Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018




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Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
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Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
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On Sep 2018




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"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Professor and Head
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Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




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Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




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Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
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Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help ones reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journalsNo manuscriptsNo authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2012 | Month : May | Volume : 6 | Issue : 3 | Page : 327 - 332 Full Version

Dermatoglyphics: A Diagnostic Tool to Predict Diabetes


Published: May 1, 2012 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2012/.2059
Manoj Kumar Sharma, Hemlata Sharma

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar, Rajasthan 2. Lecturer, Department of Anatomy, Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar, Rajasthan NAME OF DEPART MENT(S)/INSTITUTION(S) TO WHICH THE WORK IS ATTRI BUTED: S.M.S Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Correspondence Address :
Manoj Kumar Sharma
III/5, Staff quarters, Medical College Campus,
Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar
Pincode-326001(Rajasthan), India
Phone: 09929391333; 09667334455
E-mail: drmanojsharma2002@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

Introduction: The study of the epidermal ridges on the volar aspect of the hands and feet which form a variety of pattern configurations is called “DERMATOGLYPHICS”. All configurations are laid down permanently from the 3rd month of the intra-uterine life and they remain unchanged throughout the life. A positive association of the dermatoglyphic features with different diseases like diabetes, mongolism, schizophrenia and leprosy have been well documented in recent years.

Methods: In the present study, 50 diabetic cases and 50 controls were selected from the SMS Hospital, Jaipur, India for the establishment of the correlation between the two groups by checking for the presence and absence of any dermatoglyphic pattern. Hand prints were taken by Indian ink methods and examined for Total Finger Ridge Count (TFRC), Absolute Finger Ridge Count (AFRC), (a-b) ridge count , distal and lateral deviation (quantitative parameter) and digital and palmer pattern frequency, lateral deviation, angles and the C- line pattern frequency (qualitative parameter).

Aim: The aim of the present was to evaluate the dermatoglyphic features and the specific variations which were to be used as diagnostic tools for an economic and early detection of diabetes.

Results and Conclusion: The TFRC, AFRC, and the (a-b) ridge count were higher in all the patients but they were statistically insignificant. The ‘atd’ angles in the hands of both sides in the patients were increased in all the groups, except in males (left side), but they differed significantly on the right side (overall, p<.01) and on the left side (female, p<.001). The ‘tad’ and the ‘tda’ angles on both sides of the hands in all the groups were lower in the patients except in males (left ‘tda’), but they differed only significantly in the females (left ‘tad’ p<.01, right ‘tda’ p<.001) and in the overall groups (right ‘tda’ p<.01) The whorl, loop and arch digital frequencies in females and in the overall groups (except loop) were increased insignificantly (p<.05). The vestige and the spiral whorl pattern were restricted to the thenar and the hypothenar areas of the male patients respectively as compared to the controls. Except an increase in the radial variety and the absence of the proximal variety, other C-line patterns were decreased in diabetics than in the controls. The results of the present research work indicate that dermatoglyphic abnormalities may be used as a diagnostic tool for predicting the possibility of the development of diabetes at a later date.

Keywords

Dermatoglyphics, Palmer ridges, Flexion creases, Diabetes, Finger Prints

Introdution
The formation of dermal ridges takes place in the foetus during the third month of the intra-uterine life as a result of the physical and the topological growth forces (1). The dermal ridges and the configuration which is once formed are not affected by age, development and environmental changes in the post-natal life and so , it has the potential to predict various genetic and acquired disorders with a genetic influence (2),(3). The classification of dermatoglyphics has been done as below: (1) Digital Pattern of the ridges (Digital Dermatoglyphics). (2) Palmer Pattern of the ridges (Palmer Dermatoglyphics).

(1) Digital Pattern of the ridges (Digital Dermatoglyphics): The epidermal ridges form a definite local design on the terminal segments of the digits and on the inconsistent sites on the palm. Galton (1895) (4) classified them as arches, loops, whorls and composite. AR CH: In the arches , the ridges enter from one side and flow to the other side, making the background turn to form simple and tented arches. These arches have a zero ridge count. WHORL :
The whorl is the most complex type of pattern which is continuously circumscribed by the type lines. These type lines areSectionan extension from the two triradii. The area which is enclosed by these type lines is called the pattern area. The subtypes of whorls are simple whorl (simple whorl and symmetrical whorl), double loop whorl, central pocket loop whorl and accidental whorl.
Loop: A loop includes a triradius, at least one recurving ridge and a ridge count of at least one across a recurving ridge. If any one of these features is lacking, the pattern is classified as a tented arch and not a loop. The ridges of a loop enter from one side, recurve and exit on the same side of the finger. When the ridges leave from the ulnar side, they are known as an ulnar loop and when they leave from the radial side, a radial loop is formed. A loop possesses only one triradius.

