Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 28881

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : August | Volume : 5 | Issue : 4 | Page : 746 - 748

The Perceptions Regarding Refractive Errors and Their Psychosocial Impact on Youth in Dakshina Kannada

Sheetal Savur

Corresponding Author.

Correspondence Address :
Dr Sheetal Savur,
Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology,
Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore .
Phone: +919632352678
E-mail: sheetalsavur@gmail.com

Abstract

The prevalence of refractive errors especially amongst children has been commonly studied. The psychosocial impact of spectacle use in youth has seldom been studied. Our purpose was to study the perceptions of refractive errors and to investigate their psychosocial effect on youth. A descriptive questionnaire based study was conducted on unmarried youth in the age group of 18-25 years over a period of two months. The questionnaire elicited details like demography, various other modalities which were used by the respondents for the correction of the refractive errors, their perception about wearing spectacles and the psychosocial problems which they faced. Despite a high level of education, the perceptions regarding the refractive errors varied, with a large number of people having wrong perceptions and attitudes towards refractive errors especially towards spectacle use, which resulted in psychological distress. The dissemination of information about the refractive errors through the right medium will help in dispelling the misconceptions and distorted facts.

Keywords

Refractive errors, Spectacles, Perceptions, Psychosocial

AIM
To study the perceptions and the psychosocial aspects of refractive errors and spectacle usage in a young adult population of Dakshina Kannada.

Refractive errors can affect social life and the economic prospects of an individual by restricting the educational and employment opportunities of otherwise healthy individuals. Most of the studies have been conducted on the prevalence of refractive errors, especially amongst children and on various other logistic issues which are related to the refractive errors. Their psychosocial impact, especially on youth has been underestimated and seldom has been studied. This study was conducted in order to investigate the psychosocial impact of refractive errors and its various modes of correction in a young adult population.

Material and Methods

The study is a descriptive, questionnaire based study which was conducted over a 2 month period in Dakshina Kannada. The study was conducted in full accordance with the ethical principles, including the provisions of the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. 458 study subjects were administered the semi structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent from them. The questionnaire elicited the demographic profile, the perceptions about refractive errors and the various modalities of treatment which were used for their correction. Questions pertaining to the psychosocial aspects were also included. The questionnaire was pretested among a group of 10 respondents and was revised to enhance its clarity and comprehension. The criteria for inclusion in this study were unmarried youths in the age groupof 18-25 years. We did not encounter any substantial refusals from the subjects regarding participation in the study. The data was analyzed.

Results

460 questionnaires were distributed among the respondents over a period of two months. 458 subjects responded satisfactorily. 246 females and 212 males participated in the study .The mean age of the respondents was 20 years. The level of education is depicted in (Table/Fig 1) below, with most of the respondents (87% ) being graduates.

Out of the 458 respondents, 221 (48.2%) had difficulty in seeing and the various modalities which were used in the correction of the refractive errors are as shown in (Table/Fig 2).

Out of the 59 respondents who used contact lenses for the correction of the refractive errors, the number of females 71% (42) were more than the males 29% (16).

23.3% respondents felt that using spectacles for a long time would harm the eyes or lead to early blindness. 30.5% felt that yoga, diet and traditional medicines could reduce the power of the eye. 30.1% felt that the continuous use of glasses would increase the power of the glasses.

51% respondents felt that spectacles were a cosmetic blemish. Of these, 46 % were males and 54% were females. 10.6% felt ashamed or embarrassed in using spectacles. 26.8% felt that spectacles were a sign of intelligence.

31.2% felt that 2 individuals with refractive errors should not marry. 21.1% felt that even if one parent had a refractive error, there was a high chance that the children would have it too. 6.1% respondents said they would refuse to marry a person who used glasses. However, 3.9% said that they would reconsider their decision if the form of correction was cosmetically acceptable i.e. change to contact lenses or refractive surgery. The refusal was lesser [19(4.1%)] if contact lenses were used and it was the least for surgical correction [15(3.2%)].

The problems faced by the spectacle users in our study are listed in (Table/Fig 3) above.

Discussion

Refractive error is a remediable cause of visual impairment, with the correction of the significant refractive error being a priority of Vision 2020. The Right to Sight, the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Global Initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness (1). The earlier onset of refractive error as compared to cataract can account for twice as many blind-person years (2). According to a study which was conducted in south India (3), 13.8% had a refractive error of a spherical equivalent of + 3.00 diopter or worse. The prevalence of the current use of spectacles in people with a spherical equivalent of + 3.00 diopter or more, were likely to be visually impaired without refractive correction, was 34.2% (3).

