Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Archana Dambal

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Dr. Archana Dambal
Department of General Medicine,
Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences,Belgaum, Karnataka,INDIA,
On 30 Nov 2018




Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
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Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




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Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




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"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
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I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




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Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : December | Volume : 5 | Issue : 8 | Page : 1519 - 1522

Effect of Rajyoga Meditation on the Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and ECG

Seema Maini, Harleen Kaur, Navneet Maini

Department of Physiology, PIMS Jalandhar, Punjab.

Correspondence Address :
Harleen Kaur
213 Master Tara Singh Nagar,
Jallandhar, Punjab - 144001
Phone: 09814651884

Abstract

Introduction: Meditation is a technique of achieving harmony between the physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual personalities of man. Rajyoga is one of the techniques of meditation where a flow of thoughts is encouraged thus using mind in a natural way. Meditation has a number of positive effects on the physiology of human body. It has shown to reduce diastolic blood pressure , systolic blood pressure, heart rate and serum cholesterol levels thus reducing the risk of coronary artery disease.

Aims and Objectives: This study aims to highlight haemodynamic effects of meditation by studying its impact on blood pressure, heart rate and ECG.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 healthy subjects (50 meditators and 50 non-meditators) from Brahma Kumari Ashram. They were further subgrouped on the basis of their sex, age and duration for which they had been practicing yoga. A detailed history was taken and detailed general physical examination was conducted on all of them. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate and ECG was recorded in all of them. Data was collected and statistically analyzed to achieve the results.

Results: The mean heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate were significantly lower in subjects who practised meditation regularly than in subjects who did not. ECG did not show any significant change except for decreased heart rate in meditators.

Conclusions: Coronary Heart Disease remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in Indian population. Yoga and Meditation, given its positive effects on physiology of human body,if practised regularly, can emerge as one of the important non-pharmacological method of prevention of heart disease.

Keywords

Coronary artery disease,Yoga, Meditation, Prevention, Regular practise

How to cite this article :

Seema Maini, Harleen Kaur, Navneet Maini. EFFECT OF RAJYOGA MEDITATION ON THE HEART RATE, BLOOD PRESSURE AND ECG. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2011 December [cited: 2019 Jul 20 ]; 5:1519-1522. Available from
http://jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2011&month=December&volume=5&issue=8&page=1519-1522&id=1780

Introduction
Meditation is a technique of achieving harmony between the physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual personalities of man. Meditation is the highest spiritual discipline. Through meditation, man comes to experience peace within and without. The internecine wars between desires are ended, the conflicts between duties no longer wreck a meditator’s nerves and the mind grows up to view life as a whole.(Meditation and Life, Swami Chinmayananda).

Rajyoga is one of the techniques of meditation. It involves concentration but no physical object is involved. The object of concentration is the inner self. Instead of repeating one word or a phrase as in a mantra, a flow of thoughts is encouraged, thus using the mind in a natural way. The positive flow of thoughts is based on an accurate understanding of the self and so it acts as a key to unlock the treasure trove of the peaceful experiences which are lying within oneself. (Practical Meditation, Brahma Kumaris, Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya.)

The increasing materialism in society is resulting in widespread tension in all the age groups. Tension is said to have two components: a controllable element arising from the factors in the environment and the in built uncontrollable residue which is a basic part of the human temperament. The effects of excessive stress can be either emotional, such as anxiety, hypochondria, phobia and obsessions or depressions or psychosomatic reactions like nervous asthma, headache, insomnia and even heart attacks. Relaxation is the only way to control undesirable nervous tension and its techniques require to be learnt (1).

A deadly combination of delineating obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, and hypertension has been identified to be strongly related to heart disease. In addition, physical inactivity, stress and behaviour patterns, male sex hormones and an untreated menopausal status are the risk factors for coronary artery disease (2).

A no. of drugs have been discovered, but drugs are accompanied by side effects and so, there is an extensive back to nature movement for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease. Meditation has a number of positive effects on the physiology of the human body. It has been shown to reduce the blood pressure, heart rate and the serum cholesterol levels, thus reducing the risk of coronary artery disease (3).