Composite: In the composite type, there is a combination of the arch, loop and whorls which are found in the same print and are classified as the central pocket loop, the lateral pocket loop, the twinned loop and the accidental loop. (2) Palmer Pattern of the ridges (Palmer Dermatoglyphics): The palmer area is divided into various zones with in which a pattern may or may not be present. It includes: R idges and pattern: It includes four interdigital areas (11, I2, I3 and I4 from the radial to the ulnar side), the axial triradius(t, t’, t’’ according to the position of the triradius), the hypothenar eminence and the thenar eminence.

Flexion creases: Dermatoglyphic studies have few advantages like ready accessibility, their ages and environmental stability (3).There was scarcity of dermatoglyphic data on the prevalence of diabetes in a population of western India (Rajasthan).This created an interest in attempting the present study. Our aim was to evaluate the dermatoglyphic features in diabetes and to note the specific variation in the cases of diabetes mellitus for an early detection of the disease.

Material and Methods

This study was conducted on 50 cases and they were compared with 50 controls. Age and sex criteria were excluded. The confirmation of diabetes mellitus was based on the history of the subjects, their clinical examinations and their blood glucose levels.


Three methods were used for taking prints:- (1) Inkless methods (Walker 1957) (5) (2) The Holister system for young and new born infants. (3) The Indian ink method (Cumins and Midlow, 1961) (2).

Inkless methods (Walker 1957) (5): Macarthur and ford (1937) (6) described a procedure for making prints in the latent form from face cream which was spread on a kymograph paper. The latter was fixed in shellac after developing an impression with lamp black fine powder. This saved the subject from the inconvenience of the staining or the discolouration of the hands.

The X-Ray (Roentgen’s method) has scored its useful value over other unsuccessful techniques for finger printing in the advanced states of decomposed bodies. They used the X-Ray record for the indirect correlation of the position of the triradii and the hand skeleton by fastening lead pallets with adhesives at the point of the triradii.

Castellanos (1939) mentioned Beclare’s procedure which consisted of smearing the skin with lanolin and bismuth carbonate and taking shadow graphs by the usual X-Ray method. The above three methods are not applicable easily because of the non availability of the appliances which are required for taking the prints.

The Holister system for young and new born infants: In infants, prints have been developed on photographic paper from a moistened blotter, which was pressed against the fingers and passed through a developing mixture which was prepared from a stock solution which consisted of sodium sulphide, NaoH, starch and distilled water). This was made permanent by fixation in hypo solution.

The Indian Ink method ( Cumins and Midlow , 1961): The Indian ink method (Cumins and Midlow, 1961) 2 was used for taking impressions with camel duplicating ink. The materials which were used were: A double plain paper (8.5"×11"), a glass plate (8.5"×11"), a round bottle(10"×4"), a roller for spreading the ink, a table, a scale, a pointed H.B Pencil, a mercury lamp, a biological pointer, a protractor, soap and ether for washing hands and a good quality magnifying lens.

328was squeezed out on an inking slab of the roller onto a thin film for the direct inking of the fingers. The palm was carefully and uniformly smeared with the inked roller to cover the whole area of the palm which had to be printed for the examination. The paper was set over the round bottle and the moderately open fingers and the palm were successively rolled by applying some pressure on them for permitting the bottle and the paper to move forward (Table/Fig 6). The rolled finger prints were taken by the rotation of fingers, both in the inking and the printing to obtain a complete impression of the finger tips. This method enables to record the complete imprints of the palm, including the palmer surface of all the five digits in one attempt. These prints were studied with the help of a magnifying lens for observation under different heads. The family history was not mentioned, as only the documented cases of diabetes were selected for the present research work.

Results

The observations were recorded to get the quantitative and qualitative dermatoglyphic features from the hand prints of 50 diabetics (25 males and 25 females) and 50 controls (42 males and 8 females). The TFRC of the patients was 44% (range 150-200) and it was 42% ( range 100-150) for the controls. Their mean values were 140.04 and 137.88 respectively, which did not differ significantly. A sex wise comparative difference was also not significant (Table/Fig 1). The AFRC of the diabetics was 42% (range -100-200) and it was 44% (range- 200-300) for the controls. The differences in their mean values (202.76 for the diabetics and 199.24 for the controls) as well as their sex wise comparison were statistically insignificant (Table/Fig 6).

