Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Archana Dambal

"Journal of clinical and diagnostic research is a welcome change in publishing practices. It aims to reach out to the grass-root level researchers who do not lack in experience, clinical material and ideas, but lack in their knowledge in English language and statistics. The journal achieves it's aim by supporting in these exact domains.
It also gives due credit to all research designs like descriptive and qualitative studies while many journals ignore these important study designs. The rigorous review process does not allow any compromise in quality
It is indexed in many indexing agencies and the articles are available under creative commons licence free of cost
The frequency of publication supports many aspiring authors from India and other countries.
It's wide scope welcomes articles across various specialities in medicine. In an era when there is an unscientific insistence on speciality specific research by regulatory bodies in medical education, JCDR supports collaborative research across specialities. I wish the publisher all the best in his future endeavors."



Dr. Archana Dambal
Department of General Medicine,
Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences,Belgaum, Karnataka,INDIA,
On 30 Nov 2018




Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"



Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : December | Volume : 5 | Issue : 8 | Page : 1514 - 1518

The Effects of Vasectomy on the Testes of Albino rats: A Histological Study

Golghate Tarkeshwar D, Naidu Sunetra S, Sathe Vivek M, Fulpatil Milind P

1. MS (Anatomy), Assistant Professor: Anatomy, SBH Government Medical College, Dhule 2. MS (Anatomy), Associate professor: Anatomy, Government Medical College, Nagpur 3. M.S. (Anatomy), Professor & Head: Anatomy (retired), Government Medical College, Nagpur 4. MS (Anatomy), Professor & Head: Anatomy, SBH Government Medical College, Dhule PLACE OF STUDY: 1. SBH Government Medical College, Dhule 2. Government Medical College, Nagpur 3. Government Medical College, Nagpur 4. SBH Government Medical College, Dhule

Correspondence Address :
T D Golghate
Department of Anatomy,
Shri Bhausaheb Hire Govt. Medical College,
Chhakarburdi, Bypass road, Dhule, Maharashtra State.
Tel: 9422802401
Fax: 02562239207, 02562239407
Email: tarkeshwargolghate@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

Context: Population explosion has become one of the most challenging problems which are being faced by the entire world. Vasectomy is a simple, safe, quick and effective but vital method for male sterilization. In the recent years, a large number of vasectomies are being performed in India, since the inception of the National Family Planning Program in 1956. Thus, the number of requests for the restoration of fertility is also being increased.

Aim: The present study was carried out to know whether the histology of the testes and spermatogenesis remains normal after vasectomy.

Method and Material: The histology of the testes of 50 male albino rats was studied one, two, three and four months after vasectomy in 10 male albino rats of each group and 10 male albino rats served as the controls.

Results: After vasectomy, the seminiferous tubules were cut in various planes, which were covered externally by connective tissue stroma with a normal histological picture. The spermatogonia, spermatids, Sertoli cells, spermatozoa and Leydig cells showed a normal histological picture, with normal sized blood vessels in the interstitial connective tissue in the vasectomised and the control rats. In some seminiferous tubules, granular cytoplasmic vesicle like structures were found to fill the lumen and the spermatids which were metamorphosing to spermatozoa. Many round or elongated heads of the spermatozoa were present at the apical portion of the Sertoli cells. In some seminiferous tubules, disorganization of the seminiferous epithelium was found after the second month of the vasectomy.

Conclusions: On critical analysis, it was concluded that the histology of the testes and the spermatogenesis remained normal at four months after the vasectomy.

Keywords

Vasectomy, Histology, Spermatogenesis.

How to cite this article :

Golghate Tarkeshwar D, Naidu Sunetra S, Sathe Vivek M, Fulpatil Milind P. THE EFFECTS OF VASECTOMY ON THE TESTES OF ALBINO RATS: A HISTOLOGICAL STUDY. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2011 December [cited: 2019 Apr 24 ]; 5:1514-1518. Available from
http://jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2011&month=December&volume=5&issue=8&page=1514-1518&id=1721

Introduction
Population explosion has become one of the most challenging problems which are being faced by the entire world. Therefore, in recent years, reproductive biology has received great attention from numerous scientists. Especially the testes and the vas deferens have important functional roles in reproduction and these have been extensively studied by a number of researchers in this field.

India is the second largest country after China in population. To control this population explosion, the National Family Planning Program was introduced in India in 1956 (1). Vasectomy is a simple, safe, quick, effective and vital method for male sterilization. Vasectomy has been a popular means of male sterilization (2),(3),(4),(1). A large number of vasectomies have been performed till today.

