Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri

"The Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) has been in operation since almost a decade. It has contributed a huge number of peer reviewed articles, across a spectrum of medical disciplines, to the medical literature.
Its wide based indexing and open access publications attracts many authors as well as readers
For authors, the manuscripts can be uploaded online through an easily navigable portal, on other hand, reviewers appreciate the systematic handling of all manuscripts. The way JCDR has emerged as an effective medium for publishing wide array of observations in Indian context, I wish the editorial team success in their endeavour"

Dr Bhanu K Bhakhri
Faculty, Pediatric Medicine
Super Speciality Paediatric Hospital and Post Graduate Teaching Institute, Noida
On Sep 2018

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dematolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Year : 2012 | Month : April | Volume : 6 | Issue : 2 | Page : 316 - 318

The Effect of Capsulated Glass Ionomer Cements on the pH of a Lactic Acid Solution: An In-Vitro Study

Sridevi Krishnamurthy, Jamini Narasimhan, Rangeeth Bollam Nammalwar

1. Senior Lecturer, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. 2. Reader, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Indira Gandhi College of Dental Science, Chennai, India. 3. Reader, Department of Pedodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India.

Correspondence Address :
Sridevi Krishnamurthy
17, Vallal Pari Nagar, Mogappair, Chennai – 600050, India.
Phone: +91-9444193541


Aim: This study the evaluated interactions of capsulated glass ionomer cements (GIC) with an aqueous lactic acid solution.

Materials and Methods: GIC fuji cap II and GC fuji cap IX were tested and compared to vials containing a lactic acid aqueous solution with no specimen as the control group. 16 specimens of each material were made according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The pH of the solution was measured immediately after 24 hours and at the end of the week. The statistical significance in the pH of the storage solution was determined by using one–way ANOVA.

Result: All the materials were able to increase the pH of the lactic acid solution and both the materials were statistically significant.

Conclusion: These findings can be helpful in predicting the performance of these materials under clinical conditions.


Glass ionomer cements, Lactic acid, Buffering capacity, pH

Atraumatic treatment (ART) is a dental approach which is based on the removal of carious tissues with hand instruments, followed by the placement of an adhesive restoration (1),(2),(3),(4). Glass ionomer cement is a material which has created a great impact in the world of restorative dentistry. It is a water based restorative material which consists of leachable glass powder and a polyalkenoic acid which react together to form a cement mass (5),(6). It exhibits true adhesion to the tooth structure and it acts as a reservoir of the fluoride ions which are slowly released over a prolonged period of time (7). Variation in the acid profile and the concentration may relate to caries progression in the hard dental tissues. When sugar is available in the oral environment; microorganisms produce organic acids such as lactate and acetate. Another relevant factor which is involved in the caries progression is related to the low pH which is generated from carbohydrate metabolism that selects the cariogenic species. It was observed that a low pH environment characterized this condition with a lactate dominant acid profile in the active lesions; therefore, the interaction between the lactic acids and the restorative materials should also be considered. Conventional glass ionomer cement represents the oldest category of the glass ionomer cements and it has the disadvantage of inferior mechanical properties (8),(9). To overcome this, newer, more- viscous, aesthetic and reinforced glass ionomer cements were specially developed for their use in the alternative restorative technique (ART). These materials have the ability to neutralize the salivary acid by buffering the lactic acid via the release of chemical ions (10).

The predominant factors which control the stability of the enamel apatite are its pH and the concentrations of calcium, phosphate and fluoride in the surrounding solution. A pH drop of one unit within the pH range of 4 to 7 will result in a 7 fold increase in the solubility of the hydroxyapatite (11). It has been stated that the release ofNammalwarfluoride and other elements from the dental materials are affected by the changes in pH, especially those of the glass ionomer matrix forming elements like calcium, strontium and aluminum (12). Considering the above aspects, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the buffering capacity of the newer, high viscous glass ionomer cements and the conventional glass ionomer cement.

Material and Methods

Two restorative grade glass ionomers were employed in this study, namely the GIC Fuji cap II and the GC FUJI IX capsule. 32 cylindrical specimens of dimension (6mm diameter x 3 mm in height) were prepared by mechanical mixing; both the cements were handled according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The cements were inserted into previously lubricated, cylindrical, poly tetrafluoroethylene moulds of appropriate size. The cements were allowed to be cured for 1 hour in the moulds at 370 C before being removed and placed in a lactic acid solution (2.0 cm³, 20 mmol-¹pH 2.7). The control solutions were stored under identical conditions but those which contained no cement were also prepared. The pH of the cements which were immersed in the lactic acid solution were measured immediately after 24 hours and after a week by using a digital pH meter (Bionics) .The statistical significance in the pH of storage solution was determined by using one way ANOVA.


The pH increasing ability was material and time dependent as was the interaction between these variables (p<0.00 1). All the materials increased the pH of the lactic acid storage solution at all the evaluation periods (P<0.001). The pH changes of the aqueous lactic acid solution which were recorded over a week were analyzed. (Table/Fig 1), (Table/Fig 2) A greater increase in the lactic acid pH was observed in a week; both the materials were statistically significant.