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
This study was contemplated to highlight the haemodynamic and the biochemical effects of Rajyoga meditation by studying its impact on the blood pressure, heart rate and ECG. By adopting this non-pharmacological and not so difficult technique in their life style, people can lead a healthier life.

Material and Methods

This study was conducted on 100 healthy people who were selected from the Brahma Kumari Ashram, Amritsar. The subjects were categorised into two groups. Group I included 50 subjects (36 males and 14 females) in the age group of 25-50 years, who were performing rajyoga meditation regularly for at least 1 hour a day for the past 2-5 yrs. Group II included 50 subjects in the sameage group, who did not perform any meditation technique. In this group also, there were 36 males and 14 females.

Subjects having a history of hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, ischaemic heart disease, jaundice, alcoholism and smoking were not included in the study

Each subject was subjected to a detailed physical examination, including pulse, its rate and rhythm volume, etc. A detailed cardiovascular examination was done in all the subjects.

The heart rate was counted with the stethoscope being kept over the apex for one full minute.

The blood pressure was checked by using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer and three consecutive readings were taken. The mean of the three readings was calculated. The readings were taken at an interval of 8 minutes.

A standard 12 lead ECG was recorded in all the subjects and all the necessary precautions were taken. The ECG was studied for the rate, rhythm, P wave, axis, ST segment and T wave.

The urine sugar and the blood sugar levels were calculated in each case.

Descriptive statistics of the mean, standard deviation and the percentages were used to display the continuous and the categorical variables of both the groups. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to find the significance.

OBSERVATIONS
The mean values of age, height and weight in the meditators (group I) and in the non-meditators (group II) were 36.38+/– 7.92 years, 160.15 +/–6.22, 60.30+/–8.73 and 36.98+/–7.71, 159.74+/ –5.98,63.10+/–9.11 respectively.

The mean age for the meditator males was 36.11+/–7.63 years and for the meditator females, it was 37.07+/–8.90. The mean value of height (in cms) in the meditator males and females was 162.22+/–5.98 and 154.82+/–2.69 respectively and the mean value for weight in the meditator males and females was 59.53+/–8.66 and 62.69+/–8.93. In the non-meditator group, the mean values for age, height and weight in the males and females was 37.44+/ –7.93, 161.18+/–5.64,64.25+/–8.43and 35.79+/–7.23,154.43+/ –2.68, 60.14+/–10.39 respectively [Table/Fig-1].

The meditator subjects were divided into three groups depending upon the no. of years of meditation which they had undergone. Group I included 16 subjects who were regularly doing meditation for the past 2-3 years. . Group II with 3-4 yrs of meditation had 18 subjects and Group III with 4-5 yrs of meditation had 16 subjects. The anthropometric measurements are shown in the Table (Table/Fig 2).

The heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and ECG were recorded in each subject.

The data which was obtained from these observations was statistically analyzed to elicit the results.

Results

The mean heart rate in the meditators was 69.39+/–5.26 and in the non meditators, it was 81.96+/–3.53.The mean value for heart rate in the meditators was lower than the value in the non-meditators and it was statistically highly significant (Table/Fig 4).

The mean value of systolic blood pressure in the meditators was118.37+/–7.25 and in the non-meditators, it was 128.15+/–10.05. This difference was also statistically highly significant.

Similarly, the diastolic blood pressure in the meditators was 78.62+/–4.71 and it was lower than the values in the non meditators, ie 84.50+/–4.83. This difference was also statistically highly significant.

In the standard 12 lead ECG which was recorded in case of the meditators and the non meditators , except for the heart rate as was stated earlier, it did not show any significant difference.

The heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the meditator males and the non-meditator males were compared. The t values and the p values were calculated and the difference was found to be highly significant (Table/Fig 3).

Similarly, all the three parameters were compared in the non-meditator and the meditator females, the results were analyzed and the differences were found out to be highly significant (Table/Fig 4).

The mean values of heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were compared between group I and group II, group II and group III and group I and group III. It was seen that the difference was not statistically significant in any of the comparisons. (Table/Fig 5) and (Table/Fig 6).

