Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 38158

AbstractMaterial and MethodsDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"

Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2012 | Month : April | Volume : 6 | Issue : 2 | Page : 163 - 165

A Study Of Sexual Dimorphism In Femora Of Rural Population Of South Tamilnadu,India

Umapathy Sembian, Muhil. M, Srimathi.T, Muthukumar.T, Nalina Kumari.S.D

1. Corresponding Author, 2. Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Chennai Medical College Hospital And Research Centre, Irungalur, Trichy University, Chennai, India. 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, India. 4. Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Chennai Medical College Hospital And Research Centre, Irungalur, Trichy University, Chennai, India. 5. Professor And Head, Department Of Anatomy, Chennai Medical College Hospital And Research Centre, Irungalur, Trichy University, Chennai, India.

Correspondence Address :
Umapathy Sembian
Assistant Professor, Department Of Anatomy,
Chennai Medical College Hospital And Research
Centre, Irungalur, Trichy University, Chennai, India.


Aim: Assessment of human sex from skeletal parts is of particular importance in forensic osteology and relies heavily on up-to-date techniques to provide accurate information to medico- legal system. Hence this study was taken to assess the sex from an isolated bone ie femur, with as far as possible minimal parameters to ascertain the sex.

Materials And Methods: This descriptive study was done in the department of anatomy CMCH&RC, Trichy and SRU, Chennai with 200 dry femur of both sexes of which 100- males( 50 right side and 50 left side) and 100 – females ( 50 right side & 50 left side). Meticulous care was taken to include bones from a homogenous population and all the bones were well documented for sex, race and all belonged to the residents of rural population of south Tamilnadu. All the bones were cleaned from soft tissue and cartilage and were thoroughly dried. Bones exhibiting obscuring pathologies were excluded from study and all the bones studied had completed femoral growth as evidenced by the complete fusion of the proximal & distal femoral epiphysis. Six Anthropometric measurements were taken on each femur: Maximum Length, Maximum Diameter Of The Head Of Femur, Mid-Shaft Circumference, Maximum Antero- Posterior Diameter Of Femoral Shaft, Antero-Posterior Of Both (Medial& Lateral) Epicondyles, Bicondylar Width.

Results: All the parameters were more in the male femora than in the female femora except the medial epicondyle.

Conclusion: Average width of medial epicondyle in females is more. Average width of lateral epicondyle in males is more but statistically not significant. This study will be useful in the field of Forensic Osteology and Anthropometry for the identification of skeletal remains.


Femur, Anthropometry, Forensic osteology.

Assessment of human sex from skeletal parts is of particular importance in forensic osteology and relies heavily on up-to-date techniques to provide accurate information to medico-legal system. With time the assessment had a shift from visual analysis to anthropometric measurements which when processed through modern statistical techniques has made sex determination more objective. Determination from skeletal remains which forms an important component in the identification procedure sometimes becomes a difficult task for the Forensic expert especially in the absence of the pelvis. In the field of Forensic osteology determination of sex from Analysis of human skeletal remains has been an age old problem, especially if it is from an isolated bone. Even though analysis of human skeletal remains, remain a well studied field with broad ranging application extending beyond Forensic Anthropology into Archaeology, Paleo-anthropology and comparative Anatomy.

Therefore most of the long bones, either individually or in combination have been subjected to statistical and morphological analysis for the purpose of determining sex. But many of the traditional anthropological methods suffer from certain fundamental deficiencies for example: traditional methods of measurements on the bone are done without any reference as to how the bone lies approximately in anatomical position in the living, this in turn is liable to deprive the worker of the identity of the points of the stress and strain which leave their imprints on the bone. It has also been observed by various authors(Pearson and Bell (1); Ingalls (2); Martin and Saller (3); Krogman and Iscan (4); Singh and Bhasin (5)) that certain lines canTherefore most of the long bones, either individually or in combination have been subjected to statistical and morphological analysis for the purpose of determining sex. But many of the traditional anthropological methods suffer from certain fundamental deficiencies for example: traditional methods of measurements on the bone are done without any reference as to how the bone lies approximately in anatomical position in the living, this in turn is liable to deprive the worker of the identity of the points of the stress and strain which leave their imprints on the bone. It has also been observed by various authors(Pearson and Bell (1); Ingalls (2); Martin and Saller (3); Krogman and Iscan (4); Singh and Bhasin (5)) that certain lines canSectionbe drawn on the bone to represent the axis by mere “ eye judgment”. This study is based upon the logic that axial skeleton weight of male is relatively and absolutely more than that of female (6). Therefore based on the above argument an attempt to investigate the sexual dimorphism of the femur was taken, which requires as minimal as possible osteometric measurements.

