Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

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Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

View Point
Year : 2011 | Month : August | Volume : 5 | Issue : 4 | Page : 912 - 914

Medical Education: Are We Ready for a Transition?

Amrita Shriyan, Devan P. P.

Corresponding Author. Assistant Professor A.J. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Correspondence Address :
Amrita .Shriyan Assistant Professor,
A.J.Institute of Medical Sciences,
Deptartment of Microbiology, Kuntikan, NH-17,
Mangalore-575004. Karnataka, India.
Tel: +91 (0) 9986252598
E-mail: dramrita@ymail.com

Abstract

Purpose: To analyze whether the current reforms are the right answer to the shortcomings of traditional medical training. To study the preferences of the teaching aids and the methods used by the postgraduate students.

Methods: A study was conducted at the A.J. Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka. The participants were postgraduates from various medical colleges in and around Mangalore. A questionnaire was distributed among 100 randomly selected postgraduate students who came to attend the Postgraduate CME Program on scientific writing, publication and presentation skills. The students were asked to tick appropriately the teaching aids and the methods which were preferred.

Results: The postgraduate students were of the opinion that problem based learning and group discussions were preferred over other teaching methods and that Powerpoint presentations were preferred by 82% of the postgraduates as their teaching visual aid, over 14% who preferred blackboard teaching and 2% the overhead projector. 60%-70%of the postgraduates preferred problem based learning. Only 36% of the students felt that it was necessary to have interactions with other departments to treat a patient.

Conclusion: Definitely newer teaching methods would be more helpful than the traditional curriculum with didactic lectures. Visual aids like Power-point presentations will motivate the students to learn their subjects, thus making the learning process an enjoyable experience.

Keywords

Teaching methods, Visual aids, Post-graduate Medical Curriculum, Medical Education

Over the years, attempts have been made to revolutionize medical training.

Traditional clinical bedside skills along with problem based learning, must be inculcated in every student. Students should not be inert recipients of knowledge. Students should learn how to think more productively, by combining creative thinking (to generate ideas) and critical thinking (to evaluate ideas) (1)(2)(3). Conventionally, the role of the medical teacher is to impart curriculum based knowledge to the students. Innovative teaching methods like small group discussions, problem based learning (PBL) and case presentations would further enhance their learning skills and would motivate the students to learn in a more meaningful manner (4). It aims on developing reasoning skills in the students rather than taking up lecture based studies. Small group discussions would further help the teacher to evaluate the progress of the students and to help them improve in their further sessions (5). There is an increased level of self-confidence which develops among all the students due to the gaining of their professional knowledge in a fashion of PBL.

Our educational programs should produce doctors who not only have a sound knowledge of the subject, but who are also clinically competent, who excel in interpersonal skills and professional behaviours, who are able to work as a team and those who are able to adapt to changes in the developing medical science faculty and live up to the expectations of the society. Problem based learning definitely has far more advantages than the traditional lecture based learning. This method emphasizes on the presentation of the clinical problems, followed by defining the problems with different solutions to it. The students should be brainstormed about their perception of the problem and their reasoning skills and a solution should be provided by the representative of the group. The final conclusionshould be provided by the teacher. This is an interactive session with the participation of all the students, thus making them more confident in dealing with such similar situations. Certain deficiencies in our medical education system have been identified and documented. Most of them are related to factors within the curriculum (4)(5)(6)(7). MCI also insists on the development of quality in medical education, which includes the training of faculty members to adopt newer teaching tools and methods to improve the quality of education. Published literature is available on the evolution of medical education units in India and on their vision to improve the system in future by conducting CMEs and workshops, as there is a need for a change in the training of medical teachers. With advances in the medical field achieving a uniformity in the training, curriculum or examination would be a challenge.

Material and Methods

This was a qualitative study which was conducted at A.J.I.M.S, Mangalore, Karnataka. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of teaching among students and their opinion to improve the same. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed, which contained 10 questions which were given to the students to know their perception about the different tools and methods used in medical education. The data included the positive and negative effects of teaching on the professional aspects. The participants were postgraduate students from different medical colleges in and around Mangalore, who attended the P.G. CME program. Out of them, 100 students were given a questionnaire and a survey was carried out to know the preference of the teaching aids and the teaching methods. We shall focus here on our views on the revolution of medical education, based on the desires which were put forward by the students on their personal experiences. Large and small group teaching, improving presentations, problem based learning,computer assisted learning, ethics and better scientific writing have improved the existing approach to the medical subjects. Lately, workshops on digital photography, information retrieval by using the internet and video editing have been introduced.

Results

Most of the participants believed that teaching with the use of visual aids and problem based learning motivated them to study. Powerpoint presentations were preferred by 82% of the postgraduates as their teaching visual aid over 14% who preferred blackboard teaching and 2% the overhead projector. ‘One picture is worth a thousand words’ is an old Japanese saying and hence, it is preferred to get a better idea of a given subject. Around 60%-70% of the postgraduates preferred problem based learning and small group discussions as their teaching method over lectures by faculty members, case presentations, journal club presentations (20–25%), seminars and project work (8%–10%).

