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MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
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An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
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Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

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Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
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Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Dentistry
Year : 2011 | Month : February | Volume : 5 | Issue : 1 | Page : 146 - 151 Full Version

Prevalence Of Dental Caries, Socio-Economic Status And Treatment Needs Among 5 To 15 Year Old School Going Children Of Chidambaram


Published: February 1, 2011 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2011/.1156
JOYSON MOSES*, B N RANGEETH**, DEEPA GURUNATHAN***

*MDS, Reader, Department of Pedodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai; ** B N Rangeeth, MDS, Senior Lecturer, Department of Pedodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai; *** MDS, Department of Pedodontics, College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University, Chennai India

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Joyson Moses MDS
Z block, 58 Anna Nagar
Chennai - 600040 , India
Ph: 94441788136
E. mail: drjoysonm@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: Dental caries is a disease with multifactorial causes. The prevalence and incidence of dental caries in a population is influenced by a number of risk factor such as sex, age, socioeconomic status, dietary patterns and oral hygiene habits. Thus the present study was designed to assess the prevalence of dental caries in school children in Chidambaram between 5-15 age groups.
Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 2362 children, 1258 were boys and 1104 were girls. A total of 7 schools were selected. Trained Dental Surgeon was involved in the examining and the children were examined according to the Dentition status and Treatment Needs, WHO oral health assessment 1987.

Results: Off all the three groups, group II (9-11yrs old) had high percentage of caries. In total, dental caries were observed in 1484(63.83%) of study population. The mean (±SD) value of dmft/DMFT of all groups, the decayed teeth accounted for the greatest percentage. In all 80.4%of the student belong to low socio-economic group and showed dental caries .Restoration was the most required treatment in all three groups which was follow by pulp therapy.
Conclusion: The result of this study is a pointer to the fact that there still exist a large segment of the population who continue to remain ignorant about the detriment effects of poor oral health and the multiple benefits enjoyed from good oral health.

Keywords

Prevalence, Dental Caries, School Children, Treatment Need

INTRODUCTION

Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease. It’s very high morbidity potential has brought this disease into the main focus of the dental health profession. There is practically no geographic area in the world whose inhabitant does not exhibit some evidence of dental caries. It affects both the sexes, all races, all socio-economic status and all age groups (1). It not only causes pain and discomfort, but also in addition, places a financial burden on the parent. The prevention of dental caries has long been considered as an important task for the health profession. Scientific research continues to make progress in identifying the best practices for diagnosing, treating, and preventing dental caries. Traditional approaches for treating carious lesions in a surgical manner are being replaced by newer strategies that emphasize disease prevention and conservation of tooth structure.

Voluminous literature exists on the status of the dental caries in the Indian population. In the year 1997, 22.7% of Indian population was estimated to be 5-14 yrs. This being such a high proportion of the population, the prevelance of dental disease among this age group needs to be assessed. It has been observed that during 1940 the prevalence of dental caries in India was 55.5%, during 1960 it was reported to be 68%. Overall the general impression is that dental caries has increased in prevalence and severity in urban and cosmopolitan population over the last couples of decades. However there is no definite picture as yet regarding the disease status in rural and backward areas of country in the comparison where 80% of the population inhabits (2).

A very extensive and comprehensive National Health Survey (3) conducted in 2004 throughout India has shown dental caries in 51.9% in 5 year-old children, 53.8% in 12 year-old children and 63.1% in 15 year-old teenagers. The report concluded that a preventive dentistry program, such as water fluoridation, should be initiated to address this national crisis in dental caries.

In order to assess the magnitude of the preventive task it is necessary to know the extent and severity of the disease. Schools are the best center for effectively implementing the comprehensive health care programme, as children are easily accessible at school. The process of improving oral health in a population involves components such as
1. Collection of information about oral diseases.
2. Evaluation of the data helps to understand the need of the community.
3. Identification of the high risk group.
4. Plan the treatment and preventive strategies for community.

Not many studies have been done in Chidambaram school children to assess the dental caries and oral hygiene status. Hence the current study was planned to provide the base line data of prevalence of dental caries and the treatment needs for dental caries along with their socioeconomic status among 5 to 15 year old school going children of Chidambaram.

