Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018




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On Sep 2018




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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
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Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
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Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help ones reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journalsNo manuscriptsNo authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : October | Volume : 5 | Issue : 5 | Page : 1046 - 1050 Full Version

A Study on the Lung Function Tests in Petrol-Pump Workers


Published: October 1, 2011 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2011/.1520
APRAJITA, NEERAJ KANT PANWAR, SHARMA R.S.

Senior Resident in Maulana Azad medical college, New Delhi. Senior Lecturer, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, IDST Dental College and hospital, Kadrabad, Ghaziabad, India. E-mail: dr.neerajkantpanwar@gmail.com Professor & Head of deptt., Department of Physiology Govt Medical College, Amritsar. India.

Correspondence Address :
Aprajita, MBBS, M.D. (Physiology)
C-121, Radha Garden, Mawana Road
Meerut. Uttar Pradesh (250001), India.
E-mail: dr_aprajita_04@yahoo.com
Phone: 08872762081

Abstract

Introduction: Air pollution from vehicles is an inescapable part of the urban life. A long-term exposure to petrol and diesel fumes lead to a deleterious effect on the respiratory function. Inaddition to the exposure to the hazardous exhaust of vehicles, petrol-pump workers are also exposed to the vapours of petrol.

Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the extent of altered pulmonary functions in petrol-pump workers who were exposed to petrol and diesel fumes. In-addition, the effect of the duration of the service at the petrol-pumps was also studied and these changes were compared with those of agematched healthy controls.

Material and Methods: The study comprised of 150 petrol-pump workers who were categorized into three groups, depending on the duration of the exposure. Fifty, healthy, age-matched males served as the controls. Each subject’s age, smoking habits, the duration of the exposure and health conditions were recorded.Their pulmonary-function tests were studied at their workplace by using a Med-spiror. The statistical analysis was done by using one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance).

Results: The results showed a statistically significant decline in the values of FVC, FEV0.5, FEV1, FEV3, FEF 50%, FEF 25-75% and PEFR in the petrol-pump workers. However, a decline in the mean values of MVV, FEF 25%, FEF 75%, FEV 0.5 / FVC, FEV1/ FVC and FEV3 / FVC was statistically insignificant.

Conclusion: Our findings are suggestive of the adverse effects of petrol/diesel fumes on pulmonary functions. In order to prevent these changes in the petrol filling workers, we suggest a medical observation including pre-employment and periodic medical check-ups, including pulmonary function tests. The early recognition and the removal of the susceptible workers from the work place before chronic impairment develops will prove to be beneficial.

Keywords

Petrol and Diesel Fumes, Occupational Exposure, Respiratory Function, Pulmonary Function Tests, Timed Vital Capacity

Introduction
Air pollution from vehicles is an inescapable part of the urban life throughout the world. A long term exposure to the air pollutants leads to deleterious effects on the respiratory functions. Air pollutants and chemicals like benzene, lead and carbon monoxide can cause adverse health effects by interacting with molecules which are crucial for the biochemical or physiological processes of the human body.The rapidly multiplying number of automobiles in most cities is causing a corresponding increase in air pollution, which is a cause of grave concern. Also, the failure to use personal protective equipment poses a great risk for the petrol-filling workers (1).

Petrol is a mixture of volatile hydrocarbons, while diesel fuel is a distillate of petroleum which contains paraffins, alkenes and aromatics (2). Both petrol and diesel undergo combustion in automobile engines and give rise to combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs). Diesel exhaust particles are the most common CDNPs in the urban environmental air. These particles are highly respirable and have a large surface area where organic materials can be adsorbed easily. The particles which are generated from diesel exhaust are sub-micronic by virtue of their greater surface area-to-mass ratio- and can carry a larger fraction of toxic hydrocarbons and metals on their surface. They can remain airborne for longer time periods and can be deposited in greater numbers and deeper into the lungs than the large-sized particles (3). Benzene occurs naturally in crude oil and is a constituent of petrol. It is a major monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon which islargely used as a solvent in automobiles and solvent gasoline. In India, the percentage of benzene in automobile engines is about 3%. Petrol-pump workers who are exposed to the petrol fumes exhibit a number of clinical signs and symptoms which may be due to benzene toxicity. Improvement in the engine design, soot filters and fuel modification may provide the best approach to control the exposure to these fumes (4).

