Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Year : 2012 | Month : February | Volume : 6 | Issue : 1 | Page : 1 - 4 Full Version

Current Scenario and Crisis Facing Dental College Graduates in India

Published: February 1, 2012 | DOI:
Hemant Jain, Aparna Agarwal

1. Consultant Neonatologist, 2. Consultant Dental Surgeon, Cosmic dental care,25/137, Shakti Nagar, Delhi – 110007 E-mail:

Correspondence Address :
Hemant Jain,
MD(Paed) FAG, MPH & MHM (UNSW, Australia),
71, Jain Colony, G.T. Road, Delhi- 110007 (India).
Phone: 91-9958727205


Dentistry, India, Career

Dental education in India was established 91 years ago, when the first dental college was started in Calcutta by Dr. Ahmed in 1920(1). Diseases such as dental caries, periodontal problems, poor oral hygiene and oral cancers have always been major public health issues in India. It is well known that poor Socioeconomic Status (SES) provides negative impact on favorable dental health awareness, attitude and oral hygiene behavior(2). Only in the last two decades dental industry has emerged as an field independent from general healthcare. Moreover, efforts of various organizations like, World Health Organization (WHO), Indian Dental Association (IDA) and Dental Council of India (DCI), to increase awareness of oral hygiene have provided major contribution in establishing today’s developing dental industry.

The Indian healthcare industry is experiencing quick transformation owing to the increasing demand for quality healthcare. With the increased standard of living in India people are becoming health conscious, shaping a new market which is giving increasing importance to healthy teeth and dental cosmetics. The potential size of India’s dental market is vast and as per the IDA, India is slated to become one of the largest single country markets for overseas dental products and materials(3). Currently, the Indian dental care services market is estimated at about US$ 600 million and dental equipment and appliances market is around US$ 90 million, with a yearly growth rate of 10% (4). As per the report of year 2010 published by Cygnus Business Consulting and Research, the Indian dental equipments industry is expected to reach US$ 116.43 million, the dental care services market to US$ 1.16 billion and oral care market to US$ 1.8 billion by 2014(5).

This huge market of dental industry in India has also made a remarkable impact on the dental education. The dental colleges providing bachelor’s degree in dentistry (BDS) have grown in number with consequent increase in the number of dental graduates(Table/Fig 1). Currently, 292 DCI recognized Dental colleges exist with total intake capacity of around 25,000- 30,000 students per year (as per the information provided on the official website of DCI). Among these, only 40 colleges with total intake capacity of 1500 students are government colleges, rest are in private sector. This scenario demonstrates the impact of commercialization on dental education(6).

According to the statistics provided by the Karnataka Examinations Authority (KEA), the demand for dental courses in the state is going down with each passing year. The number of colleges offering dental courses has also come down to 37 from 40 (in Karnataka) in 2011, while the interest in medical education was unaffected(7). This situation shows the lack of interest particularly in dental education rather than overall healthcare system. In spite of such a great promise of growth in dental industry, some of the dental seats have remained vacant in past few years, showing lack of interest of students in dental education. This paper explains why such paradox exists.

Admission process of Indian dental colleges High school students with a background in physics, chemistry and biology are eligible to apply to dental colleges. There are three options for a student to get admission in a dental college(8). State-administered entrance exams, common all-India entrance exams (for which all eligible students qualify) and Private school-administered entrance exam.

The entrance examinations are common for all the medical, dental and paramedical education including nursing, physical therapy, pharmacy, and occupational therapy. Typically, the order of preference for students medical followed closely by dental and paramedical courses. One can say that, students select the dental education by force and not by interest; as they are not getting admission in medical course.

Uneven distribution of dental colleges across India The distribution pattern of the dental colleges across various states of India is uneven (Table/Fig 2). It can be said that, Karnataka state students will be privileged to have highest chance of getting the admission compared to students from states like Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar etc. This situation leads to unequal distribution of dentists across the states affecting their dentist: population ratio.

Standard of education Despite the role of private sector in the growth of Indian dental education, there are certain issues regarding quality of education provided by private dental colleges. Unfortunately, many of the colleges have less than adequate infrastructure (10). There is evidence that many dental colleges are short of staff. Faculty members in many dental colleges are engaged in private practicewith comparatively less time to devote to teaching. Another concern is the fifth year of undergraduate training, which is not effectively implemented. Many private dental schools encourage students to complete their internship at another institution (generally in their own home state or town) to save the parent college from the burden of training students for another year. This may well result in less than adequate practical training for students. Often, students in private colleges lack the necessary clinical exposure, and hence are not properly trained (9).

The good news for the dental students is that the DCI is working on improving the quality of dental colleges. The council has now made it mandatory for professors teaching in UG level to stay in the same college for at least one year. Such decisions by the council can help in upgrading the quality of the dental education in India(11).

Ratio of BDS: Post-Graduate seats Increased awareness of Indian patients has raised their expectations from the dental practitioners. Awareness about the dental education among Indian population has also decreased the charm of BDS degree alone and more and more patients try to consult a specialist for their problems. This is the reason why the aim of dental graduate is to get the master’s degree (MDS). A survey of dental students graduating in Gandhi Dental College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar has shown that around 40% of students in first year of graduation were interested in pursuing post graduation. Increasing trend towards post graduation was observed with the seniority and almost 70 % students from the fourth year of graduation have voted for master degree(12).

Number of seats available for MDS is only around 3000 compared to each year pass outs of 25000 BDS students. This is a big bottleneck in career prospects of a dentist.