As the horizontal and the vertical discussion of subjects is recommended by Medical Council of India, inter-department interactions are a must. By teaching this course to medical students in an organized manner, they not only make the students aware of the problems which can be faced in the future, but they also educate them on how to tackle such issues. With regards to this, in our survey, only 36% of the students felt that it was necessary to have interactions with other departments to treat a patient. 42% of the postgraduates felt that it may be necessary at times and 22% of them did not feel the need to have any interdepartmental interactions. The graduates possessed a sound knowledge of the medical subjects, but they were found to be deficient in the clinical application of it. One should periodically update one’s knowledge as learning is a continuous process.

Discussion

In the present session which we conducted for postgraduates, we emphasized on scientific writing, presentation skills and medical ethics and obtained their view with regards to the different teaching aids and the methods that they would prefer. Earlier, it was a teacher centered strategy with very little participation by the students and interaction with the students. The students should be encouraged to evaluate the performance of their teachers. Thus, a feed back questionnaire will provide better information to further improve the existing system. Creating relevant teaching aids and employing methods would make the learning process an enjoyable experience. M.C.I. has recommended both Horizontal; example: Microbiology– Pharmacology–Pathology) and Vertical Integration (example: Microbiology–Surgery, Medicine–Pathology) to be introduced throughout the curriculum. Small group teaching helps to evaluate the progress of the students and it helps to improve them (5)(6).

It would perhaps be appropriate to explore these new methods of teaching in medical education. However, this can only happen after a period of appropriate training of the faculty to introduce problem based learning in medical schools. It is very surprising that only very few members of the medical community are familiar with the art and techniques of scientific oral presentations, powerpoint presentations, overhead projectors or any other audiovisual aids. The audiovisual aids should not be allowed to replace the speaker. Changes in the medical practice in future would be a more systematic approach. This is due to increased reading and reflection on practice, challenging questions from students and thus spending more time with the patients due to learning their medical subjects in the form of PBL (8)(9)(10)(11).

A study was done, where these two methods were evaluated with pre-test and post–test. The results of the post–test scores were statistically significant, thus proving that problem based learning was definitely more effective than the conventional lecture based learning (12). One of the studies showed that the positive effects of problem based learning were that it not only improved the teaching skills of the teachers, but that it also improved the concept of application of knowledge among the medical students in their future practice. Other studies in this regards have mentioned that it can be suggested to promote the general practitioners to attend Continued Medical Education programs on problem based learning, which can enhance their capabilities in clinical practice (13).

A complete transition from a conventional to a problem-based learning curriculum further helps in training the students to handle difficult situations and questioning and also in evaluating the students. These proposed teaching methods would facilitate small group discussions. Such teaching methods would provide a forum through which the medical students would develop clinical reasoning skills based on a sound scientific knowledge, early in their medical training (8)(9)(10)(11). One should be ready for this transition. It is time to revolutionize the existing teaching methods with these innovative teaching aids and methods in medical education. However, many studies have shown significant differences in the results when problem based learning was included as their teaching method. In our study too, the students felt that they could have been better performers if problem based learning had been introduced as a teaching method in their medical educational system. Further studies are required to understand and evaluate the application of these innovative teaching methods in our medical educational system.

References

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Prideaux D. Researching the outcomes of educational interventions: a matter of design. BMJ January 2002; 19;324:126-7
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West DC, Pomerory JR, Park JK, Gerstenberger EA, Sandoval J. Critical thinking in graduate medical education: A role for concept mapping assessment? JAMA. 2000; Sep 6; 284(9):1105-10.
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Rendas A B, Fonseca M, Pinto P R. Towards meaningful learning in undergraduate medical education by using concept maps in a PBL pathophysiology course. Advances in Physiology Education. 2006; 30: 23-29.
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Supe A, Burdick W P. Challenges and issues in medical education in India. Academic Medicine December 2006; 81/12:1076-1080.
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Visschers-Pleijers AJ, Dolmans DH, de Grave WS, Wolfhagen IH, Jacobs JA, van der Vleuten CP. Student perceptions about the characteristics of an effective discussion during the reporting phase in problem-based learning. Med Educ. 2006 Sep; 40(9):924-31.
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Bansal P., Supe A. Training of medical teachers in India: Need for a change. Indian J Med Sci. 2007 Aug; 61(8):478-84.
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Bhuiyan PS, Rege NN. Evolution of a Medical Education Technology Unit in India. Education Forum 2001 Jan: 47(1):42-4.
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Norman GR and Schmidt HG. The effectiveness of problem-based learning curricula: theory, practice and paper darts. Medical Education, March 2000; 34:721-8.
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Diana F Wood. Problem based learning. BMJ. February 2003; 326: 328.
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Ashourioun V, Dadgostarnia M. A comprehensive report and “Introduction to Clinical Medicine”, Educational Development Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 2002; 6-5.
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Nandi PL, Chan JNF, Chan CPK, Chan P, Chan LPK. Undergraduate medical education: comparison of problem-based learning and conventional teaching. HKMJ 2000; 6:301-6.
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Davood Y, Mostafa A M, Reza G, Hossein G et al. The effect of problem based learning on education and the recall of medical students in the course of basic immunology in comparison with lecture based learning. Journal of Medical Education. Summer 2002; 1(4):165-68.
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Yamani N., Yousefy A., Changiz T., Ashourioun V., Ghasemi M.. How does teaching clinical skills influence the instructors’ professional behaviour? Journal of Medical Education. Summer 2004; 5(2): 41-45.

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