Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Archana Dambal

"Journal of clinical and diagnostic research is a welcome change in publishing practices. It aims to reach out to the grass-root level researchers who do not lack in experience, clinical material and ideas, but lack in their knowledge in English language and statistics. The journal achieves it's aim by supporting in these exact domains.
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Dr. Archana Dambal
Department of General Medicine,
Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences,Belgaum, Karnataka,INDIA,
On 30 Nov 2018




Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"



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Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




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I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
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Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011

Important Notice

Case report
Year : 2011 | Month : December | Volume : 5 | Issue : 8 | Page : 1631 - 1633

Anomalous Right Testicular Artery and Vein: Embryologic Explanation and Clinical Implications

Punita Sharma, Surinder Kumar Salwan

1. Associate Professor, Dept. of Anatomy, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Vallah, Amritsar, India. 2. Lecturer, Dept. Of Medicine, Government Medical College, Amritsar, India.

Correspondence Address :
Punita Sharma
242, Medical Enclave, Circular road, Amritsar, 143001
Telephone: 9888034321, 0183-2421508
E-mail: punitasalwan@gmail.com

Abstract

The invasive interventions such as renal transplantation, interventional radiologic procedures and urologic operations increase awareness of the possible variations of the renal and gonadal arteries which is necessary for adequate surgical management in the aforementioned specialties. We have come across an anomalous origin of right testicular artery from right renal artery which is though not a rarity warrant attention because of the origin and course of the anomalous vessel. The origin of right testicular artery from right renal artery was obscured by inferior vena cava. This vascular variation shows a major significance in renal surgery, in partial or total nephrectomy and in renal transplant. The presence of such variations may become a major risk when this type of gonadal artery represents the single blood supply of the gonad, without a second supply from the aorta or other arterial sources. Thus it becomes imperative to report this case and discuss its embryologic and clinical aspects.

Keywords

Right testicular artery, Anomaly, Renal transplantation, Nephrectomy

How to cite this article :

Punita Sharma, Surinder Kumar Salwan. ANOMALOUS RIGHT TESTICULAR ARTERY AND VEIN: EMBRYOLOGIC EXPLANATION AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2011 December [cited: 2019 Aug 19 ]; 5:1631-1633. Available from
http://jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2011&month=December&volume=5&issue=8&page=1631-1633&id=1794

Introduction
Testicular arterial anatomy has been studied in detail because of its importance in testicular physiology, as well as testicular and renal surgery. Testicular arteries are paired vessels that usually arise from the antero-lateral surface of the abdominal aorta at the level of second lumbar vertebra, 2.5 to 5 cm caudal to the renal arteries. Each artery passes obliquely downwards and posterior to the peritoneum. Descending on the posterior abdominal wall, it reaches the deep inguinal ring where it enters the spermatic cord. The testicular vein drains into inferior vena cava on the right side and left renal vein on the left side (1).

Certain vascular and developmental anomalies of kidneys can be associated with variations in the origin and course of the gonadal arteries. These anomalies are explained by the embryological development of both of these organs from the intermediate mesoderm of the mesonephric crest. Further the vasculature of kidneys and gonads is derived from the lateral mesonephric branches of dorsal aorta (1).

As the invasive interventions such as renal transplantation, interventional radiologic procedures and urologic operations increase, awareness of the possible variations of the renal and gonadal arteries is necessary for adequate surgical management in the aforementioned specialties. So we are reporting here a clinically important variation of right testicular artery and vein with its embryologic explanation.

Case Report

During the routine dissection for medical undergraduate teaching in the Department of Anatomy, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, we encountered variations of right testicular artery and vein.

The right testicular artery (RTA) was not arising from abdominal aorta. The origin of right testicular artery was obscure and itcoursed down in front of right renal vein and hilum of right kidney and passed lateral to right testicular vein (RTV) throughout its course (Table/Fig 1). The right renal vein and artery maintained normal relation at the hilum of kidney. To view the origin of right testicular artery, the inferior vena cava (IVC) was sectioned above the entry of renal veins and reflected downwards. The testicular artery was observed to arise along the superior aspect of right renal artery hidden behind inferior vena cava. A kink at the origin of the testicular artery was observed and it curved downwards to course in front of renal vein (Table/Fig 2).

The right testicular vein (RTV) also drained into right renal vein instead of inferior vena cava. The left testicular artery and the left testicular vein had the normal size and course. No other anomalies were found in the abdomen.

