Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 70781

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTable and FiguresDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2012 | Month : May | Volume : 6 | Issue : 3 | Page : 405 - 408 Full Version

Change in the Prevalence and the Antibiotic Resistance of the Enterococcal Species Isolated from Blood Cultures

Published: May 1, 2012 | DOI:
Anjana Telkar, Baragundi .Mahesh.C., Raghavendra V. P., Vishwanath. G., Chandrappa .N .R.

1. Corresponding Author 2. Associate Professor, Dept. of Microbiology, S.N. Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India. 3. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Anatomy, J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere, Karnataka, India. 4. Professor, Dept. of Microbiology, J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere, Karnataka, India. 5. Professor, Dept. of Microbiology, J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere, Karnataka, India.

Correspondence Address :
Anjana Telkar,
Assistant Professor, Dept. of microbiology,
J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere
Karnataka – Pin 577004, India.
Phone: 9844759777 / 9844759777


Context: Blood stream infections are an important cause of mortality and morbidity. Enterococci have become increasingly resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial agents and enterococcal bacteraemia results in a high mortality of about 54%.

Aim: The present study was done to determine the prevalence of different enterococcal species in blood stream infections and their anti-microbial resistance, with a special reference to vancomycin and high level aminoglycoside resistance.

Material and methods: The study was conducted on 50 enterococcal blood isolates. The isolates were identified by using standard microbiological techniques and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method according to the CLSI guidelines.

Results: The maximum numbers of enterococci were isolated from male patients of the age group of 0-20 years. Most of the enterococcal isolates (78%) were non-haemolytic and multidrug resistant. E.faecium (70%) was the predominant species which was isolated. Linezolid showed good antienterococcal activity. Vancomycin resistance was seen in 6 (12%) isolates and high level aminoglycoside resistance was seen in 20 (40%) isolates. The E.faecium isolates were more drug resistant than the E.faecalis isolates.

Conclusion: Steps should be taken to regularly screen the enterococcal isolates for vancomycin and high level aminoglycoside resistance and to treat the enterococcal infections effectively to limit the spread of multidrug resistant enterococcal infections.


Enterococcus, VRE, E.faecium, High level aminoglycoside resistance, Enterococcal bacteremia.

Blood stream infections are an important cause of mortality and morbidity and they are among the most common health care associated infections (1). The illnesses which are associated with blood stream infections range from self-limiting infections to life threatening sepsis, which require a rapid and aggressive antimicrobial treatment (2). The enterococci have become major nosocomial pathogens (3). The enterococci come well equipped with a variety of intrinsic (i.e. naturally occurring) antibiotic resistance. They are also capable of acquiring new resistance genes by gene transfer and/or mutations. The combination of high level resistance to ampicillin, vancomycin and aminoglycosides is now fairly common (4). Enterococcal bacteraemia results in a high mortality of about 54% (5). Although 12 species in the genus, Enterococcus have been recognized, the most common species which is implicated in human infections is E.faecalis, followed by E.faecium (6). Hence, the present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of different enterococcal species in blood stream infections and their antimicrobial resistance, with a special reference to the vancomycin and high level aminoglycoside resistance which was seen at our teaching hospital.

Material and Methods

A total of 50 enterococci which were isolated from blood cultures were included in the study. The ethical standards which were laid Original Article Microbiology Sectiondown by the institutional committee on human experimentation were followed during the study. The isolates were identified by their colony morphologies, Gram’s staining patterns, catalase reactions, growth on bile esculin agar and tolerance to 6.5% NaCl. The species identification was done by using the standard microbiological techniques. Anti-microbial sensitivity testing was done according to the CLSI guidelines (7) by the disc diffusion method of Kirby-Bauer by using Mueller Hinton (MH) agar. The various antibiotics which were tested were Ampicillin (10μg), Tetracycline (30μg), Erythromycin (15μg), Ciprofloxacin (5μg), Gentamicin (10μg), Vancomycin (30μg) and Linezolid (30μg). For high level aminoglycoside resistance detection, Gentamicin (120μg) and Streptomycin (300μg) discs were used. The source of the anti-microbials was Hi-Media Ltd (Mumbai) India. The standard strains, E.faecalis ATCC 29212 and E. faecalis ATCC 51299 were used as the susceptible and resistant quality control strains.