It was necessary to carry out the present study was as a detailed study on the lung function abnormalities among petrol pump workers as such a study which was caused due to work exposure was lacking in this geographical region. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of altered pulmonary functions in petrol-pump workers who were exposed to petrol and diesel fumes. In-addition, the effect on the duration of the exposure to the petrol/diesel fumes was also studied and these changes in the lung function tests were compared with age- matched healthy controls.

Material and Methods

This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar. The subjects comprised of 150 males who were working in different petrol pumps. Their ages, smoking habits, the duration of exposure, physical status and health conditions were recorded by using a questionnaire. After recording their brief history, their examination was done as per the proforma, which was attached. The ethical committee clearance and an informed consent of the subjects were taken.

Subjects with clinical abnormalities of the vertebral column and the thorax, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectesis, emphysema and malignancy and those who were drug addicts, cigarette smokers, tobacco chewers and those who had undergone abdominal or chest surgery were excluded from the study. The study group was categorized according to the duration of the service at the petrol pumps, which was as under:

There were 50 controls which comprised of age and sex matched healthy adult males, non-smokers working in the hospital as attendants, medical assistants and other hospital personnel (Group IV).

The pulmonary function tests were performed at their workplace by using a Med-spiror (Recorders and Medicare System, Chandigarh). It is a computerized spirometer which is designed to be used with electromechanical pneumotach. The testing procedures are quite simple and non invasive and are harmless to the patients. Only 2 manoeuvers were required from the subject to accumulate all the test data, a forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation.

The FVC, FEV 0.5, FEV 1, FEV 3, PEFR, FEF 25-75%, FEF 25%, FEF 50%, FEF 75%, FEV 0.5/FVC, FEV 1/FVC, FEV3 /FVC and MVV values were calculated. All the gas volumes were corrected to B.T.P.S (Body temperature, ambient pressure and saturated with water vapour) automatically by the instrument. The data was analyzed by using the computer software, Microsoft Excel Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS version 10.0). The mean and standard deviation (SD) were calculated and reported for the quantitative variables. The statistical difference in the mean values was tested by using one way ANOVA (analysis of variance) with post-hoc turkey tests. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS
(Table/Fig 1) shows that the mean value of the ages of the subjects was 28.23 ± 9.21 and that the mean value of the controls was 23.36 ± 2.71 and that the difference was statistically insignificant. The mean value of the heights of the subjects was 164.05 ± 8.13 and the mean value of the controls was 165.98 ± 8.51. The difference was statistically insignificant. The mean value of the weights of the subjects was 55.23 ± 8.58 and that of the controls was 59.36 ± 10.70. The difference was statistically insignificant. The mean value of the BSA of the subjects was 1.53 ± 0.11 and that of the controls was 1.57 ± 0.13. The difference was statistically insignificant.

(Table/Fig 2) shows the mean value of FVC as 3.05 ± 0.46, 2.77 ± 0.42, 2.38 ± 0.61 and 3.80 ± 0.54 in Groups I, II and III and in the controls respectively. On comparison between Groups I and III, Group I and the controls, Group II and the controls and Group III and the controls, a decline was observed, which was statistically highly significant (p<0.001). But the decline showed significance at a 5% significance level when a comparison was done between Groups I and II (p<0.05). However, a decline in the mean FVC value in Group II versus III was statistically significant at a 1% significance level.

(Table/Fig 3) shows the mean value of FEV 0.5 as 1.77 ± 0.65, 1.76 ± 0.59,1.27 ± 0.72 and 2.60 ± 0.32 in Groups I, II and III and in the controls respectively. On comparison between Groups I and III, Groups II and III, Group I and the controls, Group II and the controls and Group III and the controls, a decline was observed, which was statistically highly significant(p<0.001).However, when a comparison between Groups I and II was done, a statistically insignificant decline was observed (p>0.05).

(Table/Fig 4) shows the mean values of FEV1 as 2.65 ± 0.43, 2.55 ± 0.41, 1.98 ± 0.77 and 3.21 ± 0.55 in Groups I, II and III and in the controls respectively. On comparison between Groups I and III, Groups II and III, Group I and the controls, Group II and the controls and Group III and the controls, a decline was observed, which was statistically highly significant (p<0.001).However, whena comparison between Groups I and II was done, a statistically insignificant decline was observed ( p>0.05).