Discussion

Variant anatomy of gonadal arteries has been reported in number of cases. High origin of the gonadal arteries from the abdominal aorta have been reported in two individuals by Ozan H et al. (2) Anomalous origin of the testicular artery from the inferior polar artery of the kidney and its surgical importance has been reported by Ravery V et al (3). Cicekcibasi et al (4). classified the gonadal artery originated from the renal artery as type II, with the frequency of 5.5%. In their study, all five cases in type II had inferior polar origin, while in our case the left testicular artery had a lower hilar origin.

Bordei et al (5) found four cases of a single gonadal artery originating from double renal arteries but did not give any information regarding laterality. In their study, Asala et al found testicular arterial variations only on the right side in 4.7% (n = 150) of the cadavers. In 4 (2.6%) of these cases, testicular arteries branched from the renal artery. (6) Onderoglu et al. reported the right testicular artery giving rise to the inferior phrenic and the superior suprarenal arteries (7).

Considering the arching of the testicular artery, Ranade et al (8) reported an unusual origin and course of a left renal testicular artery arching over the left renal vein along with double renal arteries. They proposed that not only the compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery usually induces left renal vein hypertension, resulting in varicocele, but the arching of left testicular artery over the left renal vein could be an additional possible cause of left renal vein compression. Rusu (2006) encountered bilaterally double renal arteries and bilaterally double testicular arteries where in on the right side the medial testicular artery emerged from the abdominal aorta while the lateral testicular artery left the superior renal artery. On the left side the lateral and medial testicular arteries emerged as a common trunk from the abdominal aorta. This trunk originated from aorta behind the left renal vein and arched over that vein to descend and to divide in front of it (9). Sarita et al (2009) reported about the occurrence of bilateral variant testicular arteries and double renal arteries. Both the testicular arteries were arising from the renal arteries close to the hilum of the kidneys (10).

In a study of 34 cadavers (68 sides), Pai et al (2008) (11) observed that testicular artery emerged as a branch of the inferior polar artery in 7.4% cases. But they observed only 1 case of testicular artery arising from the upper part of right renal artery and arching down onto the front of right renal vein, a case similar to the one mentioned here. Also, in the present case report the corresponding right testicular vein showed a variant termination in right renal vein instead of inferior vena cava [Table/Fig-1] and (Table/Fig 2).

Recently the anatomy of the gonadal arteries has assumed importance because of the development of a new operative techniques within the abdominal cavity for operations such as varicocele and undescended testes (12). During laparoscopic surgery of the male abdomen and pelvis many complications occurred due to unfamiliar anatomy in the operative field (13). Awareness of variations of the testicular arteries and veins, such as those shown in this case report, becomes important during such surgical procedures.

If overlooked, renal origin of the testicular arteries might have dramatic clinical consequences as reported by Siniluoto et al. about a case who suffered from left testicular infarction due to palliative transcatheter ethanol embolization for intermittent gross haematuria. Later, the re-evaluation of the patient’s arteriography showed that the left testicular artery originated from the lower of two renal arteries that supplied the kidney (14). All these indicate the importance of the arteriography or Doppler ultrasound examination of the renal hilum, prior to any surgical procedure within the region (15).

Regarding the embryologic basis, explanation for individual or combined variations of renal and gonadal arteries has been related to the embryological development of both vessels from the lateral mesonephric branches of the dorsal aorta. The embryologic explanation of these variations has been presented and discussed by Felix (16). In an 18 mm fetus, the developing mesonephros, metanephros, suprarenal glands and gonads are supplied by nine pairs of lateral mesonephric arteries arising from the dorsal aorta. Felix divided these arteries into three groups as follows: the 1st and 2nd arteries as the cranial; the 3rd to 5th arteries as the middle, and the 6th to 9th arteries as the caudal group. The middle group gives rise to the renal arteries. Persistence of more than one arteries of the middle group results as multiple renal arteries. Felix also stated that although anyone of these nine arteries may become the gonadal artery, it usually arises from the caudal group.

