Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

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Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
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Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
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Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

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Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

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Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

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Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

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Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
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Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

View Point
Year : 2012 | Month : February | Volume : 6 | Issue : 1 | Page : 150 - 151 Full Version

The Scope Of Social And Preventive Medicine

Published: February 1, 2012 | DOI:
Bharatwaj Resiure Srinivasan, P. Rajaram

1. Assistant Professor Dept Of Community Medicine 2. Epidemiologist, Dept Of Community Medicine Sri lakshminarayana Institute Of Medical Sciences

Correspondence Address :
Dr. R.S Bharatwaj Assistant Professor Dept Of Community Medicine
Sri lakshminarayana Institute Of Medical Sciences
Pondicherry Phone: 9629834189 E-mail:


Health, Skill, Training

The term, ‘medicine’ encompasses all the activities which are directed towards enriching the health of the beings on this planet (humans and other species as well). With particular focus on the human wellbeing, the W.H.O definition of health which states that, “Health is a state of total physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (1)is a fair representation of the multidimensional aspects of the state that we refer to as, health.
This leads us to the definite understanding that ‘medicine’ is not merely the art and science of healing alone, which concerns itself predominantly with the physical aspect and a little bit with the mental aspect of humans, though incompletely (2). In the past, all the focus in terms of budget allocation and infrastructure development was primarily directed at the sick population in the community, which accounted for a maximum of 3 to 5 % of the total population. This left the apparently healthy group of nearly 95 to 97% people unattended. Once the awareness of this aspect of the policy came into being, there was a need to shift the focus from “Disease to Health”. This heralded the birth of community medicine
The evolved understanding:
1. The treatment of patients without due consideration about the hygiene and the sanitary aspects is bound to be unsuccessful.
2. Taking into consideration the hygiene and the sanitary aspects alone, without reference to the patient’s living (social) and working (economic) conditions is again an incomplete and partial solution to the complete return of health.
For e.g. An unemployed patient of the lower strata of society, with gastroenteritis, living in a contaminated environment and having unhygienic habits, will never get a lasting cure if he is just seen as a case of diarrhoea in a clinic setting alone. The hygiene, sanitation and the social and economic aspects are so interlinked that they form very essential factors in the web of causation of the disease in question. Hence, none can be studied or resolved with the isolation of the others and the disease itself is purely an indicator which points to an imbalance in the above mentioned factors. Hence, its cure in an individual is certainly not an end point in the activities which are directed towards the health of all, but rather a beginning point, in the sense that it warrants a further probe towards identifying the imbalance and taking corrective measures, which might prevent the disease from ever happening or at least might arrest its spread to a larger group of people. Herein, comes the role of social and preventive medicine
For a medical practice to be wholesome, the practitioner must be;
• A good clinician i.e. with skills in diagnosis and treatment
• Abreast of the knowledge regarding the role of hygiene, sanitation
and social and economic factors in the various stages of disease
evolution in the community.
In this kind of practice of medicine;
• The social diagnosis completes the disease diagnosis
• The social treatment supplements pharmacotherapy
• The social hygiene fortifies the individual hygiene
The concept of prevention is often misconstrued even amongst the medical fraternity as an action that happens only before the disease onset, but in the true sense, it encompasses the whole possible range of all the activities which are directed towards health care from primordial prevention (Even before the risk factors for the disease even enter into a community), primary prevention (Immunization activities, etc), secondary prevention (early diagnosis and treatment) to tertiary prevention (disability limitation and rehabilitation) Hence, social and preventive medicine is not apart from the so termed clinical medicine. It is an inseparable part and in fact, an extension of clinical medicine from its constrained hospital/clinic set up into the community, which is the multi faceted ground on which the pollens of disease flower and spread. Simply chopping out the revealed portion of the weed will not solve the problem. What is needed is an approach to uproot it from its root, to study and nurture the soil and to correct the imbalances which are detected, for it is the soil which is the very source of life and health. The soil that we refer to as the society (living beings and nature).
Social and preventive medicine is thus a tool of enhanced responsibility (that meets the needs of an individual from womb to tomb) that is laid on the shoulders of the physician, so as to deliver true health to the community, the same community to which the physician belongs to and the same community which has laid its faith upon making the physician what he is.
In the training of a medical doctor, it is the inculcation of this “clinicopreventive” attitude which is aimed at. Any physician who had ever practiced medicine was a community physician; It is so now and it will be so forever. Hence, for the wholesome practice of medicine, the understanding of the basic tenets of health and the influencing factors is of utmost importance The whole sphere of social and preventive medicine concerns itself with this aspect.
