Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 30038

AbstractMaterial and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionAcknowledgementReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"

Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Original article / research
Year : 2012 | Month : April | Volume : 6 | Issue : 2 | Page : 215 - 219

Anti-Diarrhoeal Activity of the Aqueous Extract of the Bark of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum Linn in Mice

Hari Jagannadha Rao, Lakshmi

1. Associate Professor, Dept of Pharmacology NRI Medical College, Guntur, A.P., India. 2. M. Pharmacy, Lecturer, Dept of Pharmacology, NRI Medical College, Guntur, A.P., India.

Correspondence Address :
G. Hari Jagannadha Rao M.D.,
Associate Professor, Dept of Pharmacology,
NRI Medical College, Chinakakani,
Mangalagiri Mandal, Guntur Dt., India.
PIN - 522503
Phone: 9440434207
E mail:


Purpose: The plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Laureceae), is a small, ever green plant which is native to southern India and it has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-diarrhoeal activity of the aqueous extract of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum which is used traditionally as folk medicine, by using a castor oil and MgSO4 (Magnesium Sulphate) induced diarrhoea model.

Methods: The aqueous extract of the bark of this plant at graded doses (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg body weight) was investigated for its anti-diarrhoeal activity in terms of the reduction in the rate of defaecation and the consistency of faeces in castor oil, Mgso4 induced diarrhoea. To understand the mechanism of its anti-diarrhoeal activity, its effect was further evaluated on the gastro-intestinal transit time with charcoal meal.

Results: The bark extract showed significant (p<0.05) inhibitory activity against castor oil and Mgso4 induced diarrhoea. There was a significant reduction in the gastro-intestinal motility which was observed by using the charcoal meal test in mice.

Conclusion: The results which were obtained in this study substantiated the anti-diarrhoeal effects of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Linn and its use by the traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhoea.


Anti-diarrhoeal activity, Cinnamon bark, Castor oil, Mgso4, Char coal meal

Diarrhoea is characterized by an increased frequency of bowel movements, wet stools and abdominal pain (1). It is a leading cause of malnutrition and deaths among children in the developing countries of the world today (2). According to the World Health Report, diarrhoea is the cause of 3.3% of all the deaths worldwide. The worldwide distribution of diarrhoea accounts for more than 5-8 million deaths each year in children who were aged less than 5 years. The use of traditional medicine to combat the consequences of diarrhoea has been emphasized by the WHO in its diarrhoea control programme (3),(4),(5),(6),(7),(8). Many synthetic chemicals are available for the treatment of diarrhoea, but they have some side effects. The natural drugs are used as anti-diarrhoeal drugs, which are not always free from adverse effects (9). The approach towards evaluating medicinal plants has been based on the chemical extraction of the plants which are then tested on various experimental models. Morphine, quinine, emetine, digitalis glycosides, ergot alkaloids and vinca alkaloids which are in wide use today, were originally obtained from plants. Several studies have shown the beneficial effects of traditional medicines on diarrhea (10),(11),(12),(13).

In developing countries like India, a majority of people who live in the rural areas almost exclusively use traditional medicines in treating all sorts of diseases, including diarrhoea (7). Cinnamomum zeylanicum is one of the oldest herbal medicines which are known, as it had been mentioned in Chinese texts as early as 4,000 years ago. It is often used for medicinal purposes due to its unique properties (14). The genus, Cinnamomum, comprises of several hundred species which occur in Asia and Australia. These several species of cinnamon yield a volatile oil on distillation. The most important cinnamon oils which are used inSectionworld trade are those which are obtained from C. zeylanicum, C. cassia, and C. camphora. However, a number of other cinnamon species are distilled on a much smaller scale and the oils are used either locally or are exported (15).

Cinnamomum zeylanicum Linn (family. Lauraceae) is a small evergreen tree which is native to southern India and Sri Lanka, growing from sea level to nine hundred meters. The tree has a thick, reddish brown bark and small yellow flowers, and its leathery leaves have a spicy smell. It grows to a height of approximately 20 -60 ft (8 -18m) and is found primarily in tropical forests. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape and 7-18 cm long. The flowers which are arranged in panicles have a greenish colour and a distinct odour. The fruit is a purple, one-centimeter berry which contains a single seed. The Chinese used it as a herbal medicine since 4000 years as a treatment for fever, diarrhoea, and menstrual problems. Cinnamomum zeylanicum has a mildly astringent action and aromatic properties and it is used in European medicine. In the list of Johor medicines, it has a place for the treatment of colic and diarrhoea (16). Among several plant materials of the genus, Cinnamomum which were examined, only the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was found to contain a major phenolic metabolite of doubly linked proanthocyanidins (17).

