Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
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Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Case report
Year : 2012 | Month : May | Volume : 6 | Issue : 4 | Page : 727 - 728 Full Version

Salmonella Enteritidis Causing Gastroenteritis : A Case Report

Published: May 1, 2012 | DOI:
D. Vijaya, K. Janakiram, Sathish J.V., Mohan D.R., Archa Sharma

1. Professor and HOD, Department of Microbiology, AIMS, B.G. Nagara, India. 2. Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, AIMS, B.G. Nagara, India. 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, AIMS, B.G. Nagara, India. 4. Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, AIMS, B.G. Nagara, India. 5. Post-graduate Student, Department of Microbiology, AIMS, B.G. Nagara, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. D. Vijaya
Professor & HOD Microbiology
AIMS, B.G.Nagara 571448
Karnataka India.
Phone no; 94820 09120
E Mail; vijayadanand @


A 60-year old female patient presented with the symptoms of severe gastroenteritis after consuming food which contained a chicken and egg preparation at a village party. Her faecal sample yielded Salmonella enteritidis which has rarely been reported as the causative agent of gastroenteritis in India. This case has been reported for its rarity in India.


Gastroenteritis, Salmonella enteritidis

Salmonellosis is a major cause of bacterial enteric illness in both humans and animals. Human infections with Salmonellae are most commonly caused by the ingestion of food, water or milk which is contaminated with human or animal excreta. Salmonellae are the primary pathogens of the lower animals, (e.g. poultry, cows, pigs, pets, birds, seals, donkeys, lizards and snakes) which are the principal sources of non-typhoidal salmonellosis in humans. Gastroenteritis, the most frequent manifestation, which ranges from mild to fulminant diarrhoea is accompanied by low grade fever and varying degrees of nausea and vomiting (1).

Case Report

A 60-year-old female was admitted to the ICU with acute gastroenteritis and in hypovolaemic shock.

The patient had a history of watery diarrhoea, 20 times/day and vomiting 8-10 times /day since 2 days.

The patient was normal before 2 days and she had attended a party at a nearby village, where she consumed food which was made up of a chicken and hen’s egg preparation. After 24 hours, she developed the symptoms of gastroenteritis.

Personal history: Non diabetic, non-hypertensive

On examination: The patient was drowsy, responding to oral commands, her tongue was dry and sunken eyes.

Pulse: Feeble, B.P. 100/60 mm Hg, CVS and RS normal, PA: No organomegaly

She was clinically diagnosed as having acute gastroenteritis with hypovolaemic shock and acute prerenal failure.

Stool sample
Macroscopic appearance – Watery stool, no pus/blood/worm.

Microscopy – Plenty of pus cells, no RBCs/ ova/cysts.

Culture: The sample was inoculated onto MacConkey agar, XLD, TCBS. The growth on MacConkey’s agar showed smooth, translucent, non lactose fermenting colonies.

The isolate was identified as the Salmonella group by studying its biochemical reactions and its agglutination with polyvalent O and H antisera.

It was susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol and gentamycin and resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole.

The isolate was sent to NICED, Calcutta, India, where it was identified as Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella poly O +ve, Group 09 +ve, H-g, m +ve).

The patient was treated with I.V. fluids, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. Her condition improved after 5 days and she was discharged.


Salmonella enteritidis which is associated with chicken eggs is emerging as a major cause of food-borne diseases. S. enteritidis causes infection of the ovaries and the upper oviduct tissues of hens, resulting in contamination of the contents of the eggs prior to the shell deposition. Approximately 1 in 20,000 eggs is thought to be infected with S.enteritidis. The Department of Agriculture estimated that 80% of all the salmonellosis cases were caused by infected eggs (2). The key factor which enabled the eggs to be efficient vehicles for human infection, is the manner in which people handled and ate the eggs [3,4]. The outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis can also be due to infected food workers who do not use gloves (5). Ice creams, sprouts and unpasteurized juice were also identified as the vehicles of transmission of Salmonellosis (6), (7), (8).

