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Dr. Mamta Gupta,
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Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
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Dr. Mamta Gupta
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Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

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Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

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Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : November | Volume : 5 | Issue : 6 | Page : 1228 - 1233 Full Version

Differences In Perceived Stress and Its Correlates Among Students In Professional Courses

Published: November 1, 2011 | DOI:
Mane Abhay B, Krishnakumar MK, Niranjan Paul C, Hiremath Shashidhar G

Corresponding Author Assistant Professor, S.U.T Academy of Medical Sciences, Vencode.P.O, Vattappara. Thiruvananthapuram-695028 Professor, Department of Community Medicine Navodaya Medical College, Raichur, Karnataka. 584101 Professor and HOD, Department of Community Medicine Navodaya Medical College, Raichur, Karnataka. 584101

Correspondence Address :
Abhay B Mane
Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine,
Navodaya Medical College & Hospital
Mantralayam Road, Raichur-584103,
Karnataka, INDIA


Background: Medical education is perceived as being stressful, with negative effects on the mental health of the students. Previous studies have shown relatively high levels of distress among medical students, such as symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts. Only few studies have tried to explore the stress among medical students, but none have compared it with those among the paramedical and non medical students.

Objective: To explore the differences and the correlates of perceived stress among students in professional courses.

Materials And Method: The data was analyzed from 282 students who were studying different courses, by sampling with a probability proportional to size through an anonymous, selfadministered questionnaire which covered socio-demographic data, stressors and a perceived stress scale.

Results: The prevalence of perceived stress by using the PSS scale was found to be 50 % in the study subjects. The mean PSS score was the highest for dental (29.5) and the lowest for pharmacy (23.2) students. The difference in the mean PSS scores among the students of different courses was statistically significant. No statistical difference was noted in perceived stress between the male and female students (P> 0.05).The main sources of stress were found to be related to physical and academic factors. The main coping strategies which were adopted were, talking to family members or friends (41.1%), sleeping (16%), watching TV/movies (12.6%) and listening to music. 47.2% students felt a need for professional help during stress.

Conclusion: High levels of perceived stress were found in dental students. The stressors at the campus should be identified, discussed with, and proper coping assistance should be provided to the individual students.


Professional students, Perceived Stress Scale, Coping strategies, Psychosocial support.

Stress is a complex, dynamic process of interaction between a person and his or her life. It is the war one reacts physically, mentally and emotionally to the various conditions (1). The stress which is experienced by students may adversely affect their academic achievement, personal well being and longterm professional capabilities. It can lead to mental distress and it can have a negative impact on their cognitive functioning and learning (2). Like all young adults, undergraduate students need to cope up with the academic and social demands that they may encounter in university studies in their preparation for professional careers. Therefore, the period of undergraduate education is a sensitive period in an individual’s life span. The students from professional courses do feel a great amount of pressure in dealing with academic stress and anxiety. This can occur at different time periods during a semester or years in college and during thetransition of the students from an intermediate to a professional academic status. The stress in undergraduate students has many sources, including academics, personal situations, environment, time management, and economic circumstances. Although some stress is expected in college and it can be a motivation to study and learn, too much stress can deter learning (3). In a study by Janet et al (4), a majority of students said that the stress that they experienced, strengthened their commitment to their professional education and achievement. Many studies have observed that medical students experience a high incidence of personal distress during their undergraduate course (5),(6),(7). Previous studies have shown high levels of stress among students who were studying for professional courses (8),(9),(10),(11),(12). Only few studies have compared the levels of stress among students from different courses, but there are none from India (13), (14), (11).

Several methods have been used to study the stress in collegestudents. Cohen and colleagues developed the original 14-item English version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) as a global measure of stress by asking the respondents to report whether their lives seemed to be unpredictable, uncontrollable or overloaded (15). It has been shown to be an appropriate measure of stress which is experienced by all age groups and it can be administered in a few minutes (16), (17).

It is important for educators to know the prevalence and the causes of student distress. The most challenging aspect is to measure the potential sources of stress. In the current scenario, stressors like the high cost of professional education, the realization of individual identity, career insecurity and relationship with the faculty members need to be considered. This study aimed to explore the differences and the correlates of perceived stress between the undergraduate students from different courses. We hypothesized that the level of perceived stress among students who were studying for different professional courses was the same.