Recent surgical techniques have shown that this procedure can be reversed (5),(6). Scrotal vasectomy, when it is performed away from the epididymis in the routine way, it can be recanalised. This fact, when made public, could further well accelerate the trend of vasectomy, especially when men become aware that their sexuality remains unimpaired by either operations (7).

The frequency with which vasectomy reversal was performed has increased dramatically, because many of the vasectomised men desire to regain their fertility (8),(9). The most common reason for requesting a vasovasostomy was divorce, followed by remarriage and the desire to have children with a new wife. Other motivating factors included the desire for more children, religious conversion, and change of heart about the idea of being sterile. Rarely could the reason be the loss of a child (8).

For the above mentioned reasons, the present study was carried out to know whether the histology of the testes and the spermatogenesis remained normal after the vasectomy.

Material and Methods

The study material consisted of the testes of 50 male albino rats in the age group of 4 to 14 months and their weights ranged from 100-250 gm. Out of which 50 rats in the study, 40 rats were vasectomised and 10 rats taken as controls.

All the rats were kept in different cages in the animal house. They were caged with a light: dark cycle, and were permitted for at least 2 weeks to acclimatize to their surroundings (10). The choice of male albino rats for the present study was because of their easy availability. They are easy to feed, raise and mate. They have a short gestation period of 18-21 days and a long period of reproductive activity from 2 to 14 months of age. They can produce too many litters and hundreds of offspring. They are easy to handle (11). Albino rat, “is a well established experimental animal model for the study of the testes after vasectomy” (12).

Out of the 50 male albino rats in the study, 40 rats in the study group were vasectomised by standard methods (13) and 10 rats of the control group were left un-vasectomised. The male albino rats were anaesthetized by the inhalation of ether. The vasectomy was performed under aseptic conditions through a vertical midline abdominal incision. The urinary bladder was displaced forward and the vasa deferentia were located at their point of entry into the posterior aspect of the urethra. Both the vasa deferentia were taken out of the abdominal cavity and were held taut by means ofcurved forceps. Each vas deferens was divided between two 4-0 silk ligatures which were approximately 1.5 cm proximal to the end of the vas at the base of the bladder. The scrotal contents were not disturbed during the operation. Special attention was paid to not disturb the spermatic vessels. The cut ends were replaced in the abdomen along with the vas deferens. The incision was closed in two layers by using a 3-0 chromic catgut for the peritoneum and muscles, and 4-0 silk sutures for the skin. The scrotal sacs were checked on alternate days for two weeks and then at weekly intervals to ascertain that the testes remained in the scrotum. The albino rats in which the testes were withdrawn into the abdominal cavity were eliminated from the experiment (13),(14).

The testes were collected for histological studies one, two, three and four months after the vasectomy (10 each). Similarly, the testes of the proportionate control rats were collected for comparison (Table/Fig 1).

The testes were fixed in Bouin’s fluid and the processing of the tissue was done for dehydration, clearing and paraffin embedding. The paraffin blocks were prepared according to standard procedures (15).

The sections (7 microns) were prepared and stained with haematoxylene and eosin as per the standard histological procedures (15). In each case, the serial sections were carefully observed under a light microscope by using the X10, X45 and X100 magnifications and the observations were concentrated on the interstitial stroma which contained the Leydig’s cells and on the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules including the cells of the spermatogenic series (spermatogonia A, spermatogonia B, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa) along with the Sertoli cells.

Results

The normal histological findings in the testes of healthy, adult, male albino rats as per Rugh Roberts’ study were used as a reference for this study (11). The seminiferous tubules which were convoluted within the loculi were cut into multiple sections. The seminiferous epithelium of the tubules lay against a basement membrane that was surrounded by thin, fibrous connective tissue. Between the seminiferous tubules there was interstitial stroma which consisted of clumps of Leydig’s or interstitial cells. The interstitial cells of the testes had large round nuclei, with each one or more nucleoli containing course granules. Their cytoplasm was eosinophilic. The seminiferous epithelium also had sustaining nutritive or nurse (Sertoli) cells. The Sertoli cells were attached by their bases to the basement membrane and they projected towards the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. They were elongated cells with large oval nuclei that appeared to be intended. Within the nucleus of the Sertoli cells was a compound or multiple nucleolous. These cells could assume several forms depending upon their activity. In the resting state, they were closely associated with the basement membrane to which they were attached and their oval nuclei were parallel tothat membrane. As supporting cells for the metamorphosis of the spermatids to spermatozoa and for the temporary retention of the mature spermatozoa, they had an elongated, pyramidal shape and their nuclei lay perpendicular to the basement membrane. Their cytoplasm near the lumen generally contained the heads of many mature spermatozoa, the tails of which lay free within the lumen.

