Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Archana Dambal

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Dr. Archana Dambal
Department of General Medicine,
Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences,Belgaum, Karnataka,INDIA,
On 30 Nov 2018




Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
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Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




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Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
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I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
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Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2011 | Month : December | Volume : 5 | Issue : 8 | Page : 1618 - 1623

Use of Humour in Orthopaedic Teaching

Narula Ramesh, Agarwal Ashok, Chaudhary Varsha, Narayan Ram

1. Assistant Professor, Orthopaedics. 2. Associate Professor, Paediatrics. 3. Assistant Professor, Community Medicine. 4. Clinical Psychologist Rohilkhand Medical College, Bareilly. (UP).

Correspondence Address :
Ramesh Narula,
Assistant Professor, Department of Orthopaedics
Rohilkhand Medical College, Bareilly (UP), India.
Mobile: 09719740866
E-mail : rameshnarula55@gmail.com

Abstract

Background: The attention span of a lecture is roughly 15 minutes. After this time, it has been observed that the number of students who pay attention begins to drop dramatically, leading to loss in the retention of lecture material.

Aims: The present study was undertaken with the aim of examining the effectiveness of humour when it was used as an intervention to prolong the attention span.

Methods and Material: This interventional, randomized, control trial was undertaken among a total of 90 medical students who were in their 4th semester. Based on the roll number, the students of the whole class were equally divided into group A and group B by using a lottery method. Group A was the control group and group B was the experimental group. For both the groups, four lectures were delivered on the same topic, with the difference that in the group A classes, no intervention was used, while in group B, humour was used as an intervention. The outcome of this study was measured by using ‘Class response’ and ‘Observations’. For the class response, a pretested, 5 point ‘Likert’ scale questionnaire was used. For the ‘observations’, two clinical psychologists were involved. Data was collected from both the groups A and B in the first and last lectures. Statistical analysis used: SPSS for Windows (version 10.0) by the Chi-Square test.

Results: The students agreed that they could better understand the concept of the lecture (68.17%), feel more comfortable in class (74.99%), have increased attention power (74.99%) and have the perception that the teacher was friendlier to them (74.99%). In the lecture four, it was observed that behaviour that implied negative attitudes such as turning up late and yawning were frequent in group A, whereas behaviour which indicated positive attitudes such as writing notes and eye contact were noted more frequently in group B.

Conclusion: Humour, when used as a teaching aid, has a positive impact on the students’ perceptions and behaviour towards teaching.

Keywords

Humour, Teaching aids, Attention span.

How to cite this article :

Narula Ramesh, Agarwal Ashok, Chaudhary Varsha, Narayan Ram. USE OF HUMOUR IN ORTHOPAEDIC TEACHING. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2011 December [cited: 2019 Aug 19 ]; 5:1618-1623. Available from
http://jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2011&month=December&volume=5&issue=8&page=1618-1623&id=1651

Introduction
The way that medicine is taught and learnt, has undergone tremendous metamorphoses over the past few decades (1). It has been observed that interventions are necessary to maintain student attentiveness. The attention span in a lecture is roughly 15 minutes. After this time, it is observed that the number of students who pay attention begins to drop dramatically, leading to loss in the retention of lecture material. The author thought of introducing humour as an intervention to improve the attentiveness for two reasons: 1-Amongst the students, there was a lack of interest, lack of self motivation and also poor attendance.2-Amongst the faculty, though they were aware about humour and its benefits, they seldom used this and also were unaware that humour could be used to tackle the negative attitudes also of students, like gossiping.

The present study was undertaken with the aim of examining the effectiveness of humour when it was used as an intervention to prolong the attention span.

Material and Methods

Study design : The present interventional, randomized, control trial (2) was undertaken among a total of 90 medical students who were in their 4th semester. Based on their roll numbers, all the students were divided into two groups, group A and group B, each consisting of 45 students, by simple random sampling by using a lottery method.. Group A was used as the control group and group B as the experimental group. For both the groups, four lectures were delivered on the same topic, with the only difference that in the group A classes, no intervention was used while in group B, humour was used as an intervention.

Tools: The outcome of this study was measured by using ‘Class response’ and ‘Observations’. For the class response, a pretested, 5 point, ‘Likert’ scale questionnaire (Strongly disagree-Disagree- Neither agree or disagree-Agree-Strongly agree) was used and the answers from the students were kept anonymous. For the observations, two clinical psychologists were involved. Data was collected from both the groups A and B in the first and last lectures.