Material and Methods

The study was conducted between October (2002) to March (2003). The study population consisted of children aged 5 to 15 year who were attending the school in Chidambaram. The study sample comprised of 2362 children, 1258 were boys and 1104 were girls.
(Table/Fig 1): The Total Number Subject

The lists of school were prepared according to the information supplied by directorate of education, Chidambaram. Schools were selected randomly. There are 17 schools in Chidambaram, of which only 7 school were selected for the study, out of which 4 government and 3 private school. The age groups of 5 to 15years were selected to screen the primary dentition, mixed dentition and permanent dentition except the third molar and the early status of dental caries that could not be diagnosed positively were excluded. Before starting the study official permission was obtained from all the concerned authorities. Each school principal was informed about the study aims and objectives and invited to participate in the project by a letter of explanation. An initial training and calibration exercise was conducted to provide practical experience in the study methodology and the coding system for the dental examiner prior to the main survey. All children enrolled at the preschool were given a parent introduction letter with an attached consent form. Visit to the school was made on predecided dates and all the students present on the day were examined. Children with the consent to participate in the survey were examined within their school, usually in the school corridor. Oral examinations were conducted using a disposable illuminated mouth mirror (Denlite, Welch Allyn Ltd, Navan, Co Meath, Ireland) and a blunt ball-ended probe (Diagnostic Probe, Hu-Freidy Dental, Chicago, Illinois, USA) with an end diameter of 0.5mm. All teeth were examined in a systematic manner using international FDI two-digit nomenclature to identify each primary tooth and standard dental terminology to identify each surface. An average number of 50 school children were examined per day.

A survey form was prepared and the children were examined according to the Dentition status and Treatment Needs WHO oral health assessment 1987 (4). All the examinations were carried out by the investigator, in the subjects own surroundings i.e. the school. A recording clerk (Trained Dental Surgeon) was involved to enter the codes on the survey form. The present and past health status of each tooth was recorded in terms of the presence or absence of disease or a dental restoration. Only definite cavitations of the tooth surface were recorded as dental caries to reduce examiner confusion regarding diagnosis and exclusion of intact demineralized (white spot) lesions.

The instruments were kept in Dettol solution, for disinfections and sterilization. Dettol was diluted by adding potable water in the ratio of 1:9 dilutions. The school children were allowed to sit on a chair or stool, where sufficient natural daylight was available. The children were asked to rinse mouth thoroughly before examination, then the teeth were dried with cotton swab and the dental caries were recorded. Immediate care was given and referral was made as and when required. All the children were referred to Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, R. M. D. C & H, Chidambaram. Survey findings were reported to respective school authorities on the spot.

Children belonging to 5-8 years were classified under group I, 9-11 years under group II and 12 – 15 years under group III. The statistical software SPSS PC (statistical package for social science, version 4.01) was used for statistical analysis.

Results

Epidemiological survey was conducted for 2362 school children; belong to the age group of 5 -15 years. Out of the study population 544(23%) belong to the age group I, 764(32%) belong to age group II and 1054 (45%) belong to the age group III (Table/Fig 1).
196(68.05%) males and 160 (62.5%) females belong to age group I showed prevalence of dental caries. 280(69.4%) males and 214 (63.7%) females belong to age group II showed prevalence of dental caries. 330(61%) males and 304 (59.4%) females belong to age group III showed prevalence of dental caries. in total, dental caries were observed in 1484(63.83%) of study population.
(Table/Fig 2): Comparison of proportion of affected cases among males and females

Caries experience according to socio economic status in group I, the low socio-economic showed high percentage of caries experience males (81.2%) and females (77%). In group II, the low socio-economic showed high percentage of caries experience males (71.3%) and females (77.8%). In group III, the low socio-economic showed high percentage of caries experience males (82.7%) and females (92.3%).In all 80.4%of the student belongs low socio-economic group has showed dental caries.
(Table/Fig 3): Caries experience according the socio-economic status

This table shows that in all groups the decayed teeth accounted for the greatest percentage of the total decay, missed and filled teeth. The mean (+SD) value of dmft/DMFT for group I males were 1.91±2.75 and females 3.36±3.25, group II males were 2.57±3.12 and females 2.52±2.95, group III males were 1.67±1.99 and females 1.95±1.99.
(Table/Fig 4): Distribution on dmft/dmft component according to age and sex


(Table/Fig 5): The mean ± (sd) of dmft/dmft component according to age and sex

A total of 62.83% children required treatment, out of all groups, groups I 68% males required treatment. Among the different types of treatment required, there was no big difference between boys and girls. More cases required restoration followed by pulp care, Extraction, fissure sealant and preventive.