The potential (primodial) germ cells are the ancestors of all the millions of spermatozoa which would be produced by males. Shortly after birth, larger cells, the spermatogonia are seen. The spermatogonia A are capable of mitosis or of giving rise to the other types of cells and ultimately to spermatozoa. The spermatogonia A are the largest cells, and they contain fine dust like particles of nuclear chromatin and a single eccentrically placed chromatin nucleolous. They may give rise through intermediate spermatogonia to spermatogonia B. The spermatogonia B are smaller and more numerous and contain nuclear chromatin in a coarse flake of clumps, on or near the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. There is a centrally placed plasmosome like nucleus. The spermatogonia B may divide to give rise to more type B cells or they may change into primary spermatocytes, further from the basement membrane.

The first indication that the spermatogonia B will metamorphose into primary spermatocytes is that they enlarge noticeably and move away from the basement membrane, with deeply stained cytoplasm having prominent centrally placed nuclei which contain clumped and coiled chromatin material. The primary spermatocytes divide into two smaller secondary spermatocytes which are smaller than the primary spermatocytes, with dense, coiled chromatin material in the round and prominent nuclei. The secondary spermatocytes divide into four spermatids. They undergo a radical metamorphosis into an equal number of mature spermatozoa, losing most of their cytoplasm and changing their forms characteristically.

The spermatids lie inner to the spermatocytes which are round in shape, near the lumen. The transformation of the spermatids into spermatozoa involves no division. Most of the cytoplasm disappears, carrying with it certain residual bodies. The cytoplasm of the spermatids which is to be sloughed off contains lipid droplets, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, the golgi apparatus and numerous multicellular and multigranular bodies. The spermatozoa vary in length, width and shape with the mouse strain. They generally have a hooked head with a length of about 0.0080mm, a short middle piece and a very long tail, for an overall length which averages 0.1226mm. The head of many such spermatozoa lie embedded in the cytoplasm of a Sertoli cell (11).

The histological findings in the control and the vasectomised rats were noted. The testes of the control and the vasectomised rats which were studied upto four months showed the following histological findings.

The testes of the control group had a normal histological pattern which showed normal spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa, and Sertoli cells in the well defined, intact and regular seminiferous tubules which were cut in various planes. The interstitial stroma which contained the Leydig’s cells in clumps, and the blood vessels showed a normal histological picture.

The testes of the vasectomised rats showed seminiferous tubules which were cut in various planes, which were covered externally by connective tissue stroma, which contained the Leydig cells in clumps, and blood vessels embedded in it. The basement membrane was intact, well defined and regular and it was lined bygerminal epithelium. (Table/Fig 2) The spermatogonia A and B were found to be lying on the basement membrane, interspersed with each other and they could be clearly marked out. The spermatogonia A were large round cells which lay on the basement membrane, they were few in number and showed pink, homogeneously stained cytoplasm with prominent, round, centrally placed nuclei with granular chromatin material. The spermatogonia B were predominantly seen, they were smaller than the spermatogonia A and were interspersed with them. The nuclei of the spermatogonia B were very prominent and round and they contained chromatin material in coarse flakes near the inner surface of the well defined nuclear membrane. (Table/Fig 3)

The spermatocytes also lay on the basement membrane, but away from the spermatogonial layer. The primary spermatocytes were noticeably larger than the spermatogonia, with deeply stained cytoplasm which had prominent, centrally placed nuclei which contained clumps and coiled chromatin material. Some cells in meiotic division could be clearly marked out. The secondary spermatocytes were few in number and were smaller than the primary spermatocytes, with dense, coiled chromatin material in round prominent nuclei. The spermatids are found to be inner to the spermatocytes, round in shape and near the lumen, with a normal fine structure. (Table/Fig 4) Some cells were seen in the cytoplasmic crevices of the Sertoli cells. (Table/Fig 4) Some cells which were metamorphosing to spermatozoa were also seen.(Table/Fig 3) The Sertoli cells which lay on the basement membrane were polyhedral in shape, with ill defined margins and nuclei. The round or elongated heads of the spermatozoa were found to be clinging to the apex of the Sertoli cells and their tails were in the lumen (Table/Fig 2). The numerous detached tails of the spermatozoa were seen as clumps in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial stroma covered the seminiferous tubules and embedded in it were blood vessels and round or oval Leydig’s cells in clumps, with prominent large, round nuclei (Table/Fig 2).