The mean values of the right side and the left side (a-b) ridge count of the patients and the controls, as well as their sex wise comparison showed an insignificant difference (Table/Fig 2). The highest pattern of distribution of the whorl, loop and arch were present in the 4th, 5th and 2nd fingers respectively, whereas they were present in the 4th, 5th and 3rd fingers in the controls respectively. The whorl spiral (D-41% , C-52%) and the whorl symmetrical (D-41% ,C- 57%) were found to be highest in the 4th finger, but a double loop whorl was seen in the 1st finger (D-23%, C- 16%). The loop ulnar was the highest in the 5th finger (D-80%, C-76%), but the loop radial was highest in the 2nd finger (D-8%, C-7%). These differences between the two groups were statistically insignificant.

In diabetic males, the whorl, loop and arch frequency were 47.2%, 48% and 5.2% in comparison to the controls in which they were 37.6%, 57.7% and 4.35% respectively. These differences were significant (p<.05) but these were insignificant when the fingers were compared individually (Table/Fig 5) and (Table/Fig 9). In the palm, the patterns which were seen were the loop vestige, whorl, double loop and the spiral whorl. The vestige pattern (2%) was seen in the thenar areas of the diabetics only. The double loop pattern was seen in the I4' area in the both groups (D-8%, C-2%) . The loop patterns were mostly distributed in the I3 area of the diabetics (53%) and in the I4 area of the controls (50%). The difference between the palmer patterns of both the groups was statistically insignificant (Table/Fig 3) and (Table/Fig 8). A C-line pattern was observed for the absent, proximal, ulnar and the radial varieties. The proximal C-line pattern was absent in the diabetics, but it was present in the controls only (10%) on the leftside. An absent C-line pattern was seen on the left side (12%) in the diabetics (Table/Fig 10), while it was present on both sides in the controls (right – 6% , left – 14%). The radial inclination pattern was found to be more in the diabetics than in the controls, but the findings were found to be reversed for the ulnar inclination.

The right ‘atd’ angle mean values of the patients (43.66) and the controls (40.00) differed significantly (p<.01). On doing a sex wise comparison in females, the left ‘atd’ angle’s mean values were found to be between D-44.52 and C-36.87 they showed a significant difference (p<.001). Only the left ‘tad’ angle in females among the diabetics and controls on doing a sex wise comparison showed a significant difference (p<.01). The maximum right side ‘tad’ angle distribution in the diabetics fell in the range of 60*-69* (46%) as compared to that in the controls [50*-59* (46%)].

This was reversed on the left side. On comparison of the ‘tda’ angle, both the groups showed a significant difference (p<.01) on the right side only. Its maximum distribution range on the right side was 70*–79* (48%) in diabetics as compared to 80*- 89*(66%) in the controls, but this fell in the same range on the left side i.e.80*–89* (Table/Fig 4) and (Table/Fig 7).

Discussion

Dermatoglyphics is a Greek word which is derived from ‘derma’, meaning skin and ‘glyphae’, meaning carving (Cumins and Midlow, 1926). Dermatoglyphics is one field which gets affected by genetic changes, as seen in Down’s syndrome, Schizophrenia, Huntington’s chorea and syndactyly. Diabetes is a hereditary disease with a multifactorial type of inheritance. Hence, the heredity of the dermatoglyphic features conforms to the polygenic system with an additive effect for its prediction, whether a person is prone or not. In the present study, the mean TFRC was higher in the diabetics than in the controls. This was consistent with the findings of Ahuja and Chakarvarti et al (1981) (7), Iqbal et al (1978) (8) , and Barta et al (1970) (9).

The mean AFRC was higher in the patients (overall and males), but it was less in the female patients. These findings were in accordance with those of Ravindranath and Thomas et al (1995) (10). In diabetics, the (a-b) ridge count rise was not significant. This was in contrast with Ziegler et al’s (1993) (11) findings, which showed a significantly low (a-b) ridge count (p<.001).

The rise of the whorls and arches with a decrease in the number of loops was not significant on the fingers of diabetics. These findings were consistent with the results of Sant S.M et al (1983) (12) and Vera M et al (1995) (13), which showed a significant rise of the whorls and arches with a decrease in the number of loops in the patients. The palmer pattern frequency of both the groups was statistically insignificant, which was consistent with the findings of Sant S.M et al (1983) (12), Verbov (1973) (14) and Eswariah and Bali et al (1977) (15).

The present study showed a decrease in the frequency of the patterns in the I4 area of male diabetics, which was consistent withthe observations of Eswariah and Bali et al (1977) (15) and Zeigler et al (1993) (11).

The C-line pattern was observed for the proximal, absent, ulnar and the radial categories. All these three varieties except the radialSignificantone, was decreased in the patients, which showed a similarity with the findings of Platilova H et al (1996) (16). The proximal variety was absent on both the sides in the diabetics, whereas in the controls, it was present only on the left side. This was in conformity with the observations of Sant S.M et al (1983) (12) for the female patients only.