A total of 50 enterococcal isolates were recovered from blood cultures. (Table/Fig 1) shows the age and sex distribution of the isolates. The maximum number of isolates (54%) were seen in the 0-20 years age group, followed by those in the 21-40 years age group. More number of enterococci were isolated from males (64%) than fromfemales (36%). (Table/Fig 2) shows the haemolytic activity of the enterococcal isolates. Most of isolates were non haemolytic and no isolate was ß-haemolytic.

(Table/Fig 3) shows the resistance pattern of the enterococcal isolates. Only three species of enteococci, E.faecium (35), E.faecalis (14), E.durans (1) were isolated from blood cultures. All these three species were multidrug resistant and more than 50% resistance was seen to most of the drugs which were tested, except for Linezolid. Only one E.faecium isolate (2.8%) showed resistance to Linezolid. (Table/Fig 4) shows the vancomycin and the high level aminoglycoside resistance among the enterococcal isolates. Vancomycin resistance was seen in 6(12%) of the enterococcal isolates. 34 (68%) isolates were high level gentamicin resistant and 28 (56%) were high level streptomycin resistant. Both high level gentamicin and streptomycin resistance was seen in 20 (40%) isolates. The E.faecium isolates were more resistant to all the drugs as compared to the E.faecalis isolates.


In the present study, we determined the species prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance pattern of the enterococcal isolates from blood cultures. This study showed the highest number of enterococcal isolates in the 0-20 years age group and males were more effected than females. This could be due to the exposure of these groups to environmental conditions more than others or it may be due to some unexplained cause. 78% of the enterococcal isolates were non-haemolytic and a-haemolysis was seen in 22% of the isolates.

In the present study, 35 (70%) isolates were E.faecium, 14 (28%) were E.faecalis and 1 (2%) was E.durans. Earlier studies from various parts of India (8),(9),(10),(11) had shown E.faecalis as the predominant species which was isolated from humans. A study on hospitalized patients from the United States reported E.faecalis to be two times more common than E.faecium among the blood culture isolates (12). But recently, few studies have reported an increase in the number of the E.faecium isolates (11),(13). In the present study also, E.faecium was the major species which was isolated from the blood cultures. This could be attributed to the geographical variation in the distribution of the enterococcal species in different areas and the increasing drug resistance among the E.faecium isolates. The present study revealed the presence of multidrug resistant enterococcal species. Similar results were obtained in various studies from different parts of world. (6),(8),(14),(15),(16), Drug resistance is rapidly acquired by enterococci by plasmids (17), conjugative transposition (18) or by mutations (19), leading to the rapid spread of multidrug resistant enterococcal infections.

The present study also revealed E.faecium to be more drug resistant than E.faeclais. Similar findings have been reported by other workers. Linezolid showed a good antienterococcal activity,(4),(10) and this can be used as a second alternative for the vancomycin resistant enterococci. Studies (20),(21) have shown daptomycin to have a good activity against the enterococcal isolates, but in the present study, we did not test the sensitivity of daptomycin as it was not included in CLSI document. In the present study, vancomycin resistance was seen in 6(12%) isolates. 7.14% of the vancomycin resistance was seen in E.faecalis, whereas 14.28% of the E.faecium isolates were found to be vancomycin resistant. Overall, vancomycin resistance was seen in 12% isolates. This was more in comparison with the findings of other Indian studies (8),(9),(10),(18). which showed between 0-5% vancomyin resistance in the enterococcal isolates. Thus, the present study indicated an increase in the vancomycin resistance of the enterococcal isolates. The vancomycin resistance in enterococci not only leaves fewer options for the disease management, but it is also important due to the potential risk of the vancomycin resistance gene transfer from the enterococci to Staphylococcus aureus (6).

A high level of aminoglycoside resistance (HLGR+HLSR) was seen in 20 (40%) isolates and again, this was more in the E.faeciumisolates (40%) as compared to that in the E.faecalis isolates (35.71%). Our results were comparable to the results of other studies (8),(14),(15). The resistance to aminoglycosides is of great concern, since it eliminates the synergy of the aminoglycosides with the b-lactam antibiotics, which is the therapy of choice for the enterococcal infections, thus limiting the therapeutic options. In conclusion, E.faecium was found to be the predominant isolate in enterococcal bacteraemia. Most of the enterococcal isolates were multidrug resistant. Vancomycin and high level aminoglycoside resistance is on the rise in enterococcal isolates. Linezolid has a good antienterococcal activity. Steps should be taken to regularly screen the enterococcal isolates for vancomycin and high level aminoglycoside resistance and to treat the enterococcal infections effectively, to limit the spread of multidrug resistant enterococcal infections.


