Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

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Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018




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On Sep 2018




Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."



Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
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Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




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Best regards,
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On Aug 2018




Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".



Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
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Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."



Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2012 | Month : April | Volume : 6 | Issue : 2 | Page : 195 - 197

Profile of the Patients Who Attended the HIV Integrated Counseling and Testing Centre in a Teaching Hospital of Rajasthan

Niraj K. Biswas, Manoj K. Saurabh, Ashish K. Yadav

1. Assistant Professor Department Microbiology Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar 326001 (Raj.), India. 2. Associate Professor Department of Pharmacology Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar 326001(Raj.), India. 3. Statistician Cum Assistant Professor Department of Community Medicine Jhalawar medical college,Jhalawar,326001 (Raj), India.

Correspondence Address :
Niraj K. Biswas MBBS,MD
Assistant Professor
Department Microbiology
Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar 326001 (Raj.), India
Phone: 09460084052
E-mail: dr.nirajbiswas@yahoo.com

Abstract

Context: Community awareness is the simplest way to limit the spread of the human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection in the population.

Objectives: To study the sociodemographic characteristics and the perception about the disease among the attendees of an HIV clinic.

Material and Methods: It was a cross-sectional, questionnaire based, observational study which was conducted between years 2008 and 2011 at the integrated counseling and testing centre (ICTC) of a teaching hospital in Rajasthan, India.

Results: Out of 7561 subjects who were screened, the seroprevalence of HIV was seen in 109 (1.44%) cases. More visits to the ICTC were made by males (5973) as compared to females (1588), but the positivity rate was higher among females (2.64%) than among males (1.12%). Among all the subjects, about 80% of the seropositives belonged to the age group 15-49 years, 38.5% were illiterate, and more than 30% of the positive cases were housewives. Heterosexual (92%) and vertical transmission (8%) were the only modes of transmission. Seropositivity was more prevalent among the subjects who belonged to the below poverty line (58.7%). More than half (52%) of the respondents considered the HIV infection to be preventable and three fourth (75.73%) had no objection in staying in the same house as the infected cases, whereas only 33.4% of them were comfortable in sharing food with the HIV patients. Two thirds of the attendees were aware of the role of barrier contraceptives in the prevention of the HIV infection. However, there was a lack of awareness about the government intervention programmes.

Conclusion: The screening of females in the population needs to be strengthened, possibly by universal antenatal coverage. Despite the ongoing campaigns, there is a lack of appropriate awareness in the population and hence, there is a need of interventions which focus on the dissemination of information even to the most peripheral and unreached areas.

Keywords

Human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV), Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Integrated counseling and testing centre (ICTC), patient perception

Introduction
India shares one tenth of the global HIV burden and an overall 65% is attributed to south and south east Asia (1). As per the current estimates of Rajasthan State’s AIDS Control Society (RSACS), approximately 70,000 people in Rajasthan are living with HIV/AIDS, in which the confirmed cases are about 40,000, putting the state in the low prevalence category. The Integrated Counseling and Testing Centre (ICTC) provides information about the HIV prevention, counseling to undergo testing, it provides testing facilities and it also links the seropositive people with treatment, care and support systems (2). The present study reveals the prevalence of the HIV prevalence pattern and the availability of ICTC services in our district. Moreover, this study was aimed at creating awareness and motivation for the optimum utilization of the available health services.

Material and Methods

The study was carried out at the ICTC of a teaching hospital at Jhalawar, Rajasthan, from December 2008 to July 2011. It was a cross-sectional, questionnaire based, observational study which was carried out to assess the sociodemographic characteristics and the perception about the disease among the attendees of the ICTC. This study was approved by the institute’s ethics committee and a written informed consent was obtained from all the subjects. All the attendees were tested for HIV seropositivity (Comb Acids HIV Immunodot test kit, Span Diagnostics, India) and were then asked to fill a predesigned questionnaire. The information was entered by using Microsoft Office software and it was evaluated by using descriptive (‘t’ test) statistics.