Setting and participants : The study was undertaken after approval from the institutional ethics committee and after getting the written consent of the participating students, by the Department of Orthopaedics of our medical college, which is a private institution. Here, the students come from diverse cultural, socio-economic and educational backgrounds but a majority of the students belong to affluent families.

For the four lectures, there were four different topics. Each lecture on one topic was delivered on same day by the main author to the students of group A (control group) and also to group B (humour intervention group) and it was presented by using power point. The lecture topics were: (a) - Outline of Injuries and fracture classification (b)- Complication of fractures (c)- Clavicle fracture and (d)-Shoulder dislocation. For this study, the 4th semester medical students were chosen because they had not been previously exposed to the author or to the subject of orthopaedics.

For the observations, two clinical psychologists were included as single blind (3) in the study. To minimize the observer bias, the seating arrangement in the lecture theatre was done separately for both of them in a way that they were facing the students to note their observations on a structured checklist. They were also kept unaware about the aim of the study. A mean of the inputs was calculated later.

The lectures to group A were delivered without intervention, while in group B, humour was used as an intervention to break the monotony. Humour was taken up as any event that elicits laughter. Body language was used to deliver the message that they can enjoy as well as learn. The benefits of edutainment (4) were enumerated in the first lecture as set induction. Though humour of the formal type like the use of images and mnemonics was incorporated in slides, the author preferred storytelling (5), which was relevant to the topic as well as the most convenient one. The use of humour of the spontaneous type was done to deter gossiping and mischief among the students. An article -teacher tip: humour in the classroom (6) proved to be beneficial.

Data analysis : The data were analyzed by using SPSS for Windows (version 10.0) by applying the Chi-Square test and p values of 0.05 and less were considered as significant.

Results

A-Questionnaire: The students of both the groups A and B were given questionnaires to assess their experience in lectures 1 and 4 and the results were graded by using Likert’s scale.

It was observed that the nearly half of the students of group-A disagreed about understanding the concept of lecture-1 and their % remained somewhat the same in lecture-4 also (48.64 and 47.22% respectively), whereas in group-B, the % of the students who agreed (both agreed and strongly agreed) about understanding the concept of the lecture, increased from 52.62% in lecture one to 68.17% in lecture four. However, this difference was found to be statistically insignificant (Table/Fig 1).

When the students were asked about their comfort in the class, it was observed that in group A, more than half of the students disagreed (54.05%) with respect to lecture-1 and their numbers remained nearly the same in lecture-4 also (49.99%). In group B, the % of the students who agreed to this question increased in lecture-4 as compared to lecture-1 (74.99 and 57.88% resp.). The difference was found to be statistically insignificant (Table/Fig 2).

It was found that the percentage of students of group A who disagreed about the maintenance of attention in lecture-1 somewhat remained the same in lecture-4 (54.04 and 52.77%), where as in group B, there was a drastic fall from lecture- 1 to lecture-4 in the % of students who disagreed to this question (42.10% and 13.63%). The difference was found to be statistically significant (Table/Fig 3).

It was observed that in group A, the percentage of students who were afraid of the teacher almost remained the same in lectures-1 to 4 (54.04% and 52.77%). In contrast to it, in group B, the number of students who were not afraid of the teacher increased from 39.47% in lecture-1 to 59.08% in lecture-4. However, the difference was found to be statistically insignificant (Table/Fig 4).

The percentage of students of group A who disagreed with the question that the teacher was friendly, remained somewhat the same in lectures 1 and 4 (62.15% and 63.88%), where as in group B, the number of students who agreed to this question increased from nearly half (47.36%) to three fourth (74.99%) and the difference was found to be statistically significant (Table/Fig 5).

B-Observations: When students attitude or behaviour was observed in both the groups in lecture-1 it was found that the negative attitude like late comers, yawning, napping, sleeping, whispering and gossiping all were more in group A in which humour was not used as a teaching aid. where as in the same lecture-1 positive attitude like good posture, smiling face, eye contact, nodding, writing notes and asking questions were observed more in group B in which humour was used as a teaching aid, however the difference in both the negative and positive attitude in lecture-1 between group A & B was not found to be statistically significant. (Table/Fig 6).

In a similar pattern to lecture-1 in lecture-4 also, negative attitude was more in group A and positive attitude was more in group B but here in lecture-4 difference in both attitude was much more as compare to lecture-1. Difference in positive attitude of both the groups in lecture-4 was found to be statistically significant (Table/Fig 7),(Table/Fig 8).