The anti-cariogenic capacity is a relevant property of GIC and it is thus expected that the interaction of these materials with an acidic environment will lead to an increase in the pH (13),(14),(15). Under the present experimental conditions, all the tested GIC were able to increase the initial pH of the acid lactic solution. These results were in accordance with those of Nicholson, et al (15), who subjected poly acid – modified composite resins to similar experimental conditions and also verified their ability in neutralizing acidic conditions. Studies have reported that the initial pH of the tested solution (2.74) increased almost by 1 unit in 7 days (16) and investigations into the rate of the change of the pH of lactic acid which was exposed to some ART GIC showed similar results as those of the present study (14).

The pH increase of the acid storage solution is attributed to the acid basic setting reaction of the dental cements with salt formation. It is known that cements which are made from lower concentrations of polyacid are weaker that those which are made from higher concentrations of polyacid (16),(17). In the case of each cement, attack at the matrix releases both poly acrylic acid and metal ions. Consequently, the storage solution becomes a mixture of lactic acid and metal lactates, the classic combination that creates a buffer solution. In the present study, the measurements were made after 1 week, the time which was likely to be sufficient for the mixtures to be fully equilibrated.

The acid neutralizing effect which was observed in this study was desirable, since it had a chance to be a mechanism of protectionhave a pH of 4.9, with lactic acids being the principle substance which are responsible for the low pH. Such active caries can be arrested by a modest change of the pH to 5.7. In our experiment, we were able to reach this later pH from a starting value of 2.7 (Lactic acid). This demonstrated that these cements were capable of elevating the pH to the level which could arrest the caries and that in principle, they were able to confer localized protection to the teeth from acid attack. This was further evidence to the fact that the effect which we had been studying was likely to prove their clinical benefits when these materials were used to restore teeth.


By varying the proportion of the cement to the storage solution and by increasing the numbers of specimens, we could obtain a significant factor for determining the final pH of the storage solution. Moreover, the final pH which was obtained when 16 specimens were used, was approximately same as that of the arrested caries, even though the initial pH of the lactic acid solution which was employed was much lower at 2.7 than that of the active caries in vivo. This suggested that the buffering effect of these cements was likely to be sufficient to have an important effect when these materials were used clinically.


Barata TJE, Bresciani E, Mattos MCR, Lauris JRP, Ericson D, Navarro MFdL. Comparasion of two minimally invasive methods on the longevity of glass ionomer cement restorations: short-term results of a pilot study. Journal of Applied Oral Science. 2008;16:155-60.
Frencken JE, Songpaisan Y, pHantumvanit P, Pilot T. An atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) technique: evaluation after one year. Int Dent J. 1994 Oct;44(5):460-64.
Rahimtoola S, van Amerongen E, Maher R, Groen H. Pain which was related to different ways of minimal intervention in the treatment of small caries lesions. ASDC J Dent Child. 2000 Mar-Apr;67(2):123-27, 83.
Wang L, Lopes LG, Bresciani E, Lauris JR, Mondelli RF, Navarro MF. Evaluation of the Class I ART restorations in Brazilian schoolchildren: three-year results. Spec Care Dentist. 2004 Jan-Feb;24(1):28-33.
Kudalkar SA, Damle SG. The comparative evaluation of the release profiles of aluminium, fluoride, sodium and strontium by resin modified and conventional glass polyalkenoate cements in neutral and acidic media – an in vitro study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 1997 Mar; 15(1):1-9.
Yip HK, Lam WT, Smales RJ. Fluoride release, weight loss and erosive wear of modern aesthetic restoratives. Br Dent J. 1999 Sep 11;187(5): 265-70.
Mount GJ. Glass ionomers: a review of their current status. Oper Dent. 1999 Mar-Apr;24(2):115-24.
Hojo S, Komatsu M, Okuda R, Takahashi N, Yamada T. The acid profiles and the pH of carious dentin in active and arrested lesions. J Dent Res. 1994 Dec;73(12):1853-57.
Hojo S, Takahashi N, Yamada T. Acid profile in carious dentin. J Dent Res. 1991 Mar;70(3):182-86.
Davidson CL. Advances in glass-ionomer cements. J Appl Oral Sci. 2006;14 Suppl:3-9.
Baig AA, Fox JL, Young RA, Wang Z, Hsu J, Higuchi WI, et al. Relationships among the carbonated apatite solubility, crystallite size, and the microstrain parameters. Calcified Tissue International. 1999;64(5):437-49.
Forss H. The release of fluoride and other elements from light-cured glass ionomers in neutral and acidic conditions. J Dent Res. 1993 Aug;72(8):1257-62.
Garcez RM, Buzalaf MA, de Araujo PA. The fluoride release of six restorative materials into water and pH-cycling solutions. J Appl Oral Sci. 2007 Oct;15(5):406-11.
Nicholson JW, Aggarwal A, Czarnecka B, Limanowska-Shaw H. The rate of change of the pH of lactic acid which was exposed to glass-ionomer dental cements. Biomaterials. 2000 Oct;21(19):1989-93.
Nicholson JW, Czarnecka B, Limanowska-Shaw H. The interaction of glass-ionomer cements which contained vinylphosphonic acidwith water and aqueous lactic acid. J Oral Rehabil. 2003 Feb;30(2): 160-64.
Nomoto R, McCabe JF. A simple acid erosion test for dental waterbased cements. Dent Mater. 2001 Jan;17(1):53-9.
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DOI and Others

DOI: JCDR/2012/3804:2028


Date Of Submission: Dec 14, 2011
Date Of Peer Review: Jan 18, 2012
Date Of Acceptance: Feb 02, 2012
Date Of Publishing: Apr 15, 2012

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