Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 12326

AbstractCase ReportDiscussionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"



Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018




Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."



Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."



Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
Muzaffarnagar.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Case report
Year : 2012 | Month : February | Volume : 6 | Issue : 1 | Page : 123 - 125

Rhodutorula Meningitis in a HIV-2 Seropositive Patient: A Case Report

Ashish Khanna, Menka Khanna, Aruna Aggarwa l

1. MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology , SGRDIMSR, Amritsar (Punjab). 2. MD, Associate Professor, Department of Pathology , SGRDIMSR, Amritsar (Punjab). 3. MD, Professor and Head of Department (Dean Academics), (I/C ICTC–Integerated Testing and councilling centre set up by NACO) Department of Microbiology, SGRDIMSR (Punjab).

Correspondence Address :
Dr Ashish khanna
538, Basant Avenue
Amritsar-143001, Punjab (India)
Phone: 9465128936; 091-0183-2562919
Email- ashish_538@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

Rodutorula, a common saprophyte has recently emerged as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Meningitis caused by Rodurorula species in HIV-1 infected patients have been reported rarely but rodutorula infection in HIV-2 infected patient has not been reported till date. We present a case of meningitis caused by Rodutorula rubra in a patient infected with HIV-2 virus. The diagnosis of the patient was confirmed by cell cytology, gram staining and culture of the CSF. Contamintion was ruled out by repeated culturing from different samples from the same patient. Therapy with Amphotericin B showed good results and the patient was discharged after recovery.

Keywords

Opportunistic infections, Human immunodeficiency virus, Rhodotorula species, Meningitis

Introduction
Improvement in the therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities with the advent of invasive surgical procedures and immunosupression predispose to a number of opportunistic pathogens. Most of the fungal infections are caused by the common fungal pathogens such as the Candida species, the Aspergillus species, Histoplasma capsulatum, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis and Cryptococcus neoformans. The Rhodotorula species, although they were common saprophytes uptil now, recently have been reported to cause opportunistic infections (1). Rare cases of fungaemia which are associated with catheters, endocarditis, peritonitis, meningitis and endophthalmitis have been reported in the literature, as being caused by this yeast (2).We are presenting here a case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-2) infection in a patient who presented to the emergency with a history of fever of one week’s duration, with an altered sensorium. The diagnosis of meningitis is confirmed by cell cytology, India ink preparation, gram staining and the culture of cerebrospinal fluid, which grew Rhodotorula species. The patient was successfully treated with Amphotericin B. Meningitis, which is caused by the Rhodotorula species, is very rare, with only 2-3 cases being reported in the literature, that too, in the patients who were suffering from HIV-1 (1),(2),(3),(4),(5).

Case Report

A 45-year old female was admitted with high grade fever of one week’s duration. The fever was associated with rigors and chills. The patient also complained of neck pain, headache and vomiting since one day. On examination, the patient was found to be febrile (102F) with an altered sensorium. The neck rigidity and Kernig’s sign were positive. Investigations revealed the haemoglobin level to be 11gm%, TLC to be 14300/cmm, blood glucose to be 86mg/ dl, urea to be 21mg/dl and creatine to be 1.1mg/dl. The X-ray of the chest was normal and the blood culture was sterile after 48 hour of incubation at 37°C. Lumber puncture was performed after doing the fundoscopy. CSF was collected under asceptic conditions in a sterile container and it was sent for Case Report Microbiology Section cytological, biochemical and microbiological examinations. The cell cytology showed a WBC count of 60 cells / cmm, with a mixture of neutrophils and lymphocytes. The CSF protein level was 82mg/dl and the sugar level was 45mg/dl. In the Microbiology laboratory, bacteriological and fungal cultures were put up. Various staining methods like ZN staining, gram staining and India ink staining were performed. ZN staining revealed no acid fast bacilli. Gram staining showed inflammatory cells along with budding yeast cells of size, 4-8 micron metres. India ink preparation showed encapsulated budding yeast cells with a clear halo around them. The latex agglutination test for the cryptoccocal antigen was negative. The patient was found to be reactive to HIV-2 antibodies with Coombs AIDS RS ( Span Diagnostics) , Bidot (J Mitra) and Retroquick ( Qualpro diagnostics). On the 2nd day the bacteriological culture was found to be sterile. On the 3rd day, the fungal culture yielded a mucoid red growth on SDA at 37°C and at 20°C. The gram staining of the the growth revealed budding yeast cells. LCB was made from the growth, which showed budding yeast cells. One more tube of SDA in which another sample of the same patient was inoculated on the 3rd day before starting the anti-fungal treatment, again revealed the same findings. Further, the nitrate assimilation test and inositol assimilation were carried out, which were negative with the test strain. The CD4 count was 396cells/dl. CT was not carried out as the as the patient was very poor. These findings, along with the biochemical tests, helped us to diagnose the pathogen as Rhodutorula rubra. Repeated isolation from a different sample from the same patient helped us to rule out contamination. The patient was started on Amphotericin B (1mg/kg/day), she showed improvement in her condition within 3-4 days and she recovered fully within 7-10 days. After 10 days of Amphotericin therapy, the patient was put on a maintainance dose of Itraconazole 400 mg, once a day for three months. ART was not given as her CD4 count was adequate according to the NACO guidelines. After the therapy, the patient recovered fully within two weeks and so, no repeat sample was taken. She was followed up to six months and showed no recurrence.