Discussion

Coronary heart disease remains one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in India. A number of risk factors have been identified to be strongly associated with coronary heart disease. Delineating obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension along with physical inactivity, stress and behaviour patterns, male sex hormones and an untreated menopausal status are the risk factors for coronary heart disease (2).

Meditation has a number of positive effects on the physiology of the human body. It has been shown to reduce the blood pressure, heart rate and the serum cholesterol levels and thus, the practice of meditation significantly helps in the management and the prevention of coronary artery disease by reducing the risk factors which are associated with the same.

The present study was contemplated to put forward some of the effects of meditation, especially the cardiovascular status of the individuals who practised the same in this part of the country.

The mean value for heart rate in the meditator subjects was 69.39+/–5.26 and in the non-meditator subjects, it was 81.66+/ –3.66. The statistical analysis showed that the differences were highly significant (p<0.001). In a study which was conducted in 1984 on 25 rajyogis, both males and females, by The Medical Wing of Rajyoga Education and Research Foundation, an overall decrease in the mean values of the heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the respiratory rate was observed.

Meditation is associated with a blunted sympathetic activity as is shown by a reduction in the heart rate after regular meditation. Similar trends in the heart rate were noted in other studies (4),(5).

The mean value for systolic blood pressure in the meditators was 118.87+/–7.25 and in the non-meditators, it was 128.15+/–10.05. Similarly, the mean value for diastolic blood pressure in the meditator subjects was 78.62+/–4.71 and in the non-meditator subjects, it was 84.50+/–4.83. Statistically, these results were found to be significant. (p<0.001).

In similar studies, there was a significant reduction in the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol and the incidence of ischaemic heart disease in the meditators (6),(7).

It was reported that not only in hypertensive individuals, but in normotensive individuals also, the regular practice of meditation could reduce the ambulatory blood pressure levels and hence, it could give significant protection from cardiovascular diseases (8).

Improvements in the cardiovascular parameters in the present study were similar to those which were found in other studies on yoga (9),(10),(11),(12). The decrease in the diastolic and systolic bloodpressure and the heart rate may be because of the activation of the parasympathetic state (1). Meditation, by modifying the state of anxiety, reduces the stress induced sympathetic overactivity, resulting in lowering of the diastolic blood pressure and the heart rate. It makes the person relaxed and thus decreases the arterial tone and the peripheral resistance (13),(14). This could be another reason for the fall in the diastolic blood pressure. Environmental conditions and a variety of behavioural factors such as stress, anxiety and the affective and attitudinal disposition of the individual influences the cardiovascular responses. The yogic exercises involve physical, mental and spiritual tasks which are performed in a comprehensive manner. Yoga, after a long duration, affects thehypothalamus and brings about a decrease in the diastolic and systolic blood pressures through its influence on the vasomotor centre, which reduces the sympathetic tone and the peripheral resistance (13). Yoga involves pranayama i.e. a voluntary alteration of the breathing pattern and scientists who were working on yoga found an increased parasympathetic tone in the yoga practitioners (15),(16).

An attempt was made to study the effect of the duration of meditation on all the three parameters. On comparison of the intragroup values, no significant difference was found. Different studies stated that the benefits of meditation and relaxation could only be maintained by the regular practice and integration of these techniques in the day to day life (17). Also, the amount of the practice of meditation does not correlate with the amount of blood pressure reduction after the training. Regular yoga and meditation is required to maintain positive effects on the blood pressure and the heart rate (18).

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The present study was contemplated to put forth the effect of Rajayoga meditation on the heart rate , blood pressure and the ECG of persons who were practising the same and to compare them with those of non-meditators in the same age groups . The lower values for the mean heart rate and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the meditators indicated that the persons who practised Rajayoga regularly were at a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases as compared to those who did not perform any kind of meditation. Thus, Rajayoga meditation has positive effects on the cardiovascular system and this can be encouraged to be used as a non pharmacological method to prevent heart diseases.

References

1.
Neuberry CR. Tension and relaxation in the individual. Int.Dent.J. 1972;29(2):173-82.
2.
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