The main properties of cinnamon are astringent, warming, stimulating, carminative, anti-septic, anti-fungal, anti-viral, blood purifying, and aiding digestion. All these properties of cinnamon make it a good medicinal plant. The sensorial qualities of cinnamon are slightly sweet, pleasant, warm and bitter, besides being strongly aromatic (18). The barks from the branches of this tree without the epidermis and the subereous layer, is marketed as the commercial cinnamon, which has been used since long in perfumery, culinary, and native medicinal systems (19),(20).

Cinnamon barks are widely used as a spice. They have been used to treat diarrhoea and other problems of the digestive system and as a component of the compounds which are used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine (21). The cinnamon bark contains volatile oils (14%), cinnamaldehyde (60%), eugenol (up to 10%), trans cinnamic acids (51%); phenolic compounds (41%), condensed tannins, catechins, and proanthocyanidins; monoterpenes and sesqiterpenes (pinene); calcium monoterpenes oxalate; gum; mucilage; resin, starch, sugars, and traces of coumarin (22). Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible anti-diarrhoeal activity of the bark extract of Cinnamomum Linn which is used commonly in Indian traditional medicine, by using various validated models and to find out if the folk medicinal use has a scientifically justified basis.

Material and Methods

Plant Material Collection and Extraction
Cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), which was taxonomically identified, was purchased from the local market at Guntur, A.P. A specimen has been preserved in our laboratory for further references. The bark was dried and finely powdered in a mechanical mixer. 10g of finely-powdered cinnamon was weighed and mixed with 100ml of water and this was kept on a water bath at 60ºC for two hours and filtered (23). This extract was diluted with distilled water and was administered orally to mice.

Albino mice (M/F) which weighed between 25-30 gms was used in this study. The cages of the animals were placed at room temperature with controlled cycles of 12 hours of light and 12 hours of of darkness. The relative humidity was maintained at 44-45 %. All the animals were fed with a standard pellet diet (Agro Corporation Private Limited, Bangalore, India) and water ad libitum. The standard pellet diet comprised of 21% protein, 5% lipids, 4% crude fiber, 8% ash, 1 % calcium, 0.6% phosphorous, 3.4% glucose, 2 % vitamin, and 55% nitrogen-free extract (carbohydrate) and it provided a metabolizable energy of 3600 k. cal /kg. The study protocol was approved by the institutional animal ethical committee ( 798/03/C/CPCSEA-2003) of NRI Medical College, Chinakakani. The animal beds in the cages were renewed thrice a week to ensure hygienic conditions and the maximum comfort of the animals.

Phytochemical Screening
The phytochemical analysis of the crude extract was carried out to determine the active phyto chemical constituents which were responsible for the anti-diarrhoeal activity (Table/Fig 4).

Acute Toxicity Study
Different doses (50–2000mg/kg, p. o) of the aqueous extract of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum were administered to groups of mice and they were observed continuously for 1 hour and then at half – hourly intervals for 4 hours, for any gross behavioural changes and further up to 72 hours, followed 14 days for any mortality as per the OECD Guideline 425. The bark extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was found to be non-toxic up to the maximum dose of 2000mg/kg body weight.

Castor Oil Induced Diarrhoea
The method which was proposed by Galvez et al., (1993) was modified to suit the experimental needs (24), (25). The animals werekept in fasting for 24 hours before the test, with free access to water. The mice were divided in to 4 groups of 5 animals each. Diarrhoea was induced by administering 0.5ml of castor oil orally. Group I was taken as the control group (0.5ml of distilled water), Group II which received Loperamide (5mg/kg) served as the standard group, and Groups III and IV received the extract (100, 200 mg/kg, oral) 30 minutes before the castor oil administration. Each animal was placed in an individual cage, the floor of which was lined by blotting paper. The floor lining was changed every hour. The consistency of the faecal matter and the number of both the wet and the dry diarrhoeal droppings were counted every hour for a period of 4 hours. During an observation period of 4 hours, the total number of faeces which were excreted by the animals was recorded. The numerical score which was based on the stool consistency was assigned as follows; normal stool=1, semi solid=2, and watery stool=3 (26).

Magnesium Sulphate-Induced Diarrhoea
A similar protocol, as the one which was used for castor oil-induced diarrhoea, was followed. Diarrhoea was induced by the oral administration of Magnesium sulphate at a dose of 2g/kg to the animals, 30 minutes after the pre-treatment with distilled water to the control group, after the pre-treatment with Loperamide (5mg/kg) to the positive control group and after the pre-treatment with the aqueous extract at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg to the test groups. All the administrations were carried out through the oral route (27).

Effect on Gastrointestinal Transit Time
The mice were kept in fasting for 24 hours and were divided into four groups of five mice each and each animal was given 0.1ml of 1% charcoal suspension orally, 60 min after an oral dose of the test drug, the standard and the vehicle. Group I was administered 0.5ml distilled water, Group II received Loperamide 5mg/kg and Groups III and IV received the extract at the dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight respectively. The faecal boluses which were expelled were collected. Each faecal bolus was pressed on a white sheet of paper to examine the presence of the char coal meal. The time for the appearance of the 1st faecal bolus with the char coal meal was recorded.