Decreasing Job Opportunity /Private Practice Dentistry is one of the highest paid profession in developed countries but situation is not same in India. Opportunities for dental graduates are limited. Jobs in government sector are few. With each new hospital opening it creates only 1-2 jobs for dentist as compared to many jobs for medical graduates. Salary in private hospitals is also less. Most Private hospitals and clinics will offer a dental fresher a meager amount of less than INR 10,000-15,000 ( (USD 200-300) per month for a full time job.

Private practice of dentistry is more fruitful than being attached to the dental hospitals. Working at dental hospitals provides fixed income with slower annual growth compared to the private practice. Hence, private practice is the dream of every dental graduate. However, the investment for establishing a competent dental clinic is higher than general health clinic due to expensive equipments. Comparatively, level of competition and cost of establishing a dental clinic is less in the rural areas. The govt. is taking initiative to set up dental practices in rural area by providing the subsidies(13).

However, frequency of visits to a dental clinic is unexpectedly low in the rural area due to poor health education. According to a survey, visit to dentist in the last one year was nearly 100% in the upper Socio Economic Status(SES) and 32.3% in the lower SES(2).

Alternative Career Pathways Adopted By Dental Graduates Due to the above stated reasons many of young graduates after failure to get admission in MDS seats feel confused. They then try to search other alternatives for career growth. Some look for overseas where after an initial period of struggle, the opportunities and returns are better. Countries like USA, UK, Australia are popular destinations for dental graduates. Increasing number of dentists are now moving to places like Russia, Romania, Germany for higher education. Most of these countries will require clearing a licensing exam and few years of study. Therefore, initially the person will need to support himself. Courses like Public Health, Healthcare Management, Clinical Research and Administrative services are becoming popular with dental graduates. If done from good institutes, better opportunities await them in the corporate health care and pharmaceutical companies. Some Dental graduates consider working at Knowledge Process Outsourcing units (KPO), while other move to Insurance sector. Once absorbed they need to compete with the people of various non medical undergraduate streams and there dental education becomes redundant.


The Indian healthcare industry is experiencing quick transformation owing to the increasing demand for quality healthcare. But it has been observed that the level of interest of students in dentistry in past few years has declined. Factors like, non-uniformity of admission procedure, uneven distribution of dental colleges across India, decreased quality of education and hurdles to establish private practice, difficulty in getting postgraduation might have affected the decision of the students. Although all of these factors cannot be eliminated immediately, but DCI and govt. of India should steps to retain the interest of dental graduates within the dental stream. Few of the suggestions are listed below.
1. DCI should conduct a single uniform exam of dentistry independent of medical examinations. The dental entrance exam should not be linked to the medical admission exam but should be an exam by itself. Having a separate exam will definitely bring students to the dental college who are really interested in the dental profession. DCI can follow the American system of Dental Admission Test (DAT), a single entrance test exists for all dental colleges.
2. Dental colleges should be enforced by the DCI to provide quality education and infrastructure.
3. Number of Post-Graduate seats should be increased.
4. Establishing more dental units in the government hospitals.
5. Stronger programs of oro-dental awareness should be launched by the government and IDA.


Tandon S. Challenges to the oral health workforce in India. J Dent Educ 2004;68(7 Suppl):28–33.
Chandrashekar BR, Reddy C, Manjunath BC, Suma S. Dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits, and behaviors in relation to socio-economic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2011;4:99-106.
Indian Dental Association. Future of Dentistry in India. Cite on 2011 October 16. Available from: mainconfig1.aspx?Categoryid=5544&id=16&Moduleid=105&contentI d=26&Isxpandable=true.
Market Potential in Indian Dental Industry. World Dental Show 2011, Mumbai. Cited on 2011 October 16. Available from: TextPages/Rationale_wds.aspx.
Indian Dental Market 2010 by Cygnus Business Consulting and Research, 2010 April 1. Cited on 2011 October 16. Available from: Research-v3438/Indian-Dental-2720196.
Database of Dental Council of India. Cited on 2011 October 16. Available from:
Dental courses losing teeth: 502 seats remain vacant. DNA, Bangalore 2011 June 22. Cited on 2011 October 16. Available from: http://daily. vacant-2209242.html.
Indian Dental Association. Career in Oral Health. Cite on 2011 October 16. Available from: d=5152&ModuleId=213&id=26&ButtonId=1042&IsExpandable=true.
Mahal AS, Shah N. Implications of the Growth of Dental Education in India. Journal of Dental Education 2006 August;70(8):884-891.
Tandon S. Challenges to the oral health workforce in India. J Dent Educ 2004;68(7 Suppl):28–33.
Chandrashekar BR, Reddy C, Manjunath BC, Suma S. Dental health awareness, attitude, oral health-related habits, and behaviors in relation to socio-economic factors among the municipal employees of Mysore city. Ann Trop Med Public Health 2011;4:99-106.
Indian Dental Association. Future of Dentistry in India. Cite on 2011 October 16. Available from: mainconfig1.aspx?Categoryid=5544&id=16&Moduleid=105&contentI d=26
Market Potential in Indian Dental Industry. World Dental Show 2011, Mumbai. Cited on 2011 October 16. Available from: TextPages/Rationale_wds.aspx.
Indian Dental Market 2010 by Cygnus Business Consulting and Research, 2010 April 1. Cited on 2011 October 16. Available from: Research-v3438/Indian-Dental-2720196.
Database of Dental Council of India. Cited on 2011 October 16. Available from:
Dental courses losing teeth: 502 seats remain vacant. DNA, Bangalore 2011 June 22. Cited on 2011 October 16. Available from: http://daily. vacant-2209242.html.
Tables and Figures
[Table / Fig - 1] [Table / Fig - 2]
DOI and Others

ID: JCDR/2012/3824:1892


Date of Submission: Nov 26, 2011
Date of acceptance: Jan 01, 2012
Date of Publishing: Feb 15, 2012

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .