Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
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Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018




Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."



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Saraswati Dental College
Lucknow
On Sep 2018




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Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata




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On Aug 2018




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Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
Bengaluru.
On Aug 2018




Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
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An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".



Dr. Mamta Gupta
Consultant
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018




Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.


Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
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Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
E-mail: drrajendrak1@rediffmail.com
On May 11,2011




Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."



Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
E-mail: ravi.dr.shankar@gmail.com
On April 2011
Anuradha

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.


Dr. Anuradha
E-mail: anuradha2nittur@gmail.com
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Dentistry
Year : 2012 | Month : April | Volume : 6 | Issue : 2 | Page : 316 - 318

The Effect of Capsulated Glass Ionomer Cements on the pH of a Lactic Acid Solution: An In-Vitro Study

Sridevi Krishnamurthy, Jamini Narasimhan, Rangeeth Bollam Nammalwar

1. Senior Lecturer, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India. 2. Reader, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Indira Gandhi College of Dental Science, Chennai, India. 3. Reader, Department of Pedodontics, Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India.

Correspondence Address :
Sridevi Krishnamurthy
17, Vallal Pari Nagar, Mogappair, Chennai – 600050, India.
Phone: +91-9444193541
E-mail: drsridevi_k@yahoo.com

Abstract

Aim: This study the evaluated interactions of capsulated glass ionomer cements (GIC) with an aqueous lactic acid solution.

Materials and Methods: GIC fuji cap II and GC fuji cap IX were tested and compared to vials containing a lactic acid aqueous solution with no specimen as the control group. 16 specimens of each material were made according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The pH of the solution was measured immediately after 24 hours and at the end of the week. The statistical significance in the pH of the storage solution was determined by using one–way ANOVA.

Result: All the materials were able to increase the pH of the lactic acid solution and both the materials were statistically significant.

Conclusion: These findings can be helpful in predicting the performance of these materials under clinical conditions.

Keywords

Glass ionomer cements, Lactic acid, Buffering capacity, pH

Introduction
Atraumatic treatment (ART) is a dental approach which is based on the removal of carious tissues with hand instruments, followed by the placement of an adhesive restoration (1),(2),(3),(4). Glass ionomer cement is a material which has created a great impact in the world of restorative dentistry. It is a water based restorative material which consists of leachable glass powder and a polyalkenoic acid which react together to form a cement mass (5),(6). It exhibits true adhesion to the tooth structure and it acts as a reservoir of the fluoride ions which are slowly released over a prolonged period of time (7). Variation in the acid profile and the concentration may relate to caries progression in the hard dental tissues. When sugar is available in the oral environment; microorganisms produce organic acids such as lactate and acetate. Another relevant factor which is involved in the caries progression is related to the low pH which is generated from carbohydrate metabolism that selects the cariogenic species. It was observed that a low pH environment characterized this condition with a lactate dominant acid profile in the active lesions; therefore, the interaction between the lactic acids and the restorative materials should also be considered. Conventional glass ionomer cement represents the oldest category of the glass ionomer cements and it has the disadvantage of inferior mechanical properties (8),(9). To overcome this, newer, more- viscous, aesthetic and reinforced glass ionomer cements were specially developed for their use in the alternative restorative technique (ART). These materials have the ability to neutralize the salivary acid by buffering the lactic acid via the release of chemical ions (10).

The predominant factors which control the stability of the enamel apatite are its pH and the concentrations of calcium, phosphate and fluoride in the surrounding solution. A pH drop of one unit within the pH range of 4 to 7 will result in a 7 fold increase in the solubility of the hydroxyapatite (11). It has been stated that the release ofNammalwarfluoride and other elements from the dental materials are affected by the changes in pH, especially those of the glass ionomer matrix forming elements like calcium, strontium and aluminum (12). Considering the above aspects, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the buffering capacity of the newer, high viscous glass ionomer cements and the conventional glass ionomer cement.