Material and Methods

The present study was conducted on a relatively heterogeneous population of students who were studying in different professional colleges like those of medical, dental, nursing, pharmacy, physiotherapy and engineering. Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional ethics committee for this study. Written consent was obtained from all the participants. All the students who participated in the study were informed about the objectives of the study and the information about the Perceived Stress Scale was explained by a well trained postgraduate student to them. All the students were given a guarantee that their personal information would be kept confidential. The data were collected by using a self-administered, standardised, semi-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire collected information on the students’ sociodemographic characteristics, the PSS scale, the sources of stress and the coping strategies which were employed.

Sample size
Based on the available data, the required sample was calculated with an allowable error of 10% and 95% confidence limits. Thus, the final sample size was 276 and it was obtained by sampling with the probability proportional to size method (PPS sampling). The sampling frame consisted of all the students who were enrolled for various courses under the Navodaya Education Trust. From each course, the required sample of students was randomly chosen from all the academic years.

Measure of Perceived Stress and Scoring:
The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is the most widely used psychological tool for measuring the perception of stress. It is a measure of the degree to which situations in one’s life are appraised as stressful. The questions in the PSS asked about the feelings and thoughts of the students during the past month. The scale was used because of its established validity and reliability (18), (19), (14),(15) (16). It had an internal consistency of 0.85 (Cronbach α coefficient) and a test–retest reliability during a short retest interval (several days) of 0.85 (20). The PSS consisted of 14 items (PSS-14) (15), seven positive and seven negative. The negative element was intended to assess the lack of control and the negative affective reactions, while the positive element measured the degree of theability to cope with the existing stressors. Each item was rated on a five-point scale from 0 = ‘never’ to 4 = ‘very often’, covering the preceding month. The PSS scores are obtained by reversing the responses (e.g., 0 = 4, 1 = 3, 2 = 2, 3 = 1 and 4 = 0) to the four positively stated items (items 4, 5, 7, and 8) and then summing across all the scale items. The scores ranged from 0 to 56, with the higher scores indicating higher levels of perceived stress and the lower scores indicating lower levels of stress.

Data Analysis
The data were entered in Microsoft Excel and were analyzed by using the SPSS version 17.0 statistical software. The levels of stress were compared between the students of various courses by using the ANOVA test for the difference in the mean scores. The Cronbach’s alpha and the t-tests were computed. All the statistical tests were two-tailed, and the results were considered as significant at p values which were < 0.05.


Two hundred and eighty six students who were studying for various courses voluntarily completed the survey instruments. 4 students submitted incomplete questionnaires and were excluded from the analysis. Therefore, a total of 282 students formed the basis for all the analyses. The mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of the study participants was 19.6 ± 1.4 years, with a range of 17-24 years. The summary of the socio-demographic characteristics of the sample are included in (Table/Fig 1). Out of the 282 students, 128 (45.4%) were male students and 154 (54.6%) were female students. The students who resided in the campus hostel were 70.3 % and those who resided in the hostels outside the campus were 16.6 %, while the remaining 13.1 % were day scholars. All the students belonged to the class I and class II socio-economic status, as per the modified BG Prasad classification. 36.2 % of the students were natives of Karnataka, while the rest belonged to other states. The number of students who participated in the study from various courses, with their gender distribution and mean age in years, is shown in (Table/Fig 2). The Cronbach’s alpha for the internal consistency of the current sample was 0.86.

The overall mean PSS score in the study population was 26.6, with a SD of 6.5 (95 % CI 25.8-27.3). The mean PSS score was higher (29.5) in the dental students, followed by the medical students (27.0), physiotherapy students (26.6), the engineering students (26.6) and it was lower in the nursing students. The lowest mean PSS score of 23.2 was found in the pharmacy students (Table/Fig 3). The higher score among the dental students indicated that the perceived stress was highest among them as compared to other students. The level of perceived stress was the lowest among the pharmacy students. The findings are shown graphically in (Table/Fig 4). A highly statistical significant association was observed between the differences in the mean PSS scores among the students who were studying for various courses, as shown in (Table/Fig 5). Hence, the null hypothesis was rejected and an alternative hypothesis was accepted, which stated that there was a difference between the levels of perceived stress among the students who were studying for various courses. The mean PSS score ± SD of 26.2 ± 6.7 of the male students was slightly lower, as compared to the score of 26.9 ± 6.3 of the female students, as shown by the bar diagram in (Table/Fig 6) and this difference was not statistically significant.