The aim is to establish a method of discrimination, that could provide an accurate means of distinguishing between males and females and does so requiring the fewest osteometric measurements, so that to help the Forensic expert to come to a conclusion from the skeletal remains.

Material and Methods

The present study was conducted in the department of anatomy CMCH&RC, Trichy, SRMC&RI, Chennai with 200 dry femur of both sexes of which 100–males(Right-50, Left-50) and 100 - females(Right-50, Left-50). Meticulous care was taken to include bones from a homogenous population. All the bones were well documented for sex; race & all belonged to the residents of rural population of sourthern Tamilnadu, India. They were cleaned well without soft tissue or cartilage & were thoroughly dried. All the bones had completed femoral growth as evidenced by the complete fusion of the proximal & distal femoral epiphysis. Any femora exhibiting obscuring pathologies such as cortical bone deterioration or extreme osteophytic activity were excluded from the study.

A set of six anthropometric measurements were taken on each femur: 1. Maximum length, 2. Maximum diameter of the head, 3. Mid-shaft circumference, 4. Maximum antero posterior diameter of femoral shaft, 5. Antero posterior diameter of epicondyles ie ( both medial & lateral epicondyles), 6. Bicondylar width These parameters were recorded using divider, calipers, measuring tape, measuring scale and thread.

Measurement of Maximum Length:
The bone is kept in the anatomical position (7), the highest point on the head was identified and marked as point A and a plumb line drawn from highest point in coronal plane wherever it cut the lower extreme articular margin of the lower end of femur was taken as point B. The points A and B were measured using a measuring tape.

Measurement of Maximum Antero posterior diameter of the Head and Shaft:
The maximum antero posterior diameter of the head was measured by following technique, given by Brauer (8), Maclaughlin and Bruce (9). The maximum antero posterior diameter of the head was taken marking a point on the anterior aspect of the head of femur to a point posterior to the head of femur. Measurement of maximum antero-posterior is the diameter of the shaft between the inferior margin of gluteal tuberosity and at the point where the two lips of Linea Aspera divides to form the supracondylar lines. Measurement of Mid Shaft Circumference: After the maximum length was taken a mid point was marked and at that level the mid shaft circumference was taken using a thread and measured with a measuring tape.

Measurement of Maximum antero posterior diameter of the epicondyles: Medial and Lateral epicondyles were identified and their maximum antero posterior diameter was measured using a divider and measuring scale.

Measurement of Bicondylar Width:
The distance is measured between the most projected points on the epicondyles( Martin and Saller (3), method). Data were analysed statistically using SPSS 15.0, discriminate analysis employing measurements was used to determine the optimal combination of variables for assessing sex.

By analyzing my study the following parameters of femur in male - length, Maximum diameter of head, Mid shaft circumference, Max Antero-Posterior Diameter of medial& lateral epicondyl & Bicondylar width were more than female which are statistically significant (P Value <0.05). A-P Diameter of Medial epicondyle was more in female than male femur which is also statistically significant (P Value <0.05).But the A-P Diameter of Lateral epicondyle, though more in males than females it is not statistically significant (P Value >0.05).


Personal identity is to determine the individuality of a person. The best way of identification is by the fingerprint system and DNA test. Sex determination may be made out from the distinguishing marks of the male and female bones & is accurate in ninety percent of cases in case of adult pelvis or skull. According to Singh and Shamer Singh [10,11] for determining the sex of the adult femora, its length is the best guide; provided it has crossed a demarcating point- the left femora measuring 44.5cm and above can be classified as male bone and those below 37.7cm as females, similarly right femora measuring 44.2cm & above can be classified as male and those below 37.25cm as females. However, for identifying the left femora, bicondylar width is the best useful mearsurement, and the average is 7.12cm±0.4 (12).

Kete (13) working on femora from different regions of India, found that the values showed a regional variation & also a downward gradient from North to South. He recommended that in giving a medico-legal opinion, the average of that particular region should be considered for comparison. He also said from his study of 50 femora in wet & dry conditions, that the articular cartilage adds 2.8mm on an average, with a range of 1 to 4mm. The length of the femur in the present study 37-48cm in males and 37-44cm in females whereas in North Indian population, Enock Prabhakar (14) stated that 43cm in males and 41cm in females. There is no marked difference between the south Indian and North Indian populations.

The measurement in the present study on the antero posterior diameter of the shaft of femur revealed 2.5-3.6cm in males whereas in the females it was 2.3-3.1cm, hence there is no sufficient data available as for as the Indian population is concerned, as mentioned by Ruma Purkait (15). Therefore the finding in the present study is a new entity. The measurement in the present study on the mid shaft circumference showed 7.1-8.7cm in males but in females it was 6.1-7.7cm, which has revealed no marked difference between the males and females. This is also a new finding not hitherto reported.