Spectacles or eyeglasses are frames which bear lenses are worn in front of the eyes usually to enhance vision (3)(4)(5)(6)(7). Other reasons for spectacle wear include eye protection, to conceal eye defects andas a fashion accessory. In our study, spectacles were used only to improve vision. Despite the increasing popularity of contact lenses (CL) and refractive surgery , the use of spectacles still remains the most popular method of correcting refractive errors (3)(4)(5)(6)(7). and this fact was demonstrated in our study too.

While both boys and girls experienced benefits beyond vision correction, girls experienced a stronger boost in self esteem with a switch to contact lenses from glasses (8)(9)(10). Recent studies have shown the use of CL for refractive error correction to be higher and more common among the younger strata of the population (11)(12)(13). Cosmetic benefits and convenience were the most common reasons which were cited for CL use (11),(12). However, the use of contact lenses was not so common in our study group (24.9%). In a study which was conducted on college goers in coastal Karnataka, the prevalence of CL usage was 94.6% (14). 79.9% of the CL users were found to be females, which was the same gender predilection for CL use as was found in our study (71% females) and in other studies (11)(12)(13). The awareness regarding refractive surgeries as an option for the treatment of refractive errors was high (96%) among our respondents probably due to their higher educational qualification.

30% of the respondents in our study believed that the continuous use of glasses would progressively increase the refractive error. 23% of the respondents believed that spectacle usage had harmful effects on the eyes. In a study which was conducted in Pakistan (14)(15), 69 per cent of the people thought that using spectacles would cause their vision to deteriorate, they therefore tried to avoid it. The reason for the difference in numbers between the above two studies could be the difference in the study setting and in the educational level between the two populations; ours being an urban setting with a higher educational level of the respondents, our findings were contrary to those of the Pakistan study. The fear of spectacles damaging the eyes was also a significant hindrance to spectacle use in a Nigerian study (16). In studies on Chinese children, a common reason for not wearing spectacles was the belief that spectacles weakened the eyes (17), (18). In a report among secondary school students in Tanzania, this ‘fear’ was referred to as ‘parental concerns about the safety of spectacle use’ and it was listed among the barriers against the use of spectacles by students (19). It has been suggested that spectacle wear could disrupt normal ‘emmetropization’ (which depends on the growth of the eye, the refractive state, and the visual stimulation) in infants. Yet, the long term effect of spectacles on normal changes in the refractive error of the human eye is negligible (20).

31% of the subjects in our study felt that diet, yoga and traditional medicine could cure refractive errors, which was contrary to the truth. A misconception like this could result in them refraining from seeking appropriate treatment. The fear of spectacles damaging the eyes should be directly addressed and the concerns should be alleviated during consultations at eye care clinics.

Girls are particularly vulnerable to social and psychological distress. Our study revealed that a large percentage of respondents (35%) were teased for using glasses. It was generally the peers who had a negative attitude and even the victimized children with refractive errors who were using spectacles. 3% even faced extreme rejection in the form of being declined for marriage, only because they wore glasses and 31% respondents were ready to hide their glasses to avoid rejection before marriage. An attitude like this could result in serious problems like psychosocial maladjustment,anxiety, depressive feelings, loneliness, lowered self-esteem and behavioural problems.

52% of the respondents considered spectacles to be a cosmetic blemish especially the females (56.6%). A study which was conducted in Pakistan (15) too demonstrated this fact. The main reason for the discontinuation of spectacle wear in women was given as community pressure and cosmetic factors. These women reported that they had to face social pressure often, not only in terms of appearance but also because of the perception that their children could inherit their visual impairment (15). In our study, 10.5% respondents were ashamed or embarrassed by their spectacles. 27% felt that only intelligent people used spectacles. This brought to light the need to change their perspective towards the use of spectacles through the proper dissemination of knowledge and information.

14% of the respondents in our study said that they would refuse to marry a person who had a refractive error. This was despite them having a good educational background and awareness regarding various cosmetically acceptable options. This brings to light the deep rooted stigma which is associated with refractive errors and with spectacles which are used in their correction. This is a paradox considering the high literacy level and also the increased awareness of the option of refractive surgeries in our study.