Statistical Analysis
The data which was obtained in the studies were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for determining the significant difference. The inter group significance was analyzed by using Dunnet’s – t-test. A p value of < 0.05 was considered to be significant. All the values were expressed as mean ± SEM.


In the castor oil-induced diarrhoea experiment, the extract of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum produced a marked anti-diarrhoeal effect in the mice, as shown in (Table/Fig 1). At doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg , the extract significantly decreased (p<0.05) the total number of faeces which was produced upon the administration of castor oil (54.12 % at 100mg/kg, 65.74% at 200mg/kg ) as compared to that in the control group. Similarly, the extract, at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose levels, significantly (p<0.05) reduced the extent of the diarrhoea (71.7%, 80.4%) in the test animals in the magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea test (Table/Fig 2). However, both the doses were shown to reduce the total number of faeces in the test groups as compared to that in the control.

In the gastro-intestinal transit test, the extract, at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, retarded the gastro-intestinal transit of the charcoal meal in mice, where a significant (p<0.05) retardation of the intestinal transit was observed at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg dose as compared to that in the control (Table/Fig 3).


Diarrhoea results from an imbalance between the absorptive and secretory mechanisms in the intestinal tract, which is accompanied by an excess loss of fluid in the faeces. In some types of diarrhoea, the secretory component predominates, while other types of diarrhoea are characterized by hyper motility. Castor oil causesdiarrhoea due to its active metabolite, ricilonic acid (28),(29), which stimulates the peristaltic activity in the small intestine, leading to changes in the electrolyte permeability of the intestinal mucosa. Its action stimulates the release of endogenous prostaglandins (30). In this study, the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum exhibited a significant anti-diarrhoeal activity. The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum significantly reduced the intestinal transit, as was observed by a decrease in the intestinal motility of the char coal meal. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, sugars, terpenes and flavonoids. Earlier studies have shown that the anti-dysenteric and anti-diarrhoeal properties of medicinal plants were due to the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, sterols and/or tri terpenes and reducing sugars (25),(31),(32),(33). Hence, tannins, reducing sugars, sterols and/or tri terpenes may be responsible for the mechanism of action of the anti-diarrhoeal activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. This could be due to the fact that the extract increased the re-absorption of water by decreasing the intestinal motility, as was observed by the decrease in the intestinal transit in the charcoal meal test.


The results of this investigation revealed that the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum contained pharmacologically active substances with anti-diarrhoeal properties. Further research has to be carried out to fractionate and purify the extract, in order to find out the molecule which is responsible for the anti-diarrhoeal activity which was observed.


The authors are thankful to the management of NRI Medical College, Guntur, (A.P.), for giving the necessary permission, support to conduct the animal study and for providing the necessary research facilities. The authors also wish to thank the Zentox laboratory staff for their help in this study.