The present study on the antero-posterior diameter of the medial epicondyle revealed marked differences. The medial epicondyle inthe males on the left side was 1.83±.15cm whereas in the females it was 2.06±.26cm, on the other hand the diameter of the medial epicondyle on right side in the males it was 1.68±.30cm and in the females it was 2.06±.26cm. The measurement of the medial epicondyles in the female is quite larger than the males on both the sides. This may be due to the wider pelvis in the females. The lower end of the femur is inclined medially. During weight transmission this inclination helps the body weight to be kept closer to the center of gravity. In females wider pelvis increases this inclinity so that the weight is transmitted along a line passing through the medial epicondyle and medial condyle of the femur. Probably because of this mode of weight transmission the medial epicondyle is wider in females, although other measurements in females are comparably lesser than the measurements found in males.

The average bicondylar width in the present study on the left side in the males was 7.5± .18cm and 6.8±.23cm in females, on the right side in the males it was 7.3± .21cm and in females it was found to be 6.8±.19cm. this is statistically significant. In north Indian population bicondylar width was found by Enock Prabhakar (14) to be 7.8cm in males and 7.2cm in the females. It was more in the north Indian population than in the south Indian population. Apart from the above discussed points for determination of sex there is a very important feature in the femur which is noteworthy, that is the femur ossifies from five centers of ossification one each for the shaft, head, greater trochanter, lesser trochanter and lower end. The head fuses with the rest of the bone at the fourteenth year in the females & seventeenth year in the males and finally the lower end at the sixteenth year in females and eighteenth year in the males (6).

The available literature on determining the sexual dimorphism of femur based on the measurement of the antero posterior diameter of epicondyles is very less.


Although all measurements are more in males, on the contrary the average width of medial epicondyle in females is more. Average width of lateral epicondyle in males is more but statistically not significant. This study will be useful in the field of Forensic osteology and Anthropometry for the identification of skeletal remains. This study has a great limitation because of the less amount of samples studied.


Pearson K and Bell J (1917/1919). The study of the long bones of the English skeleton-I- the femur. In: Drapers’ Co. Research Mem. University of London Chapters 1-4 Biometric Series X.
Ingalls NM (1924). Studies on the femur. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol,7 : 207-55.
Martin R and Saller K (1957). Lehrbuch der Anthropologie. Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart.
Krogman WM and Iscan MY(1986). Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. 2nd Edn., Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.
Singh IP and Bhasin MK(1989). Anthropometry, Kamala Raj Enterprises, Delhi.
William PL, Warwick R, Dyson M, and Bannister LH(1989). In : Gray’s Anatomy. Edn.36, Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh,396.
Purkait R (2001). Review of Anthropometric techniques 123-29. In: Advances in Forensic Science. MK Bhasin and S Nath(Edn). University of Delhi, Delhi.
Brauer G.(1988) Osteometrie in anthropologie: Handbuch der vergleichenden biologie des Menschen. Ban 1, Wesen and methoden der anthropologische, Teil 1. Wissenchaftstheorie, Geschichte, Morphologische Methoden. R. Knussman, ed., Gustav Verlag, Stuttgart.
MacLaughlin SM and Bruce MF (1985). A simple univariate technique for determining sex from fragmentary femora: Its application to a Scottish short cist population, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 67: 281-88.
Singh,S.P and Singh,S (1972 A). The sexing of adult femora: Demarking points for Varanasi zone, Journal of the Indian Academy of Forensic Sciences, 11:1-6.
Singh SP and Singh S (1972B). Identification of sex from the head of the femur: The demarking points for Varanasi zone, Indian Medical Gazette 11:45-49.
Subrahmanyan BV (2004). In: Modi’s Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology. 22nd Edn. Lexis Nexis, Butterworths, 119-21.
Kete (1964). Journal of Anatomical Society of India(JASI) Dec. 81-84.
Enock Prabhakar P (1988). In: Practical Mdico-Legal Manual, a publication of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine.
Purkait R (1989a). Sex Determination from Human Long Bones of Madhya Pradesh, India,Ph.d. Dissertation , University of Delhi, Delhi.

Tables and Figures
[Table / Fig - 1]
DOI and Others

DOI: JCDR/2012/3675:2027


Date Of Submission: Jul 10, 2011
Date Of Peer Review: Nov 26, 2011
Date Of Acceptance: Dec 20, 2011
Date Of Publishing: Apr 15, 2012

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)