The potential sources of stress which were identified as the most stressful among the students shared a common theme of environmental factors. The overall sources of reported high stress, with the percentages of the students who identified the sources as stressful, are presented in (Table/Fig 7). The most frequently reported sources of stress by the students were environmental factors (16.9%), interpersonal relationship problems (13.9%), frequent examinations (12.2%), language barrier (12.1 %), more number of assignments (9.5%),sleeping difficulties (9%) and competition (8.9%). The least reported sources of stress were inadequate hostel facilities (4.4%) and financial problems which included the high cost of education (4.3%). Further analysis showed the differences in the stressors between the students of different courses (Table/Fig 8). The other least reported stressors were career insecurity (3.6 %) and concern of professional identity (3.9%). The interpersonal relationship problems included studentparent relationships, student- peer relationships and studentfaculty relationships, which was 13.9% together.

By multivariate logistic regression analysis, the predictors for stress were, being a hostelite [OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.12-4.10], more than 4 stressors [OR 5.01 (95% CI 2.54-10.12)], academic-related stressors [OR 3.17 (95% CI 1.52-6.68)] and schooling in a non English medium institution [OR 4.27 (95% CI 2.52-9.16)].

There was a wide variation in the coping strategies which were adopted by the students among the different courses, to alleviate stress (Table/Fig 9). But talking to a friend/ friends was the most common coping method which was followed by all the students and it ranked as number one. The next common methods which were followed were sleeping and talking to parents/ relatives / siblings. The least followed method was the use of substances like smoking/alcohol/tobacco that ranked last among all the methods. 60.6 % of the students reported of less eating at the times of stress, 34 % had no change in their eating pattern and only 5.3 % ate more. 71.6 % of the students said that stress affected their daily functioning, but only 47.2 % expressed a need for professional help.


The findings of this study demonstrated that there were differences in the way that students from various professional courses perceived stress. The levels of stress varied between the students of different courses. Dental students reported a higher level of perceived stress, which was significantly higher than that in students from other courses. Higher stress in the dental students than in the medical students was also reported by Robert J and et al (21). They were more likely to cite interpersonal relationships and environmental and academic factors than other students, resulting in high levels of perceived stress. The increased levels of stress among the dental students indicated a decrease in their psychological health, which could impair the students’ behaviour, diminish their learning, and, ultimately, affect patient care. A study by Hernandez and et al (22) demonstrated that there were differences in the way that students from various health professions perceived stress. Overall, the prevalence of stress in this study was found to be 50%, by taking a mean PSS score of 26.5 as the cut off between the stressed and the not stressed students, based on the quartiles. The levels of stress among the students which were reported were higher in a Thai study (61.4%) (23), and lower a Malaysian study (41.9%) (20) and a British study (31.2%) (24).

No difference was found in the levels of stress among male andfemale students. Similarly, Shah C and et al (25), Supe AN (6) and Mostafa AMR (26) have reported that there was no significant difference in the levels of stress between male and female students. In a study which was done in Pakistan, the mean PSS scores among the female students were found to be significantly higher than that of the male students (27). The stressors were grouped into 4 causal categories: academic, physical, social and other factors. Differences in the stressors were found between the students of various courses. Besides educational demands, physical factors and social factors were important reasons for the psychological disturbance in our students. The findings also suggested that the participants used different coping methods. As was reported in a recent Indian study (28), the students were found to be using a mixture of coping strategies. The psychosocial support in the form of talking to friends, parents and relatives was the most preferred way of alleviating stress. Similar findings were reported by other studies (29),(30),(31). It is also important to target prevention strategies at the students who have mild or moderate levels of psychological stress in order to prevent the development of more serious conditions. Early identification by using effective psychological services will prevent possible future illnesses. The results of the study were shared with the administration to implement a programme to alleviate stress in students.

Limitations of the study: One of the limitations of this study is that it was a cross-sectional study which was done among students in one campus; hence, caution had to be taken in generalizing the results. The findings of this study are based on the self reported information which was provided by the students and some potential for reporting bias may have occurred, as the ability of the students to understand the questions may have varied.


The findings suggested that high levels of perceived stress existed in the professional students during the period of their courses. The students employed mostly positive, but also some negative and lifestyle choices to alleviate stress. It is important for stress intervention programs to be designed to address an effective intervention and the stressors which are specific for college students must be determined. The interventions which have to be implemented in the campus are providing social and psychosocial support, stress reduction and relaxation methods, and individual counselling techniques. We recommend encouraging the college faculty and the staff to work in collaboration with the students to develop and implement the appropriate support services for the students.

Key Message

This study adds to the body of knowledge concerning stressors and copying strategies among professional students from India. It identified the differences in perceived stress among the students of various courses. The coping strategies are known to influence an individuals’ experience of stress. It has important implications for the administrators and educators in helping their students to overcome stress.


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