In some seminiferous tubules, granular, cytoplasmic vesicle like structures, which more or less filled the lumen were clearly seen (Table/Fig 4).

In the testes, in the 2nd month after the vasectomy, in some seminiferous tubules, the disorganization of the seminiferous epithelium was found, but all the components of the seminiferous epithelium showed a normal histological picture (Table/Fig 5).

These findings in the connective tissue stroma which contained the Leydig’s cells, which surrounded the seminiferous tubules and all the components of the seminiferous epithelium, showed a normal histological picture, as was described by Rugh Roberts (11).

The spermatozoa which were present in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules and all the components of the seminiferous epithelium showed a normal histological picture, which indicated that the process of spermatogenesis was not affected by vasectomy and that spermatogenesis continued at the 4th month of vasectomy. There was no difference between the histological profile of the control rats and the vasectomised rats at all the stages of the investigation.

Discussion

The testes and its histology after vasectomy is a subject of diversified interest, as is evident from the voluminous literature which is available on this subject all over the world.

Vasectomy is becoming an important method of contraception. Itis a simple, safe, quick and effective method of male sterilization which has been accepted by a majority of the population (1). With the increasing public knowledge through media exposure, sex education classes in schools, enlightened health personal and more pressure from the female population, the trend of an increased demand for vasectomy will accelerate (16).

The histology of the testes of albino rats was included in this study to prove that the spermatogenesis remains normal and that the fertility can be restored even after vasectomy. The age of the male albino rats which were selected for this study was 4 months to 14 months, because albino rats have a long period of reproductive activity from 2 months to about 14 months of age (11).

The comparison of the findings from the control and the experimental (vasectomised) groups showed that the testicular features of the vasectomised group were similar to those which were seen in the control group. The spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa and the Sertoli cells were structurally normal. The interstitial stroma of the testes which contained the Leydig cells and the blood vessels were structurally normal after the vasectomy. These findings in our study suggested that the fine structure of the testes in rats which remained normal at four months of vasectomy showed the normal histology of the testes.(11) Similar findings were seen in some other studies also. (17),(18),(19),(20),21],(22),(23),(1),(13),(14)

In the present study, the spermatozoa were seen in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. The many round or oblong heads of the spermatozoa were also seen in the lumen. Some spermatozoa were found to be clinging to the apex of the Sertoli cells with their tails towards the lumen. Many detached tails of the spermatozoa were also seen in the lumen. The testes revealed all the stages of spermatogenesis. These findings in our study suggested that the process of spermatogenesis continued at four months of vasectomy. Our findings correlated with the findings of previous studies (1),(14),(20).

In our study, the Sertoli cells were very large and polyhedral with ill defined margins and nuclei. But the many elongated and normal heads of the spermatozoa were found to be clinging to the apex, which showed their active phase. The Sertoli cells are capable of phagocytosing the material from the lumen of the seminiferous tubules and this activity of the Sertoli cells increasesafter vasectomy.(22) Some Sertoli cells have well defined margins and nuclei, and they touch the basement membrane. Our findings co-related with the findings of previous studies (24),(22).

The findings of the present study were compared with a study on men who underwent vasectomy and thereafter, vasovasostomy (vasectomy reversal) for clinical application. The spermatozoa are present in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, with round or oblong heads. These results correlated with the findings of Gupta Indrayani, Dhawan Sushama and Goel GP, thus indicating that spermatogenesis is not affected after vasectomy (25). However, their findings were derived from semen analysis after vasovasostomy. They found that 52% subjects had a sperm count of at least 20 million/ml and that in all subjects, the sperms appeared in the ejaculate as early as 2 months after the vasovasostomy and continued thereafter.

In our study, the vasectomy was performed under aseptic conditions and the histology of the testes was studied, which appeared to be normal at four months of vasectomy. Similar findings were noted by Hellar GV and Rothchild I (26).

In some seminiferous tubules, granular, cytoplasmic vesicle like structures, which more or less filled the lumen, were clearly seen. These vesicles were the cytoplasm which was shed off during the metamorphosis of the spermatids into spermatozoa (11).

On the basis of critical analysis, it was concluded that the histology of the testes remained normal at 4 months after the vasectomy and that the spermatozoa continued to be produced. So, it definitely showed that the spermatogenesis was not affected by vasectomy. Hence, fertility could be re-established in vasectomised individuals by vasovasostomy if the need arose.

References

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