Conclusion

Spectacles are still most commonly the preferred modality for the treatment of refractive error. Refractive errors and especially the use of spectacles for their correction is still a taboo in our society. The psychological repercussions have been understated and understudied. There still exists among the educated population, certain misconceptions regarding the cure of refractive errors, which need to be addressed. It can influence major decisions like the choice of spouses. Counseling, mass media, support groups and the provision of information about refractive errors in schools and college textbooks, will help in dispelling the misconceptions and the distorted facts about these.

References

1.
World Health Organization: Programme for the Prevention of Blindness and Deafness. Global Initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness. 1997;1–7.
2.
Dandona R, Dandona L. Refractive error blindness. Bull World Health Organ. 2001; 79:237–43.
3.
Dandona R, Dandona L, Kovai V, Giridhar P, Prasad MN, Srinivas M. Population-based study of spectacles use in southern India. Indian J Ophthalmology 2002;5 0:145-55.
4.
Ramke J, Williams C, Ximenes L, Ximenes D, Palagyi A, du Toit R, et al. A public-private partnership to provide spectacles for Timor-Leste. Community Eye Health J 2007; 20:54.
5.
Holden BA, Sulaiman S, Knox K. The challenge of providing spectacles in the developing word. Community Eye Health J 2000; 13:9-10.
6.
Jayanand NS. A population-based study of spectacles use in southern India. Indian J Ophthalmology 2002; 50:250.
7.
Michon J, Michon L. Popularising eye health services in southern Mexico: Community workers meet a felt need. Community Eye Health J 2006; 19:64-5.
8.
Solomon KD, Fernández de Castro LE, Sandoval HP, Biber JM, Groat B, Neff KD, et al. LASIK world literature review: Quality of life and wearer satisfaction. Ophthalmology 2009; 116:691-701.
9.
Hersh PS, Brint SF, Maloney RK, Durrie DS, Gordon M, Michelson MA, et al. Photorefractive keratectomy versus laser in situ keratomileusis for moderate to high myopia: A randomized prospective study. Ophthalmology 1998; 105:1512-22.
10.
Schallhorn SC, Farjo AA, Huang D, Boxer Wachler BS, Trattler WB, Tanzer DJ, et al. Wavefront-guided LASIK for the correction of primary myopia and astigmatism; a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2008; 115:1249-61.
11.
Shimonosekishi U. Contact lens use among high-school students. Ophthalmology (Japan) 2001;43:293–7.
12.
Lee YC, Lim CW, Sam SM, Koh D. The prevalence and pattern of contact lens use in a Singapore community. CLAO J. 2000; 26:21–5.
13.
Colleen R, Robin LC. Survey of contact lens wearing habits and attitudes towards methods of refractive correction: 2002 versus 2004. Optom Vis Sci 2005; 82:555-61.
14.
Unnikrishnan B, Hussain S. Pattern of the use of contact lens among college students: A cross-sectional study in coastal Karnataka Indian J Ophthalmol. 2009 Nov–Dec; 57(6): 467–46.
15.
Yasmin S. Community perceptions of refractive errors in Pakistan Community Eye Health. 2007 September; 20(63): 52–53.
16.
Ayanniyi AA, Adepoju FG, Ayanniyi RO, Morgan RE. Challenges, Attitudes and Practices of the Spectacle Wearers in a Resource- Limited Economy. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2010; 17:83-7.
17.
Congdon N, Zheng M, Sharma A, Choi K, Song Y, Zhang M, et al. Prevalence and determinants of spectacle nonwear among rural Chinese secondary schoolchildren: The Xichang Pediatric Refractive Error Study Report 3. Arch Ophthalmol 2008; 126:1717-23.
18.
Li L, Song Y, Liu X, Lu B, Choi K, Lam DS, et al. Spectacle Acceptance among Secondary School Students in Rural China: The Xichang Pediatric Refractive Error Study (X-PRES)-Report 5. Investig Ophthalmol Visual Sci 2008; 49:2895-902.
19.
Odedra N, Wedner SH, Shigongo ZS, Nyalali K, Gilbert C. Barriers to spectacle use in Tanzanian secondary school students. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2008; 15:410-7.
20.
Fat Piipo LJ, Coats DK. Pediatric spectacle prescription. Comp Ophthalmol Update 2002; 3:113-22.

DOI and Others

JCDR/2011/1471

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com