(Table/Fig 5) shows the mean values of FEV3 as 3.04 ± 0.47, 2.73 ± 0.42, 2.36 ± 0.68 and 3.59 ± 0.70 in the Groups I,II and III and in the controls respectively. On comparison between Groups I and III, Group I and the controls, Group II and the controls and Group III and the controls , a decline in the values was found, which was statistically highly significant (p<0.001). But, a comparison between Groups I and II and between Groups II and III showed the decline to be statistically significant at a 5% significance level. (p<0.05).

(Table/Fig 6) shows the mean values of FEF 50% as 3.78 ± 1.06, 4.16 ± 1.22, 3.30 ± 1.76 and 5.17 ± 1.32 in Groups I, II and III and in the controls respectively. The decline in the mean FEF 50% was highly significant when it was compared between Group I and the controls and between Group III and the controls (p<0.001). When Group II was compared with group III and when Group II was compared with the controls, a decline was found, which was statistically significant at a 5% significance level (p<0.05).However, a decline in Group I versus II and Group I versus III was found to be statistically insignificant (p>0.05).

(Table/Fig 7) shows the mean FEF 25-75% as 3.29 ± 1.01, 3.60 ± 1.33, 2.66 ± 1.54 and 4.75 ± 1.11 in Groups I, II and III and in the controls respectively. When a comparison was done between Group I and the controls, between Group II and the controls and between Group III and the controls, a decline was observed,which was statisticallyhighly significant(p< 0.001). It was significant at a 1% significance level when compared between Groups II and III (p<0.01). However, a comparison between Groups I and II and Groups I and III showed a statistically insignificant decline (p>0.05).

(Table/Fig 8) shows the values of the mean PEFR as 6.03 ± 1.88, 6.20 ± 1.64, 5.12 ± 2.84 and 7.91 ± 1.27 in Groups I, II and III and in the controls respectively. On comparison between Groups Iand III and between Group I and the controls, a decline was observed, which was statistically significant at a 5% significance level (p<0.05), while a comparison between groups I and II, groups II and III, group II and the controls and group III and the controls showed a statistically insignificant decline (p>0.05).

(Table/Fig 9) shows the other parameters that were studied. However, on comparison, a statistically insignificant difference was observed among the different groups.

Discussion

The various lung function parameters were recorded and compared between the subjects and the controls. In addition, the intergroup comparison of the various lung function parameters was done among the subjects on the basis of the duration of the service at the petrol-pumps.

Forced Vital Capacity FVC – As shown in (Table/Fig 2), the mean FVC for the Group I subjects was 3.05 ± 0.46 L, for the Group II subjects, it was 2.77 ± 0.42 L, for the Group III subjects, it was 2.38 ± 0.61 L and for the controls, it was 3.80± 0.54 L. Hence, a progressive decline in the mean value of FVC among the subjects was seen according to the duration of exposure. When a comparison was done between Groups I and III, Group I and the controls, Group II and the controls and Group III and the controls, a decline was observed, which was highly significant (p<0.001). But it showed significance at a 5% significance level when a comparison was done between Groups I and II. However, a decline in the mean FVC values in Group II versus III was significant at a 1% significance level. Our findings were corroborative with those of other studies (5),(6),(7) which reported a statistically significant decline in FVC and found a significant correlation between the three exposure groups when compared to the controls.

FEV 0.5– the mean FEV0.5 for the Group I subjects was 1.77 ± 0.65 L, for Group II, it was 1.76 ± 0.59 L, for Group III, it was 1.27±0.72 L and for the controls, it was 2.60 ± 0.31 L. (Table/Fig 3) When a comparison was done between Groups I and III, Groups II and III, Group I and the controls, Group II and the controls and Group III and the controls, a decline was observed, which was highly significant (p<0.001). However, when a comparison between Groups I and II was done, no significant decline was observed (p>0.05).

FEV 1– In the present study, the mean value of FEV1 in the Group I subjects was 2.65 ± 0.43 L, in the Group II subjects, it was 2.55 ± 0.41 L , in the Group III subjects, it was 1.98 ± 0.77 L and in the controls, it was 3.21 ± 0.55 L(Table/Fig 4). On comparison between Groups I and III, Groups II and III, Group I and the controls, Group II and the controls and Group III and the controls, a decline was observed, which was statistically highly significant (p<0.001). However, when a comparison between Groups I and II was done, a statistically insignificant decline was observed ( p>0.05). It was consistent with the findings of other studies (7),(8), which reported a statistically significant decline in FEV1 in the petrol pump workers with increased years of exposure.

