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An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
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Aug 2018

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Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
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Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Year : 2011 | Month : December | Volume : 5 | Issue : 8 | Page : 1682 - 1685 Full Version

Dental Prosthesis: An Evaluation on Mechanical Properties of Recast Base Metal Alloys

Published: December 1, 2011 | DOI:
Prabhu R., Geetha Prabhu K.R., T. Ilango

1. Corresponding Author 2. MDS, Reader, Department of Prosthodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Mogappair, Chennai - 600 107 Tamilnadu, India. 3. MDS, Professor Department of Prosthodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Mogappair, Chennai - 600 107 Tamilnadu, India

Correspondence Address :
R. Prabhu, MDS
Reader, Dept. of Prosthodontics,
Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital,
Mogappair, Chennai-600 107
Phone. 09840891669


Introduction: Dental casting alloys have found widespread usage in restorative dentistry owing to their physical, biological and economical properties. Recent technologies have been applied to these alloys to improve their utility, longevity and efficiency.

Purpose of the Study: The current study aimed at evaluation of recast base metal nickel-chromium alloy with or without addition of new alloy based on their mechanical properties.

Materials and Methods: The study evaluated 10 samples each of fresh alloy, recast alloy with addition of 50% of wt. of new alloy and recast alloy without addition of new alloy. Samples were subjected to computerized Universal Testing Machine and mechanical properties viz. tensile strength, yield strength, percentage of elongation, modulus of elasticity and microhardness was tabulated. Data was subjected to multiple posthoc test of significance.

Results: Significant changes were observed in recast alloy with and without addition of new alloy in contrast to fresh alloy. Conclusion: Recast alloys used in fixed dental prostheses without addition of new alloy show degenerative changes when compared to unused alloys after casting.


Base Metal Alloys, Casting, Recasting, Fixed Partial Dentures

Dental Alloys have been considered to be of paramount importance in the field of fixed partial denture prosthodontics (1). Mechanical properties, bio-compatibility, working characteristics, casting accuracy, corrosion resistance, porcelain-to-metal compatibility and unit costs are some of the considerations in the selection of an alloy for metal ceramic restorations (2),(3),(4). Although there have been several reports available on the repeated usage of precious metals and the evaluation of their mechanical properties, before and after recast procedures there are few reports available on the evaluation of the mechanical properties of the non-precious base metal alloys after recasting (5),(6). The properties such as micro-hardness, tensile strength, yield strength, modulus of elasticity and percentage of elongation need evaluation after recast as they are directly linked to long term performance (7). This study was under taken with the aim to evaluate the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, yield strength, percentage of elongation, modulus of elasticity and micro-hardness of recast base metal nickel chromium alloy after casting without addition of any new parent alloy and with addition of 50% new alloy by weight as recommended for recasting of precious alloy castings.

Material and Methods

An Aluminum die was fabricated to prepare specimens used for this study according to specifications recommended by the American Dental Association (Table/Fig 1). The specimens were prepared in auto-polymerising acrylic resin to avoid distortion. The cylindrical acrylic of each specimens had a length of 13/8 inches with a uniform diameter of 3mm. Both the ends of the specimen was made as a threaded cylindrical portion consisting of 12-24 threads with a 1/4 inch radius of curvature (Table/Fig 2). The sprueportion is designed in order to supply the sufficient amount of metal necessary for recasting procedure. Ingots of nickel – chromium alloy (Heraenium S) were used for casting in this study and was done in three stages. The first stage consists of preparing the base metal alloy specimens made from 100% new alloy to be used as the control group (Table/Fig 3). The second stage consists of preparing the recast base metal alloy specimens without addition of any new alloy (Table/Fig 4). The third stage consists of preparing the recast base metal alloy specimens with addition of new alloy by weight (Table/Fig 5). Total of 10 specimens were made in each stage. Tensile strength, yield strength, percentage of elongation and modulus of elasticity measurements were determined for each specimen according to ADA specification by using fully computerized universal testing machine (Lloyd’s universal testing machine). Each specimen was subjected to tensile test with a head speed of 0.1 cm / min and a 500 kg load cell. The computerized graph recorder was set at 5 cm/min. After rupture of each test bar, ultimate tensile strength was computed by dividing maximum recorded load by the diameter of the tensile bar. Offsets of 0.2% were used as arbitrary values to calculate the yield strength. This was accomplished by plotting lines to represent each offset parallel to the straight line portion of the tensile curve which was done by the computer programmed to the testing machine. Fully digitized universal testing machine automatically calculated the values of percentage of elongation after the rupture of each tensile specimen (Table/Fig 6). Calculating the ratio of stress to strain for each specimen from the slope of the straight line portion of the tensile curve yielded the modulus of elasticity. One end of each fractured tensile specimen was evaluated using Digitized Vickers micro hardness tester using 136o diamond for micro hardness (Table/Fig 7).


The values tabulated for the properties of tensile strength, yield strength, percentage of elongation, modulus of elasticity and micro-hardness for the fresh alloy after casting, recast alloy without addition of any new alloy and with addition of new alloy was given in (Table/Fig 8), 8b, and 8c] respectively.

(Table/Fig 9), 8b, 8c, 8d and 8e] shows the mean difference and p-value amongst the three groups viz. fresh alloy, recast alloy withaddition of new alloy and recast alloy without addition of new alloy; for the properties of tensile strength, yield strength, percentage of elongation, modulus of elasticity and microhardness, respectively. The values were computed using multiple comparison Posthoc statistical test. p-value below 0.05 was considered to be significant.