Ezekwesili CN, Obiora KA, Ugwu OP. Evaluation of the anti-diarrhoeal property of the crude aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Labitae) in rats. Biokemistr 2004; 16 (2):122-31.
Victoria CG, Bryce J, Fontain O, Monsch R. Reducing deaths from diarrhea through oral re hydration therapy. Bulletin of World Health Organization 2000; 78:1246-55.
Inayathulla Shariff W R, Asit K, Sikarwar A, Mukesh S. Evaluation of the anti-diarrhoeal activity of the Crataeva nurrvala root bark in experimental animals. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2010; 2: 158-61.
World Health Organization, World Health Report, WHO, Geneva 2004; 120-25.
Sunisson J.A., Arajagopal A, Kumari K, AVAG, Mohan S. Anti-diarrhoeal activity of the leaves of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. Indian Journal of pharmaceutical Sciences 2009; 71(6): 691-95.
Chitme HR, Ramesh C, Sadhna K. Study of the anti-diarrhoeal activity of Calatropis gigantean in experimental animals. J. Pharmacol. Pharm. Sci 2004; 7: 70-75.
Syder JD, Merson MH. The magnitude of the global problem of acute diarrhoeal disease; a review of the active surveillance data. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1982; 60:605-13.
Lutterodt GD. Inhibition of the gastro-intestinal release of acetylcholine by quircetin as a possible mode of action of the Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal diseases. Journal of Ethanopharmacology 1989; 25: 235-47.
Hardman JG, Limberd LE. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. In: Goodman and Gillman’s (Eds), 10th edition, Macgraw Hill, New York 1992; 914-31.
Offiah VN, Chikwender UA. Anti-diarrhoeal effect of the Ossimum gratissium leaf extract in experimental animals. Journal of Ethanopharmacology 1999; 68:327-30.
Mukharjee PK, Saha K, Murage San T, Mandal SC, Pal M, Shaha BP, Screening of the anti-diarrhoeal profile of some plant extract of a specific region of West Bengal, India. Journal of Ethanopharmacology 1998; 60:85-89.
Rani S, Ahemad N, Rajaran S, Saluja R, Thenmozhi S, Muragesan T, Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of the Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. leaf extract in rats. Journal of Ethanopharmacology 1999; 68:315-319.
Zavata MA, Perez S, Perez C, Vargus R, Perez RM, Anti-diarrhoeal activity of Waltheria americana, Cammelina coelestis and Alternenthera repess. Journal of Ethanopharmacology 1998; 61:41-47.
Mastura M, Azah MAN, Khozirah S, Mawardi R, Manaf AA. Anti candidal and anti-dermatophytic activity of the essential oils of the Cinnamomum species. Cytobios 1999; 98:17-23.
The wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw materials and Industrial products, III publications and Information Directorate, New Delhi 1992; 582-90.
Burkill, IH. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsular 1966, 2nd Ed. Kaula Lumpur: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives.
Nonaka G, Morimoto S., Nishioka I.. Tannins and Related Compounds. Part 13. Isolation and Structures of Turmeric and Pentameric Proanthocyanidins from Cinnamon. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transaction I. 1983; 2139-45.
Benarroz MO, et al. Effects of the Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on the radio labeling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells in Wister rats. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 2008; 51: 143-49.
Gayoso CW, et al. Sensitivity of fungi which were isolated from onchomycosis to Eugenia Cariophyllata essential oil and eugenol. Fitoterapia 2005; 76: 247-49.
Samarseker R, Kalhari KS, Weerasinghe I. Mosquitocidal activity of the leaf and the bark essential oils of Ceylon Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Journal of Essential oil Research 2005; 17: 301-03.
Karnick CR. Pharmacopoeial Standards of Herbal Plants, Vol.1. Delhi: Sri Sat guru Publications1994; 94-95.
Duke JA. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. CRC Press Inc., Boca Ratan, Fia.1985; 33-34.
Kreysiyyesh SI, Usta J, Copti R. Effect of cinnamon and clove and some of their constituents on the Na+-K+-ATP ase activity and alanine absorption in the rat jejunum. Food chem. Toxicol 2000; 38:755-62.
Galvez J, Crespo ME, Jimmenez J, Suarez A, Zarzuelo A. Anti- diarrhoeic activity of quercitrin in mice and rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol 1993; 45: 157-59.
Galvez J, Zarzuelo A, Crespo ME, Utrilla MP, Jimenez J, Spiessens C, de Witte P. Anti-diarrhoeic activity of the Scleroarya birrea bark extract and its active tannin constituents in rats. Phytother Res 1991; 5: 276-78.
Sasidharan S, Latha L, Zuraini Z, Suryani S, Sangetha S, Shirely L. ‘Anti diarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of the Stachytarpheta jamaicensis leaves’. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Sep/Oct 2007(2007); 39(5): 245-48.
Doherty SS. Inhibition of arachidonic acid release, a mechanism by which glucocorticoids inhibit endotoxin-induced diarrhea. British J. Pharmacol 1981; 73:549-54.
Ammon PJ, Thomas, Philips S. Effects of oleic acid and recinoleic acids on the jejunal water and electrolyte movements. J. Clin Invest 1974; 53:374-79.
Waston WC, Gordon R. Studies on the digestion absorption and themetabolism of castor oil. Bio chem Pharmcol 1962; 11:229-36.
Galvez J, Zarzuelo A, Crespo ME, Lorente MD, Ocete MA, Jimenez J. Anti-diarrhoeic activity of the Euphorbia hirta extract and the isolation of an active flavonoid constituent. Planta Medica 1993; 59:333-36.
Anonymous. The wealth of India (raw material). CSIR, New Delhi1962; Vol.6: 280-81.
Longanga Otshudi A, Vercruysse A, Foriers A. Contribution to the ethno botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies of traditionally used medicinal plants in the treatment of dysentery and diarrhea in the Lamella area, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). J. Ethanopharmacol 2000; 71(3): 411-23.
Organization for Economic Cooperative and Development (OECD). OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals [Internet]. France: OECD Publishing; 2006 July 11. Section 4, Health Effects: Test No.425: Acute Oral Toxicity: Up-and –Down Procedure; [Adopted 2006 March 23]; p. 1-27. Available from dex.asp?lang=en.

DOI and Others

DOI: JCDR/2012/3583:1993

No competing Interests.

Date Of Submission: Sep 24, 2011
Date Of Peer Review: Nov 03, 2011
Date Of Acceptance: Dec 23, 2011
Date Of Publishing: Apr 15, 2012

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)