On both side and sex wise ‘atd’ angles of patients were higher in the present study, which was consistent with the finding of the increase of the summed ‘atd’ angle which was observed by .Sant S.M et al (1983) (12) , Platilova H et al (1996) (16) and Rajnigandga V et al (2006) (17) .The maximum right side ‘tad’ angle distribution in diabetics fell in the range of 60*–69* (46%) as compared to that in the controls [50*-59* (46%)], but it was reversed on the left side. Only the left ‘tad’ angle in the diabetic females differed significantly (p>.01) from that in the normal females. On the right side, the ‘tda’ angle among the compared groups, showed a significant difference (p<.01), except between the male groups, but the difference on the left side in all were insignificant. The ‘tda’ and the ‘tad’ angles which were observed in present study were not studied by any other author.

The results of this study may be naturally distorted by the dermatoglyphic abnormalities which were associated with normal persons who were prone to develop diabetes at a later date. The dermatoglyphic features of the present study may be used as a suggestive diagnostic tool to make a provisional diagnosis and to identify the persons who are at risk, but it requires more extensive studies in a large number of patients.

References

1.
Cumins H, Midlow C. Palmer and planter epidermal ridge configuration in European Americans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 1926;9:471-502.
2.
Cumins H, Midlow C. In finger prints, palm and soles; an introduction to dermatoglyphics. Dover Publication Inc , New York 1961.
3.
Bhu N, Gupta SC. Study of palmer dermatoglyphics in diabetes mellitus. Journal of the Diabetes Association of India 1981; 21: 99-107. [Table/Fig-7]: Showing the measurement of the Angles in palm [Table/Fig-8]: Showing the principal palmer triradii (a, b, c, d & axial triradius) and six dermatoglyphic areas (I, II, III, thenar & hypothenar) [Table/Fig-9]: Showing various types of finger tip patterns [Table/Fig-10]: Showing absent type of C-line pattern and distally placed axial triradius (t’’) in left hand of diabetic
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Galton F. Finger print directories, London, Macmillan (cited by Cumins and Midlow, 1961 ) vide supra 1985.
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Walker NF. An inkless method of finger, palm and sole printing. J. Pediat 1957;50: 27-29.
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Macarthur JW, Ford N. A Biological study of the dionne quintuplets all Identical Set. Univ. Toronto Studies, Child Development Series, Univ. Toronto Press. 1937; 11: 49.
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Ahuja YR, Khub Chand J, Plato CC, Sahay BK. Dermatoglyphics of diabetes mellitus. Revised in Human Biology–Recent advances, 1981;21-24, New Delhi, India. Today nasd tomorrow’s printers and publishers.
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Iqbal MA, Sahay BK, Ahuja YR. Finger and palmer ridge count in diabetes mellitus. Acta Anthropogenetica 1978;2(3):35-38.
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Barta L, Vari A, Susa E. Dermatoglyphic pattern of diabetic children.Acta Pediatrica, Academic Scientiarum of Hungrarical 1970;11: 71-74.10] Ravindranath R, Thomas IM. Finger ridge count and finger print pattern in maturity onset diabetes mellitus. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 1995; 49(7):153-56.
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Zeigler AG, Mathies R, Ziegelmayer G, Baumgarti HJ, Rodewald A, Chopra V , Standi E. Dermatoglyphics in type I diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Medicine 1993;10(8):720-24.
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Sant SM, Vare AM, Fakhurudin S. Dermatoglyphics in diabetes mellitus. Journal of the Anatomical Society of India 1983;32:127-30.
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Vera M, Cabrera E, Guell R. Dermatoglyphics in insulin dependent diabetic patients with limited joint mobility. Acta Diabetologica 1995; 32(2):78-81.
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Verbov JL. Dermatoglyphics in early onset diabetes mellitus. Human Heredity 1973;23(6):542-53.
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Eswariah G, Bali RS. Palmer flexion creases and dermatoglyphics among diabetic patients. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 1977;47(1):11-13.
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Platilova H, Pobisova Z , Zamrazil V, Vondra K. Dermatoglyphics-an attempt in predicting diabetes mellitus. Vnitr Lek 1996;42(11):757-60.
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Rajnigandha V, Mangala P, Latha P, Vasudha S. The digito-palmar complex in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Turk. J. Med. Sci 2006;36(6):353-55.

DOI and Others

DOI: JCDR/2012/3551:2059

DECLARATION ON COMPETING INTERESTS:
No competing Interests.


Date of Submission: Nov 04, 2011
Date of Peer Review: Jan 07, 2012
Date of Acceptance: Jan 15, 2011
Date of Publishing: May 01, 2012

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