Mean difference for tensile strength compared between fresh alloy and recast alloy with addition (p=0.000) and without addition (p=0.001) of new alloy was found to be significant. (Table/Fig 10) Test of significance for mean difference values for modulus of elasticity compared between fresh alloy and recast alloy without addition (p=0.038) of new alloy was found to be statisticallysignificant. [Table/Fig-9d] Similarly the mean difference for microhardness of fresh alloy and recast alloy with addition (p=0.000) and without addition (p=0.000) of new alloy was found to be significant. [Table/Fig-9e] ) All other mean difference values between the three test groups evaluated for various mentioned properties were not significant.


With an exponential demand for base metal alloys in restorative dentistry and a proportional increase in their cost, continual attempts have been made to utilize these metals more efficiently and conservatively. Recasting is a technique carried out to reuse cast nickel chromium alloys in the motive to conserve alloy wastage (8),(9).

Firing of porcelain on the metal sub-structure of a restoration at high temperatures may produce changes in mechanical properties that could influence the behaviour of an alloy and its clinical performance during long term usage (10),(11),(12). Harcourt remolded cobalt chromium alloy and found out that after six successive remeltings average value of ultimate tensile strength and yield strength was reduced (13). Hesby et al studied physical properties of a repeatedly used non-precious metal alloy (14). Hardness, tensile strength and behaviour percentage of elongation of cobalt chromium alloy were compared between single melt alloy castings and second, third and fourth generation melt alloy castings. Statistical comparisons of the first through fourth generations showed no significant differences. Presswood RG investigated the castability of multiple recast of a nickel chromium beryllium alloy and found that the alloy was sufficiently stable to consummate multiple castings, assuming that the ultimate composition should be considered the same as that of the original alloy (15). Khamis E, Seddik M et al investigated the corrosion resistance of recast non-precious Ni-Cr and Co-Cr commercial dental alloys in saliva and saline media. The alloys containing cobalt and molybdenum showed higher corrosion resistance than those containing nickel (16). Additionally, their corrosion resistance was not affected by successive melting and recasting (17).

Based on the results of the conducted study, recast alloys without addition of any new alloy shows greater value of degenerative change for the evaluated properties of tensile strength, yield strength, percentage of elongation, and modulus of elasticity micro-hardness when compared to the fresh alloy after casting. The values obtained for the recast alloy with addition of 50% alloy by weight were in between the values obtained for the fresh alloy after casting and the recast alloy without addition of any new alloy which indicates consideration of recast alloy with addition of minimum of 50% of new alloy by weight for casting procedures. Other properties like bio-compatibility, working characteristics, casting accuracy, corrosion resistance and porcelain–to–metal compatibility should also be examined for long term clinical usage when recast alloys with addition of new alloy were considered.


Recast nickel chromium base metal alloys without addition of new alloy show degenerative changes when compared to fresh unusedalloys after casting. Recast nickel chromium base metal alloys with 50% addition of new alloy by weight can be considered during the casting of alloys for fixed partial denture on the basis of limited mechanical properties evaluated during this study.


Baran GR. Selection criteria for base metal alloys for use with porcelains. Dent Clin North Am. 1985;29:779-87.
Bridgeport DA, Brantley WA, Herman PF. Cobalt-chromium and nickelchromium alloys for removable prosthodontics, Part 1: Mechanical properties. J Prosthodont. 1993;2:144-50.
Boyle JJ, Naylor WP, Blackman RB. Marginal accuracy of metal ceramic restorations with porcelain facial margins. J Prosthet Dent. 1993;69:19-27.
Hansson O. Casting accuracy of a nickel and beryllium-free cobaltchromium alloy for crown and bridge prostheses and resin-bonded bridges. Swed Dent J. 1985;9(3):105-15.
Bezzon OL, Ribeiro RF, Rollo JM, Crosara S. Castability and resistance of ceramometal bonding in Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Be alloys. J Prosthet Dent. 2001;85:299-304.
Vermilyea SG, Tamura JJ, Mills DE. Observations on nickelfree, beryllium-free alloys for fixed prostheses. J Am Dent Assoc.1983;106:36-8.
Turkoz Y. Influences of remelting on physical properties of denture base metal alloys. Ankara Univ Hekim Fak Derg. 1989;16:13-7.
Wakasa K, Yamaki M. The effect of casting condition on mechanical properties in Ni-base alloys (part 1). Low melting 32 Ni-23 Cu-25Mn alloy. Hiroshima Daigaku Shigaku Zasshi. 1983;15:14-9.
Lewis AJ. The effects of remelting on the mechanical properties of a nickel base partial denture casting alloy. Aust Dent J. 1975;20:89-93.
Morris HF, Asgar K, Rowe AP, Nasjleti CE. The influence of heat treatments on several types of base-metal removable partial denture alloys. J Prosthet Dent. 1979;41:388-95.
Al-Hiyasat AS, Darmani H. The effects of recasting on the cytotoxicity of base metal alloys. J Prosthet Dent. 2005;93:158-63.
Horasawa N, Marek M. The effect of recasting on corrosion of a silverpalladium alloy. Dent Mater. 2004;20:352-7.
Harcourt HJ. The remelting of cobalt-chromium alloys. Br Dent J. 1962;6:198-204.
Hesby DA, Kobes P, Garver DG, Pelleu GB. Physical Properties of a repeatedly used non precious metal alloy. J Prosthet Dent. 1980;44:291-3.
Presswood RG. Multiple recast of a nickel chromium beryllium alloy. J Prosthet Dent. 1983;50:198-9.
Khamis E, Seddik M. Corrosion evaluation of recasting non-precious dental alloys. Int Dent J. 1995 Jun;45(3):209-17.
Ozdemir S, Arikan A. Effects of recasting on the amount of corrosion products released from two Ni-Cr base metal alloys. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 1998;6:149-53.

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