Discussion

Wankat (7) cites numerous studies that suggest that student attention span during lecture are roughly fifteen minutes. After that, Hartley and Davies (8) found that the number of students paying attention begins to drop dramatically with a resulting loss in retention of lecture material. The same authors found that immediately after the lecture students remembered 70 % of information presented in first ten minutes of the lecture and 20 % of infor-mation presented in last ten minutes. Breaking up the lecture might work because students’ minds start to wander and activities provide the opportunity to start fresh again, keeping students engaged.

Study done by Rajeev et al (9), aims to provide information to help teachers to mend their attitudes for better. This states that an ardent desire of every student is to have a resourceful, motivated, interactive, inspiring teacher. Obviously, a good teacher makesway for sustainable, self-stimulating productive learning. Students adore such teachers. The rationale for this remains variable and obscure. Do students have any paradigm of characteristics of teachers? There is an imperative need to discern what students like/dislike and how they recognize good teachers. Can these trends be explored? This direct study is an attempt to understand attitude and attributes of students’ assessment of a good teacher. Certainly, this will enable the teaching fraternity to adopt conciliatory measures wherever necessary. It is believed that students’ opinions on effective teaching will bring sea of changes in teachers’ attitudes. Significantly, all teachers are not same in creating excellent classroom climate. The innate personal traits and teaching methodology differ in decisive way among teachers.

According to Borchard (10) there are Nine ways that humour heals:- combats fear, comforts, relaxes, reduces pain, boosts the immune system, reduces stress, spreads happiness, cultivates optimism, helps communication.

Humour appears to be widely used in medical teaching. At the Sydney Children’s Hospital, a recent survey of senior staff showed that almost all used humour in their teaching (personal unpublished data). Almost 80% included humour in their teaching sessions, and regularly elicited laughter from their students. Most found it difficult to use humour and would like to use it more. Although they do not see humour as essential to good teaching, they believe that too little use of humour is made in teaching and that humour in teaching reduces stress; increases motivation; improves morale, enjoyment, comprehension, interest and rapport; and facilitates socialization into the profession. They did not think humour trivialized, distracted, encouraged dogmatism, or demeaned patients (if used in bedside teaching) or that its use was unprofessional. They thus attributed to the use of humour in education those qualities which are claimed for it in the educational literature (11).They stressed that humour should be appropriate to the topic and should be in context. The importance of using humour that is relevant to the subject is stressed by Ziv (12).

Although humour is used regularly by medical (and other) teachers, there is almost no literature on the use of humour in medical education; indeed, there is a paucity of research on its use in education generally. There have been few published controlled studies of the use of humour in learning, and only about half of these have demonstrated improved learning outcomes (11),(12). There is almost no literature on the use of humour in medical teaching. For example, in a bibliography of almost 200 citations related to humour, health and medicine maintained by the International Society for Humour Studies, only 13 articles related to the education of health professionals, and most of these were in nursing journals (13), (14).

Ziv studied the effects of humour during a 14-week statistics course for college students. The subject matter and teacher for both the control and experimental groups were identical, except that the teacher included the use of humour in the experimental group. At the end of the course, on the final examination, the students who were exposed to humour performed significantly better than the group with which humour was not used. Ziv emphasized that humour works best in small doses—usually four or five jokes orcartoons per lecture and that the humour should be relevant to the material taught (12).

This is in congruence with present study, as humour was found to be very effective intervention in improving not only the attendance of the students in the class but also a very good way to increase their interest in the lecture as observed by increase in positive attitude and decrease in negative attitude of the students of group B, the lecture with humour. More over when asked by the students of both the groups, the students of lecture with humour found them more comfortable, more attentive and friendlier with the teacher as compared to the students of lecture without humour.

Potential bias in the results of our study could be due to different number of students attending the lectures. Anonymity and confidentiality of the respondents was ensured in the questionnaire. Hence we did not have the identity of those missing. Our study is based on four lectures given with a gap of one week. Number of lectures could have been increased. Limitations of the findings -whether humour is appropriate while teaching all subjects -perhaps it is and can be incorporated for example through the use of -’bad examples of practice’ but this needs to be considered as in the case of breaking bad news etc.

Conclusion

Humour in teaching has multiple benefits for the students. The quality and content of humour as it is has been used in these setting needs to be defined further. Further research would justify the use of humour as an effective teaching aid in medical education.

Key Message

Reaching out to their students and maintaining their attention is one of the biggest challenges that teachers face. Humour in the classroom is their ally. The traditional lectures often suppress critical thinking and the students are passive recipients. This is a time for teachers to understand that lectures have to be interactive. Humour is an easily available, economical and effective tool. The teachers have to just develop their sense of humour.

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