Gonadal vein develops from caudal part of sub-cardinal vein and it drains into the supra-subcardinal anastomosis. In the right side, this supra-subcardinal anastomosis and also a small portion of Sub-cardinal vein are incorporated into the formation of inferior vena cava, so right gonadal vein usually drains into the inferior vena cava. In this present case this failed and a part of right renal vein was formed by right supra-subcardinal anastomosis and hence received the right testicular vein. In the left side, this suprasubcardinal anastomosis forms part of left renal vein where the left gonadal vein drains, and the pre-aortic part of the vein is formed by inter-subcardinal anastomosis. In the present case proximal part of the two original metanephric veins persisted. In present case, the right testicular artery is arising from right renal artery so we believe that they have been derived from the middle group as well.

Conclusion

Eventually, our findings have to be kept in mind during surgical procedures in the posterior abdominal wall. This kind of anomaly may cause confusions during renal transplants. The vessels can also be involved in the orthopaedic procedures of lumbar spine. The testicular artery may get compressed between the renal artery and vein, which may lead to degeneration of the testis. If overlooked, renal origin of the testicular arteries might have dramatic clinical consequences. Therefore, the knowledge of variations of vessels in the renal hilar region and retroperitoneal region may greatly contribute to the success of surgical, invasive and radiological procedures of this area.

Also, knowledge of these variations may also provide safety guidelines for endovascular procedures like therapeutic embolisation and angioplasties. Multiple vascular variations near the hilum of the kidney are present in seemingly normal patients and a sound knowledge of possible variations is very useful for radiologists, urologists and surgeons.

References

1.
Standring S. Gray’s Anatomy; anatomical basis of clinical practice. 40th ed. London: Elsevier; 2010: 1262-64.
2.
Ozan H, Gumusalan Y, Onderoglu S, Simsek C. High origin of gonadal arteries associated with other variations. Anat Anaz 1995; 177: 156-60.
3.
Ravery V, Cussenot O, Desgrandchamps F, Teillac P, Martin-Bouyer Y, Lassau JP, et al. Variations in arterial blood supply and the risk of haemorrhage during percutaneous treatment of lesions of the pelviureteral junction obstruction: report of a case of testicular artery arising from an inferior polar renal artery. Surg Radiol Anat 1993;15: 355-59.
4.
Cicekcibasi AE, Salbacak A, Seker M, Ziylan T, Buyukmumcu M, Uysal II. The origin of gonadal arteries in human fetuses: anatomical variations. Ann Anat 2002; 184:275–79.
5.
Bordei P, Sapte E, Iliescu D. Double renal arteries originating from the aorta. Surg Radiol Anat 2004;26:474–79.
6.
Asala S, Chaudhary SC, Masumbuko-Kahamba N, Bidmos M. Anatomical variations in the human testicular blood vessels. Ann Anat 2001;183:545–49.
7.
Onderoglu S, Yuksel M, Arik Z. Unusual branching and course of the testicular artery. Anat Anz 1993;175:541–44.
8.
Ranade AV, Rai R, Prabhu LV, Mangala K, Nayak SR. Arched left gonadal artery over the left renal vein associated with double left renal artery. Singapore Med J. 2007; 48(12): 332-34
9.
Rusu MC. Human bilateral doubled renal and testicular arteries with a left testicular arterial arch around the left renal vein. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2006; 47(2):197-200.
10.
Sarita Sylvia, Sridhar Varma Kakarlapudi, Venkata Ramana Vollala, Bhagath Kumar Potu, Raghu Jetti, Srinivasa Rao Bolla, et al. Cases J. 2009; 2: 114-16
11.
Pai MM, Vadgaonkar R, Rai R, Nayak SR, Jiji PJ, Ranade, A et al. Singapore Med J. 2008; 49(7): 551-55
12.
Pushpa Dhar, Kumud Lal. Main and accessory renal arteries – A morphological study. J Anat Embryol. 2005;110: 101–10.
13.
Brohi RA, Sargon MF, Yener N. High origin and unusual suprarenal branch of a testicular artery. Surg Radiol Anat 2001; 23:207–8.
14.
Siniluoto TM, Hellstrom PA, Paivansalo MJ, Leinonen AS. Testicular infarction following ethanol embolization of a renal neoplasm. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 1988;11:162-64.
15.
Cussnot O, Desgrandehamps F, Bassi S, Teillae P, Lassau JP, Le Due A. Anatomic basis of laparoscopic surgery in the male pelvis. Surg Radiol Anat 1993;15: 265–69.
16.
Kiebel F, Mall FP. Manual of human embryology. Vol 2. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1912: 820–25.

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  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com