Results

Out of the 7561 attendees of ICTC, one hundred and nine (1.44%) were found to be seropositive. There were no positive cases for HIV 2. A rising positivity rate was observed during the initial period, with the highest number of seropositive cases being observed in 2009 (2.47%). However, this trend was found to reduce later [Table/Fig-1]. The distribution of the seropositive cases by their age, sex and relative prevalence among males and females are shown in [Table /Fig-2]. The seropositivity was more among males and female attendees (5973) were more in the ICTC as compared to females (1588), but the relative percentage of the positive cases was more in females (2.64%) than in males (1.12%). The maximum number of seropositive cases was seen in the age group of 25-34 years (males -29, 26.60% and females -17, 15.60%). Among the 10034 women who were screened during the antenatal checkups, 12 werefound to be seropositive. The sociodemographic characteristics of 109 positive cases are presented in [Table/Fig-3]. Fair numbers of positive cases were found in the same family, which included the spouses (34.8%) and their children (6.4%). Heterosexual behaviour was the commonest mode of transmission (92%) of the HIV infection among our subjects. The seropositive cases were more among the subjects who were below the poverty line (58.7% ) than among those who were above the poverty line (41.28%). Only one fifth of the cases which were found to be positive among the ICTC attendees were obtained from voluntary testing. The rest were either referred by doctors (54%) or by an NGO (28%).

Out of the 7561 subjects, 6002 attendees were able to completely answer the questionnaires which were included in the study. Female attendees were less than one third as compared to the males. More than 60% were married. Unprotected sexual exposure with persons other than their spouses was found in around 18% of the cases. Television and radio were two important sources of information for awareness about this disease among the subjects. More than half of the attendees were regularly using either alcohol, tobacco or opium.

Knowledge about the Transmission of the HIV Infection
HIV/AIDS was reported as preventable by 52% respondents, whereas 9% attendees only knew some HIV infected patients. Only about 31% of the attendees were able to rightly identify the modes of transmission of this virus, such as by blood transfusion, mother to child transmission,unprotected sexual contact and by other means.

Attitude Towards the Patients
A majority of the attendees (88.4%) had no objection in allowing the HIV/AIDS patients to stay in the same village or locality .Around three fourths (75.73%) of the participants had no objection in staying in same houses as the HIV infected persons, whereas only 33.4% of them said that they would share food with the HIV patients. Only about one out of three said that they would buy fresh vegetables or food items from shopkeepers who were infected with HIV. But a majority (93.4%) of the attendees was unwilling to accept HIV infected individuals as teachers, even if they were not sick.

Awareness of the Programme Intervention
Two thirds of the attendees were aware of condom use and they knew its advantages. The knowledge on the condom was acquired by the health workers and their friends. About 40 % had attended or participated in some campaign or meeting on HIV/AIDS. However, the study population had very poor knowledge about the disease and about government interventions such as the role of drugs in the prevention of the mother to foetus transmission of the HIV viruses, free drug distribution systems for the HIV infected patients and about the appropriate timing to start with the treatment of the HIV patients.

Discussion

Our study highlights that the screening of females in the population needs to be strengthened, possibly by universal antenatal coverage. Despite the ongoing campaigns, there is a lack of appropriate awareness in the population and hence, there is a need of interventions which are focussed on the dissemination of information to the most peripheral and unreached areas.

of rural India, the women’s inability to negotiate for safe sex and the moreover small localities which were studied, as in the present study, where there is absence of identified sex areas, enhances the probability of unprotected sexual activities, which might accelerate the ice-berg phenomenon of HIV. Illiteracy is common in women, which also affects it adversely.