In the present case, the source could have been an egg preparation that the patient had consumed at the party or an environmental contamination due to the village lifestyle, where humans and poultry dwell in proximity.

Historically, S.typhimurium has been the most frequently reported serotype which caused gastroenteritis, according to the CDC report. The three most common serotypes of Salmonella in 2001 were typhimurium (22%) enteritidis (18%) and newport (10%) in the U.S.A. According to Indian reports, Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis have been reported to be the most common causes of human salmonellosis, which were found to account for 57-67% of the total Salmonella isolates (7).

There have been reports of septic arthritis of the knee which was caused by Salmonella enteritidis in patients with associated illnesses like Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Thalassaemia major [9, 10].

An estimated 0.01% of all the egg shells contain S.enteritidis. Consequently, foods which contain raw or undercooked eggs pose a slight risk of infection. In India, S.enteritidis has been isolated from poultry, humans, meat, environmental and animal sources and sea food (7).

The incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonellosis continues to rise, along with the rates of emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. Thus, it is important to monitor every step of the food production, right from the handling of the raw products to the preparation of the finished foods. All the cases of non-typhoidal Salmonellosis should be reported to the public health departments, since the tracking and monitoring of these cases can result in the identification of the sources of the local outbreaks and help the authorities in anticipating large-scale international outbreaks. Lastly, the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in both humans and animals is necessary to minimize the further emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains (2).


Authors are thankful to Dr.S.Dutta, Scientist F, Bacteriology I, NICED Calcutta, West Bengal, India for sero typing of the isolate.


Washington CW Jr, Stephen DA, William MJ, Koneman EW, Procop GW, Paul CS, et al. Koneman’s Colour Atlas and Text book of Diagnostic Microbiology. 6th Ed. Chap.6, Taxonomy of the Enterobacteriace. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Philadelphia, 2006; 252-3.
Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. Vol, 1, 16th ed. chap137, Salmonellosis. McGraw Hill, New York, 2005; 897-902.
Braden CR. Salmonella enteritica serotype enteritidis and eggs: A National Epidemic in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43: 512-17.
Boyce TG, Koo D, Swerdlow DL, Gomez TM, Serrano B, Nickey LN, et al. Recurrent outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis infection in a Texas restaurant: phage type 4 arrives in the United States. Epidemiol Infect 1996; 117: 29-34.
Hedican E, Hooker C, Jenkins T, Medus C, Jawahir S, Leano F, et al. A restaurant Salmonella enteritidis outbreak was associated with an asymptomatic infected food worker. J Food Prot 2009; 72: 11:2332-36.
Hennessy TW, Hedberg CW, Slutsker L, White KE, Besser-Weik JM, Moen ME, et al. A national outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis infections from ice cream. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 20:1281-86.
Kumar Y, Sharma A, Sehgal R, Kumar S. The distribution trends of the Salmonella serovars in India (2001-2005). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2009; 103:390-4.
Patrick ME, Adcock PM, Gomez TM, Alterkruse SF, Holland BH, Tauxe R, et al. Salmonella enteritidis infections in the United States in 1985- 1999. Emerg Infect Dis 2004; 10: 1: 1-7.
John R, Mathai D, Daniel AJ, Lalitha MK Bilateral septic arthritis which was caused by Salmonella enteritidis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1993; 17:2:167-69.
Behera B, Mathur P, Farooque K, Sharma V, Bhardwaj N, Thakur YK. Salmonella enterica enteritidis arthritis following trauma in a child with Thalassemia major. Ind J Paediatr 2010; 77:7: 807-08.

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ID: JCDR/2012/4281:0049

Date of Submission: Mar 15, 2012
Date of peer review: Apr 18, 2012
Date of acceptance: May 12, 2012
Date of Publishing: May 31, 2012

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