In medical education for undergraduates, the department of community medicine can be integrated with the department of general medicine and teaching /training activities can be carried on in hospitals as well as in the field practice areas. Since, in a majority of institutions, the community medicine department has no hospital out-patient set-up, integrating community medicine with general medicine helps not only by adding to the variety of cases which can be used for training the students in the aspects of communicable and non-communicable diseases, but also to immediately identify the potential cases by using better diagnostic facilities that might require a field follow up for the disease control activities.
“Community medicine”, as a subject for post graduation, faces the confusion whether it comes within the realm of clinical medicine or not, albeit the fact that it was declared as a clinical medicine field by the Supreme Court. The exact role which is played by a specialist in community medicine is not at all clear and well defined. She/he faces the dilemma of not being a wholesome part of the specialists of the out-patient and the in-patient services, but at the same time, of being asked to cater to the community needs in terms of field activities like camps, etc. Now, this community activity towards the collection, compilation and the analysis of data requires more administrative and statistical skills with a basic supervision by a doctor, as the facts which are concerned are medical. So, a three year degree course as a specialization for this kind of work is not necessary at all. As far as the exposure to the research aspects is concerned, all other degree specialties are also taken through the grind of research activities as the medical students work on their thesis. This means that it would add to the efficiency of the health delivery services if we could revamp the way community medicine is perceived and implemented in society.
There are two plausible alternatives (1). A post graduation degree as MD in Community Medicine can be scrapped and the doctors who have done their MBBS can be made to go through a short training for administration purposes and to enable them to handle the peripheral health departments. The doctors who have completed their post graduation in different clinical specialties like paediatrics, ophthalmology, etc and who have an inclination for community service, can be offered a course of a year or two, towards orienting them to community aspects in their respective specialties and to the overall health management (2). The other viable option is to refine the action field of a community medicine specialist. A community medicine specialist is expected to have basic understanding and skills, not only to provide general primary health care to the community, but to also possess an in-depth knowledge of the epidemiology of communicable and non-communicable diseases, to be familiar with the principles of social and behavioural sciences and to possess management skills for organizing health services to promote health in the community (3). The doctors who have undergone their post graduation in community medicine, with the kind of skills that they already have, could be provided with further opportunities to continue their specialization in the fields of their interest, like paediatrics, ophthalmology, etc as a one or two year course and to enhance their expertise in specific disciplines . The second option would be easier to implement without disturbing the current system of medical education in India and without conflicting the interest of the already existing community medicine specialists. By doing this, we shall have a group of medical specialists like community paediatricians, community ophthalmologists, etc who are more trained and qualified to take mass decisions for their respective specialties.
In the health system, we will then have MBBS graduates who are trained in the delivery of basic health care and in simple data management skills for taking care of the peripheral health set up. The specialists of different specialties, as community health specialists at the decision making levels in a tier system, as a team, can plan programs for the corresponding health issues. This will serve in eliminating the mystery and the lack of clarity that exists around the functionality and social applicability of community medicine, not only amongst the medical professionals, but also among the policy makers. This can make their roles a lot better defined and at the same time, the community field activities will also happen at a much more effective level for the well being of humans.
Above all, it needs to be seen that the doctor or even the medical industry, in isolation, cannot fulfill the commitment towards the delivery of overall health to the community at large. We are discussing this here with the firm background, that medicine and its deliverers are created and promoted by the society towards it’s own well being and hence they are not some kind of elite group who are special in the society. The support of a whole lot of other people who do seemingly smaller things are extremely essential while the multidimensional aspects of health are being considered. These include the pharmacists, the biotechnologists, the farmers in their fields, the honest grocer, the timely milkman and even the sincere menial worker.
Hence, it is essential to consider the fact that a physician is a team member in the social structure, who is given a certain position and responsibility by the society to cater to its health needs, and the respect, recognition, privilege and money that he gets, must be justified by his knowledge, motive and actions concerning the well being of the community at large


Park K. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine (18th edn). Banarsidas Bhanot, Jabalpur, 2005:13-14.
Basu SL. Handbook Of Preventive and Social Medicine: 1-10.
Kumar R. Development of the community medicine sub-specialties. Indian Journal of Community Medicine Apr-Jun 2005; 30(2).

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ID: JCDR/2012/3795:1870


Date of Submission: Nov 11, 2011
Date of Peer Review:Dec 03, 2011
Date of Acceptance: Dec 24, 2011
Date of Publishing: Feb 15, 2012

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