However, there are a few limitations in our study which necessitate caution in applying our results to the population in general. Firstly, ours being a teaching hospital based study, our results may not be clearly representative of the community prevalences and secondly, we have only looked at the subject perceptions about the basics of the disease. A study which evaluates the psychological aspects of the perception and the disease burden may provide a better insight into this topic. The prevalence rate which was observed in our survey (1.44%) was less than that which was found in the study which was conducted by Solabannavar SS, et al (4.9%) and than the rates from studies which were conducted in south Karnataka (9.6%), West Bengal (17.1%) and Gujarat (4.8%), (3),(4),(5),(6). The lowprevalence which was found in our study may be due to the fact that these centres mainly catered to the rural population of the backward districts. The relative percentage of the HIV infected cases was found to be higher in females (2.64%) as compared to that in males (1.12%), which was in contrast to that which was found in studies which were done by Solabannavar et al (3) and Rashmi Sharma (6). However, in all these three studies, males were found to have a higher total seropositivity than females. This may be due to the fact that a greater number of males were screened and because infected males were more prevalent in a particular group. More relative seropositive cases were reported in females, which was similar to the findings of a study from Pune city (7). Seven children had acquired the infection by vertical transmission and twelve pregnant women were suffering from the HIV infection. About 80% of the seropositives belonged to the age group of 15- 49 years, which was slightly lower than the national figure (90%), 92.4% seropositives were observed in another study which was conducted at VCTC in Darjeeling (5) and 88.7% were observed in south Karnataka (4). This age group also formed the economically active population and so this disease seemed to threaten our country’s economy. One study estimated that the total annual economy loss which was caused by HIV/ AIDS in India was about 3447 billion (8) and so effective measures seemed to be needed to create awareness among this reproductive age group, so that the country’s economy did not suffer. An inverse relationship of education and economical status of this disease prevalence was reflected in our study, as only 5.5% seropositive cases had above 12th standard education (graduation and post graduation). It may be interpreted that the education level offers some protection against the HIV virus. Unprotected heterosexual contact was the commonest mode of transmission and this finding was supported by the findings of Kumar et al and Joardar et al, (4),(5). An alarming fact was observed in the present study, that the HIV prevalence was the highest among housewives (33%), followed by migrant drivers. This might be due to the fact that in the male dominated society

References

1.
HHS/CDC Global AIDS program (GAP) in India. The GAP India Fact Sheet. Available from http:// www.cdc gov/nchstp/od/gap/countries/ India.htm.
2.
Park K. Park’s Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine; Health programmes in India, National AIDS Control Programme. 21st Edition M/s Banarasidas Bhanot Publisher, Jabalpur (India) ,2011;395-403.
3.
Solabannavar S.S., Baragundi M C, Sonth S B, Patil C S. Seroprevalance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a tertiary care hospital. J Clinical and Diagnostic Res 2010;4:3383-86.
4.
Kumar A, Kumar P, Gupta M, et al, Profile of the clients who were tested HIV positive at a voluntary counseling and testing centre of a district hospital in Udupi, south Karnataka, Indian J Community Med, 2008;33:156-59.
5.
Joardar G.K, Sarkar A, Chatterjee C et al, Profile of the attendees in the voluntary and testing centre of North Bengal Medical College in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal. Indian Journal of Community Medicine 2006;31:237-40.
6.
Sharma R. Profile of the attendees for voluntary counseling and testing in the ICTC, Ahmedabad. Indian J Sex Transm Dis 2009;30:31-6.
7.
Sanjay M. The HIV infection among persons with high risk behavior in Pune city. AIDS Research and Review, 1998:1:2-6.
8.
Pandav CS, Anand K, Shamana BR et al. The economic consequences of HIV/AIDS in India. Natl Med J India 1997;10:27-30.

DOI and Others

DOI: JCDR/2012/3375:2032

Financial OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS:
None.

Date of Submission: Sep 29, 2011
Date of peer review: Jan 08, 2012
Date of acceptance: Apr 05, 2012
Date of Publishing: Apr 15, 2012

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