Diekam DJ, Beekman SE, Chapin KC. The epidemiology and the outcome of nosocomial and community onset blood stream infections. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41:3655-60.
Young IS. Sepsis syndrome. In : Mandell GL, Bennet JE, Dolin R, eds. Principle and practice of infectious diseases. Churchill Livingstone, 1995; 690-705.
Van Horn KG, Gedris CA, Rodney KM, Mitchell JB. Evaluation of commercial vancomycin agar screen plates for the detection of vancomycin – resistant enterococci. J Clin Microbiol 1996; 2042-44.
Arias CA, Reye SJ, Zuniga M. Multi-centre surveillance of the antimicrobial resistance in enterococci and staphylococci form Colombian hospitals. J Antimicrobial Chemother 2003;51:59-68.
Garnison RN, Fry DE, Berberich S, Polk SR. Enterococcal bacteremia: the clinical implications and the determinants of death. Annal Surg 1982;196(1):43-47.
Gupta V, Singla N. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of enterococci. J of Clin and Diag Res 2007;5:385-89.
Clinical and laboratory standards institute, performance standards for Antimicrobial susceptibility testing 15th – informational supplement. CLSI/NCCLS M 100-555 Wayne (PA).The institute; 2005.
Mathur P. Kapil. A, Chandra R, Sharma P. Antimicrobial resistance in E. faecalis at a tertiary care centre of north India. Indian J Med Res 2003;118:25-28.
Taneja N, Roni P, Emmanueal R, Sharma M. Significance of the vancomycin resistant enterococci which were isolated from urinary specimens at a tertiary care centre in north India. Indian J Med Res 2004;119:72-74.
Bhat KG, Paul C, Anantha Krishna NC. Drug resistant enterococci in a south Indian hospital. Trop Doc 1998;28:106-107.
Kamakar MG, Gershom ES, Metha PR. Enterococcal infections with special reference to the phenotypic characterization and the drug resistance. Indian J Med Res 2004;119(5): 22-25.
Karlowski JA, Jones ME, Drglin DC, Thorsbery C, Sahn DF, Volfuro GA. Prevalence of the anti-microbial susceptibilities of bacteria which were isolated from the blood cultures of hospitalized patients in the US in 2002. Ann Clin Microbiol 2004;3-7.
Iwen PC, Kelly DM, Linder J, Hinrichs SH, Dominguez EA, Rupp Me et al., Change in the prevalence and the antibiotic resistance of the enterococcus species which were isolated from blood cultures over an 8 year period. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41:494-95.
Latakapoor VS, Randara, Monorama Deb. Antimicrobial resistance of enterococcal blood isolates at a pediatric care hospital in India. J Infect Dis. 2005;58:101-03.
Baragundi MC, Sonth SB, Solabannawar S, Patil CS, Yemul VL. The species prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance pattern of the enterococcal isolates in a tertiary health care centre. J of Clin and Diag Res 2010;4:3405-09.
Akhi MT, Farzazeh F, Oskouri M. Study of the enterococcal susceptibility patterns which were isolated from clinical specimens in Tabriz, Iran. Pak J Med Sci 2009;25(2):21-16.
Bunny GM, Leonard BA, Hedberg PJ. Pheromone-inducible conjugation in enterococcus faecalis: inter bacterial and host parasite chemical communication. J Bacteriol 1995;177:871.
Clewell DB, Gawron-Burke C. Conjugative transposons and the dissemination of the antibiotic resistance in streptococci. Annu Rev Mi crobiol 1986;40:635.
Mundy LM, Satim DF, Gilmore M. Relationships between the enterococal virulence and the antimicrobial resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev 2000;13:513-22.
Novais C, Souza JC, Coque TM, Piexel LV. In vitro activity of daptomycin against enterococci from the nosocomial and community environments in Portugal. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004;54(5): 964-66.
Mohr JF, Friedrich LV, Yenkelev S, Lamp KC. Daptomycin for the treatment of enterococcal bacteremia; results from the Cubicin outcomes registry and experience (CORE). IntJ of Antimicrobial Agents 2009;33(6):543-48.

DOI and Others

DOI: JCDR/2012/4263:2090


Date of Submission: Mar 10, 2012
Date of Peer Review: Apr 02, 2012
Date of Acceptance: Apr 09, 2012
Date of Publishing: May 01, 2012

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)