) patients remained unaffected.

Severe skin reactions like atrophy of the skin were not seen in our study.

Renal tubular damage was the major toxic symptom which was associated with cisplatin, streptozocin and high-dose methrotrexate therapy. Acute haemorrhagic cystitis could complicate the cyclophasphamide and ifosfamide therapies (2).

In our study, the blood urea levels were increased in a majority of the patients. Out of the 55 patients who were treated with different anti-cancer drugs, 39 (70.9%) showed an increase in the blood urea levels. Out of the total patients who were affected, 32 (58.2%) patients had grade 1 severity, 5 (9.1) patients had grade 2 severity and 2 patients (3.6%) showed grade 3 severity. Only 16 (29.1%) patients remained unaffected.

The serum creatinine levels were also increased. All the 55 patients (100%) were affected, out of which 39 (70.9%) had grade 1 severity and 16 (29.1%) had grade 2 severity. No patient remained unaffected. Nephrotoxicity was present, even though the patients received diuretics, hydreation and MESNA. The blood urea and serum creatinine levels showed a significant difference (p<0.005) before and after the chemotherapy. No other toxicitieslike haemorrhagic cystitis, urinary incountinence, dysuria and renal failure were observed in this study.

The mean body weight of the patients decreased at the end of 6 cycles of chemotherapy. The reasons for this may be the progression of the disease, the cytotoxic effects of the drugs, and also decreased food intake due to anorexia, nausea and vomiting.

Neurological dysfunction of several types was seen in patients who received cisplatin. A peripheral neuropathy has been described, primarily distal and sensory, with parasthaesias of the hands and feet, abnormal vibration and position sense and diminished light touch. Studies which were conducted in the affected patients were abnormal. Cisplatin can produce ototoxicity with a high frequency of hearing loss, tinnitus, and even deafness.

Other toxicities which were noted during the chemotherapy were neurotoxicity in the form of mild parasthaesia, a tingling sensation in the extremities and tinnitus. These were seen in patients who received regimens containing cisplatin. This can be attributed to the toxicity of the platinum co-ordination complex, cisplatin in our study.

Pulmonary damages were found in occasional patients after the treatment with cyclophosphamide.

Few patients who were on the CC and CMF regimens showed milder forms of respiratory problems (cough and dyspnoea). This may be due to the cyclophoshamide component in those regimens.

Electrolyte disturbances like hypomagnesaemia, hypocalcaemia, hypokalaemia and hypophospataemia, etc have been discussed in the literature, but in this study, it was not possible to estimate all these criteriae routinely because of technical reasons.

Liver function tests did not show any statistically significant difference before and after the chemotherapy. Hence, in our study, no hepatotoxicity was observed due to the administration of the anti-cancer drugs.


This study noted the ADR profile in 55 patients who took various anti-cancer regimens along with radio therapy. The incidence of the drug reaction was very common, but of low severity, according to the WHO ADR grading system. This was also reflected in other such studies across the world. Hence, effective counter measures and a low incidence of mild ADR leads to a better compliance and an enhanced survival rate.


Sikie BI. The rational basis for cancer chemotherapy. Anti-neoplastic agents. In: Cragi’s Modern Pharmacology with Clinical Applications, 5th ed, Little, Brown and Company, New York, 1997; 659-2.
Lowenthal RM, Eaton K. Toxicity of chemotherapy. Hematol – Oncol –Clin - North Am 1996 Aug; 10(40):967-90.
Grever MR, Chabner BA. Cancer drug discovery and development, In : DeVita Vt, Hellman S, Rosdenberg SA. Cancer Principles and practices of oncology, 4th ed, Pub JB. Lippincot Co, Philidephia, USA, 1993:328-30.
Vittorina Zagonel. Reducing chemotherapy-associated toxity in elderly cancer patients. Cancer Treatment Review, Division of Medical Oncology Leukemia unit, Italy. 1996 May; 22(3): 223-4.
Ogawa M. Anti-cancer drugs and pharmacologic actions. Nippon – Rinsho – 1997 May; 55(5): 1017-23.
Levi F. Chemotherapy and dose intensity. Bull – Cancer. 1995 ; 82 (suppl 1): 29-36.
Brestescher C, Pautier P, Farge D. Chemotherapy and cardio toxicity. Ann- Cardiol – Angeiol Apris 1995 Oct; 44(8) : 443.
Gescher A. Modulators of single transduction as cancer chemotherapeutic agents – novel mechanisms and toxicities. Toxicol – Lett. 1995 Dec; 82-83: 159 -65.
Jelinel J, Fairbrain LJ, Dexter TM. Will the transfer of cytostatic drug resistance genes increase hematoposis resistance in the treatment of malignant tumors? Cas – Lek- Cesk. 1997 Jan 8; 136(1) : 22-6.
Verweij J. New promising anti-cancer agents in development. what comes next?. Cancer – Chemother – Pharmecol. 1996; 38 (suppl:S) 3-10.
Kurbacher CM, Mallmann PK. Chemo protection in anticancer – Res. 1998 May – Jun ; 18(3C): 2203-10.
Badary OA, Abdel Nasim AB, Khalifa AE, Hamada FM.Differential alteration of cisplatin cytotoxicity and myelotoxicity by the paclitaxel vehicle Cremophor El. Naunyn – Schmiedergs - Arch – Pharmacol. 2000 Mar; 361(3): 339-44.
Joensuu H. Novel cancer therapies: More efficacy, less toxicity and improved organ preservation. Ann – Med. 2000 Feb; 32(1): 31-3.
Socinski MA. Single-agent pactitaxel in the treatment of advanced non – small cell lung cancer. Oncologist 1999; 4(5): 408-16.
Fung MC, Stornido AM, Nguyen B, Arning M, Brookfield W, Vigil J, et al. A review of the haemolytic uremic syndrome in patients who were treated with gemcitabine therapy. Cancer May 1 1999; 85(10): 2265- 71.
Lokich JJ, Sonneborn H, Anderson NR. Combination paclitaxel, cisplatin and etoposide for patients with previously untreated esophageal and gastroesophageal carcinomas. Cancer June 1 1999; 85(11 2347-51.
Schrijvers TM, Coebergh JW, Mackenbach JP. Socio-economic status and co-morbidity among newly diagnosed cancer patients. Cancer October 15,1997; 80(8): 1482-88.
NEJM – Pharmacogenomics and Drug Toxicity. July 23, 2008, (10.1056/NEJMe0805136)
Anticancer Drug Toxicity.Prevention, Management, and Clinical Pharmacokinetics... 2008 United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology… 173a. html.
Monitor Toxicity, Anti-Cancer Drug ... pressrelease/20080219_ cytotoxglo.htm - 27k – Cached.
Anticancer Drug Toxicity Prevention-Pharmacokinetics/dp/0824719301 - 204k - Cached.
Lorus Toxicology Program Supports Novel Route Route of Administration of... July 3, 2008. viewiStockNews+articlid_2474889 ~title_Lorus- Toxicology-Program. html – 43k – Cached.
New Anti-cancer Agent Can Overcome Resistance To Drugs (Feb. 25, 2008) - 48k - Cached.
S Karger AG, Basel Reduction of Anticancer Drug Toxicity, Pharmacologic, Biologic, Immunologic and Molecular Genetic Approaches 3rd International Symposium, Heidelberg, December 1993, Contributions to Oncology Vol. 48 issn: 0250-3220 e – ISSN: 1662 – 2928.

DOI and Others


JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)