FEV 3 – The mean value of FEV3 for the Group I subjects was 3.04 ± 0.47 L , for the Group II subjects, it was 2.73 ± 0.42 L, for the Group III subjects, it was 2.36 ± 0.68 L and for the controls, it was 3.59 ± 0.70 L.(Table/Fig 5) On comparison between Groups I and III, Group I and the controls, Group II and the controls and Group III and the controls, a decline in the values was observed, which was statistically highly significant (p<0.001). But a comparison between Groups I and II and Groups II and III showed the decline to be statistically significant at a 5% significance level. (p<0.05) Our study showed a progressive decline in the mean values among the subjects according to the duration of the exposure. However, other studies did not comment on this parameter.

FEF 50% – In our study, the mean values of FEF 50% was 3.78 ± 1.06, 4.16 ± 1.22, 3.30 ± 1.76 and 5.17 ± 1.32 in Groups I,II and III and in the controls respectively (Table/Fig 6). This decline was highly significant when compared between Group I and the controls and Group III and the controls (p<0.001).When Group II was compared with group III and Group II with the controls, a decline was observed, which was significant at a 5% significance level (p<0.05). However, a decline in Group I versus II and Group I versus III showed no statistical significance (p>0.05). The findings of our study are in agreement with the findings of other studies (5),(6),(7), as they reported a statistically significant decline in the values of FEF 50%.

FEF 25-75% – Our present study showed the mean FEF 25-75% (L/sec) as 3.29 ± 1.01 , 3.60± 1.33 , 2.66± 1.54 and 4.75± 1.11 in Group I,II and III and in the controls respectively. (Table/Fig 7).

The decline in FEF 25-75% was significant at a 1% significance level when compared between Groups II and III(p<0.01).When a comparison was done between Group I and the controls, Group II and the controls and Group III and the controls, a decline was observed, which was highly significant (p< 0.001). However, a comparison between Groups I and II and Groups I and III showed no statistical significance (p<0.05).The findings are the same as in the study by (8) which showed a statistically significant decline. The results are in disagreement with the work (11) which showed statistically insignificant changes in FEF 25-75% during the exposure to diesel exhaust.

PEFR-the mean value of PEFR (L/sec) was 6.03 ± 1.88, 6.20 ± 1.64, 5.12 ± 2.84 and 7.91 ± 1.27 in Group I,II and III and in the controls respectively.(Table/Fig 8) When a comparison was done between Groups I and III and between Group I and the controls, it was found to be significant at a 5% significance level (p<0.05), while a comparison between Groups I and II, groups II and III, group II and the controls and group III and the controls showed no statistical significance (p>0.05).Our results are in agreement with the study(9),(10) which showed that the mean value of PEFR with the years of exposure (Group I < 5 years versus, Group II > 5 years) was statistically insignificant. It may be due to the short duration of exposure or because of a different statistical test which was adopted for the analysis.

However, a decline in the mean values of MVV, FEF 25%, FEF 75%, FEV0.5/FVC, FEV1/FVC and FEV3/FVC was found to be statistically insignificant and was hence not discussed (Table/Fig 9).

Conclusion

The petrol-pump workers showed a decline in the mean values of FVC, FEV 0.5, FEV 1, FEV 3, PEFR, FEF 50% and FEF 25-75%, which was statistically significant. However, a decline in the mean values of MVV, FEF 25%, FEF 75%, FEV0.5/FVC, FEV1/FVC and FEV3/FVC was statistically insignificant. These findings are suggestive of significant pulmonary ventilatory impairment.

The impairment in the lung function was associated with a doseeffect response to the duration of the exposure to petrol fumes, diesel exhaust, etc. A chronic exposure in the petrol pump workers for more than 5 years revealed statistically significant decrements, as compared to the workers who were employed for less than five years.

In order to prevent these changes in the petrol filling workers, we suggest a medical observation including pre-employment andperiodic medical check-up like pulmonary function tests. The use of face masks and the early recognition and removal of the sensitive workers from their working places before the chronic impairment develops will prove to be beneficial. Any decline in the lung functions with time merits attention, despite the fact that the observed values may be within the normal range, since it indicates likely morbidity in the event of continuing exposure to the offending agent. Since most individuals are likely to remain asymptomatic till significant pulmonary damage results, a regular monitoring of the lung function is desirable.

A valuable message can be the upcoming new concept of biodiesel, which can be a gift for the generations to come. The fatty acid, methyl ester – , which is the most widely used biodiesel which is obtained from vegetable oil/ animal fats, produces 50% lesser emissions. In fact, it can be a boon for the generations to come.

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