(Table/Fig 6): Treatment needs according to the age and sex

Discussion

Untreated oral diseases in children frequently lead to serious general health, significant pain, and interference with eating and lost school time. One of the factors to be considered when planning for the required growth in dental care facilities is the prevalence of dental diseases and their treatment need in the population. A World Health Organization (WHO) estimation of global DMFT for 12 year-old children reported that in the 188 countries included in their database, that on a global basis, 200,335,280 teeth were decayed, filled or missing among just that age group. This was based on the data available in 2004 from the WHO Oral Health Database, Country/Area Profile Program (CAPP)(5). This is why WHO continues to advocate that efforts to improve the overall situation are still highly indicated (Table 2) (6),(7).

The 12-13 year age group were chosen for the study as it is the global monitoring age for dental caries, for international comparisons and monitoring of disease trends.(Aggeryd 1983) (8). It was observed that the caries prevalence of group III age group was lower as compared to the group II and I. This show as age advances, the prevalence of dental caries decreases. This finding corresponds with the study conducted by Misra F.M (1979) (9) among 6-16 year old children in urban area of South Orissa. He observed an increase in caries level between 5 to 12 year (56% to 81%) and a decrease in caries level in 13-15year (41.4%).Similarly in the study conducted by Peterson P.E,et al (1991) (10), Retna Kumari N (1999) (11), Dash J.K (2002) (12), Saravanan S,.et al (2003) (13), Mahesh Kumar P(2005) (14). The increased prevalence of caries in boys compared to girls confirms the view that there is a marked preference for sons regardless of the socio-economic class, which manifests itself in the longer feeding of sons compared to daughters Jain M (2001) (15). A cross sectional study19 with 3,048 children aged 6-12 years in Mexico was reported in 2006. Mean age was determined to be 8.81 years with a primary dentition caries prevalence of 90.2%. In the permanent dentition, Caries prevalence was reported to be 82%. The majority of the children (81.1%) needed restorations of at least two toothsurfaces. Caries incidence increased with age (16).
The prevalence of dental caries was high in the low socio-economic status because of their poor oral hygiene practice, lack of awareness, improper food intake and family status. This finding is similar to the study conducted by Sogi G and Baskar D.J (2001) (17). Recent studies from Europe 4, 522 demonstrate a significant inverse association between social class and oral health status in young children. The north Brisbane study supports these findings by confirming that preschool children from a lower socio-economic background also more active decay and more missing teeth from previous disease compared with children from higher SES levels.In the present study, the decay teeth accounted for the greatest percentage 92%of the dmft/DMFT component, finding is similar to the studies of Olojugba O.O, et al (1987) (18) and Prodrigues J.S.L & Damle S.G(1998) (19).

(Table/Fig 7)

On assessment of treatment needs, among the III groups, group I aged 5-8yrs old were high treatment needed, similar to the study done by Dhar V., Jain A.,Van Dyke T.E., Kohli A(2007) (20) and Dhar V, Bhatnagar M (2009) (21). The highest need I all III groups were of restoration followed by pulp care. Between the two sexes, boys showed a decline in treatment needs .This could suggest that boys were getting a preference for receiving dental treatment compared to girls. Rao A, Sequeira SP, Peter S (1999) (22)
The result of this study is a pointer to the fact that there still exist a large segment of the population who continue to remain ignorant about the detriment effects of poor oral health and the multiple benefits enjoyed from good oral health. One of the oral health goals advocated by WHO for 2000 AD (23) was that 50% of 5-6 year olds should be free from dental caries. In the present study it was observed that 57.2% of children in 6 year age group were affected by dental caries indicating a high prevalence of the disease in children.

P.S: The above studies are an accumulation of dental caries studies over a period of 20 years (from 1990-2010) and involving the age group 5-17 years.

References

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Prakash H, Sidhu SS & Sundaram KR: Prevalence of Dental Caries among delhi school chidren. J Ind Dent Assoc.1999; 70:12-14.
2.
Damle SG, Patel AR. Caries prevalence and treatment needs amongst children at Dharavi, Mumbai. J Comm Dent Oral Epidemol.1994; 22:62-3.
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National Oral Health Survey and Fluoride Mapping. An Epidemiological Study of Oral Health Problems and Estimation of Fluoride Levels in Drinking Water. Dental Council of India, New Delhi, 2004; 32; 67-78.
4.
World Health Organization: oral health surveys basic method. 4th edition, Geneva, WHO 1987;760-871
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Bratthall, D. Estimation of global DMFT for 12-year olds in 2004. Int Dent J 2004; 55:14-18.
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World Health Organization. Global oral health data bank. Geneva, 2001; 768-771.
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Moynihan P, Petersen PE. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of dental diseases. Public Health Nutr 2004; 7:201-226.
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