Discussion

The advent of the AIDS syndrome and the widespread use of broad spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive drugs have led to the increased incidence of fungal infections in humans. The genus, Rhodutorula includes 38 species which are mostly found in environmental sources like shower curtains, bath tubs and tooth brushes. Members of the Rhodutorula genus, which were generally considered to be non pathogens, are nowadays being recovered from humans from the skin, lungs, conjunctiva, urine and CSF (2). However the Rhodutorula species have been implicated as a cause of meningitis, endocarditis, ventriculitis, peritonitis, central venous catheter infection and keratitis. The genus, Rhodutorula is an encapsulated pigmented yeast. Microscopically, the unicellular cells are spherical in shape, their size varies from 4-6 μm and they are surrounded by capsules. Ascospores are absent in this fungus. Rhodutorula rubra is the most common species which is isolated from clinical samples, followed by Rhodutorula glutinis. The red colonies which are formed are due to the presence of the carotenoid pigment, torularhodin. The Rhodutorula species can be easily confused with the Cryptococcus species, but the carotenoid pigment and the biochemical tests help in differentiating them. The Rhodutorula species have low virulence and low mortality. Fatal cases have been documented on autopsy. They are common saprophytes of the skin, urine and faeces, but they are rarely isolated from blood and CSF (6). HIV-2 is mostly confined to western Africa and a prevalence of 10% has been reported from some settings in Africa (7). The incidence of HIV-2 is very low in the Indian sub-continent. The first case of HIV-2 in India was reported in 1991 by Rubsamen- Waigmann (8),(9). It is less pathogenic than HIV-1 and rates of disease development in the HIV-2 infection are much lower than those of HIV-1. There is a long term disease non-progression in HIV-2 (10). In an autopsy study which was conducted in Cote d’Ivoire, which comprised 154 people who were infected with HIV-1 and 40 people who were infected with HIV-2, severe CMV encephalitis was observed, which was more common in people who were infected with HIV-2 (11). Similarly, in our case also, opportunistic fungal infections were seen with a higher CD-4 count than was the case normally with the HIV-1 infection. As the CD-4 count was more than 350 cells/dl, ART was not started as per the NACO guidelines. Moreover, more clinical data is needed to determine the more effective treatment and the optimal timing of ART in HIV-2 infection, as studies on HIV-2 are comparatively less in number. Relapse with Rhodutorula meningitis was reported by Gyaurgieva et al, which was treated with itraconazole therapy (4). The infection with this rare yeast could be underreported due to its similarity with Cryptococcus neoformans. In our case, the possibility of contamination was ruled out as CSF is a sterile fluid and growth was obtained twice on SDA medium which contained antibiotics, from different samples from the same patient. Thus, the Rhodotorula species was considered to have a pathogenic role in causing meningitis in the present case.

References

1.
Thakur K, Singh G, Agrawal S, Rani L. Meningitis which was caused by Rhodutorula rubra in an human immunodeficiency virus infected patient. Indian J Med Microbiol 2007; 25: 166-68.
2.
Felipe FT , Silva FC. Rhodutorula infection; A systemic review of 128 cases from the literature. Rev Iberoam Micol 2008;25 :135-40.
3.
Shinde RS, Mantus BC, Patil G, Parande MV, Parande AM. Meningitis due to Rhodutorula glutinis in an HIV infected patient. Indian J Med Microbiol 2008;26(4): 375-97.
4.
Gyaurgieva OH, Bogomolova TS, Peacock C, Beaumel A, Djomand G, Ngbichi JM et al. The mortality and the pathology of an HIV- infected patient. J Med Vet Mycol 1996; 34:357-59.
5.
Lanzafame M, De Checchi G, Parinello A, Trevenzoli M, Cattelan AM. Rhodutorula glutinis related meningitis. J Clin Microbiol 2001; 39: 410.
6.
Lo Re V III, Fishman NO, Nachamkin I. Recurrent catheter related Rhodutorula rubra infection. Clin Microbiol Infect 2003 (9) : 897-900.
7.
Schim van der loeff MF, Aaby P. Towards a better understanding of the epidemiology of HIV-2. AIDS 1993:13 Suppl A : S 69-84.
8.
Murugan S, Anburajan R. Prevalence of the HIV-2 infection in southern Tamil Nadu. Indian J Sex Transm Dis 2007; 28: 113.
9.
Rubsamen- Waigmann H, Briesen HV, Maniar JK, Rao PK, Scholz C, Pfutzner A. The spread of HIV-2 in India. Lancet 1991; 337:550-1.
10.
Marlink R, Kanki P, Thior I , Travers K, Eisen G, Siby T et al. The reduced rate of disease development after the HIV-2 infection as compared to HIV-1. Science 1994;265:1587–90.
11.
Lucas SB, Honnou A, Peacock C, Beaumel A, Djomand G, Ngbichi JM et al. The mortality and the pathology of the HIV infection in a west African city. AIDS 1993; 7: 1569-79.

DOI and Others

ID: JCDR/2012/3411.3822:1856

FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: NONE.

Date of Submission: Jul 10, 2011
Date of Peer Review: Nov 26, 2011
Date of Acceptance: Dec 20, 2011
Date of Publishing: Feb 15, 2012

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)
  • www.omnimedicalsearch.com