Material and Methods

Two restorative grade glass ionomers were employed in this study, namely the GIC Fuji cap II and the GC FUJI IX capsule. 32 cylindrical specimens of dimension (6mm diameter x 3 mm in height) were prepared by mechanical mixing; both the cements were handled according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The cements were inserted into previously lubricated, cylindrical, poly tetrafluoroethylene moulds of appropriate size. The cements were allowed to be cured for 1 hour in the moulds at 370 C before being removed and placed in a lactic acid solution (2.0 cm³, 20 mmol-¹pH 2.7). The control solutions were stored under identical conditions but those which contained no cement were also prepared. The pH of the cements which were immersed in the lactic acid solution were measured immediately after 24 hours and after a week by using a digital pH meter (Bionics) .The statistical significance in the pH of storage solution was determined by using one way ANOVA.

Results

The pH increasing ability was material and time dependent as was the interaction between these variables (p<0.00 1). All the materials increased the pH of the lactic acid storage solution at all the evaluation periods (P<0.001). The pH changes of the aqueous lactic acid solution which were recorded over a week were analyzed. (Table/Fig 1), (Table/Fig 2) A greater increase in the lactic acid pH was observed in a week; both the materials were statistically significant.

Discussion

The anti-cariogenic capacity is a relevant property of GIC and it is thus expected that the interaction of these materials with an acidic environment will lead to an increase in the pH (13),(14),(15). Under the present experimental conditions, all the tested GIC were able to increase the initial pH of the acid lactic solution. These results were in accordance with those of Nicholson, et al (15), who subjected poly acid – modified composite resins to similar experimental conditions and also verified their ability in neutralizing acidic conditions. Studies have reported that the initial pH of the tested solution (2.74) increased almost by 1 unit in 7 days (16) and investigations into the rate of the change of the pH of lactic acid which was exposed to some ART GIC showed similar results as those of the present study (14).

The pH increase of the acid storage solution is attributed to the acid basic setting reaction of the dental cements with salt formation. It is known that cements which are made from lower concentrations of polyacid are weaker that those which are made from higher concentrations of polyacid (16),(17). In the case of each cement, attack at the matrix releases both poly acrylic acid and metal ions. Consequently, the storage solution becomes a mixture of lactic acid and metal lactates, the classic combination that creates a buffer solution. In the present study, the measurements were made after 1 week, the time which was likely to be sufficient for the mixtures to be fully equilibrated.

The acid neutralizing effect which was observed in this study was desirable, since it had a chance to be a mechanism of protectionhave a pH of 4.9, with lactic acids being the principle substance which are responsible for the low pH. Such active caries can be arrested by a modest change of the pH to 5.7. In our experiment, we were able to reach this later pH from a starting value of 2.7 (Lactic acid). This demonstrated that these cements were capable of elevating the pH to the level which could arrest the caries and that in principle, they were able to confer localized protection to the teeth from acid attack. This was further evidence to the fact that the effect which we had been studying was likely to prove their clinical benefits when these materials were used to restore teeth.

Conclusion

By varying the proportion of the cement to the storage solution and by increasing the numbers of specimens, we could obtain a significant factor for determining the final pH of the storage solution. Moreover, the final pH which was obtained when 16 specimens were used, was approximately same as that of the arrested caries, even though the initial pH of the lactic acid solution which was employed was much lower at 2.7 than that of the active caries in vivo. This suggested that the buffering effect of these cements was likely to be sufficient to have an important effect when these materials were used clinically.

References

1.
Barata TJE, Bresciani E, Mattos MCR, Lauris JRP, Ericson D, Navarro MFdL. Comparasion of two minimally invasive methods on the longevity of glass ionomer cement restorations: short-term results of a pilot study. Journal of Applied Oral Science. 2008;16:155-60.
2.
Frencken JE, Songpaisan Y, pHantumvanit P, Pilot T. An atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) technique: evaluation after one year. Int Dent J. 1994 Oct;44(5):460-64.
3.
Rahimtoola S, van Amerongen E, Maher R, Groen H. Pain which was related to different ways of minimal intervention in the treatment of small caries lesions. ASDC J Dent Child. 2000 Mar-Apr;67(2):123-27, 83.
4.
Wang L, Lopes LG, Bresciani E, Lauris JR, Mondelli RF, Navarro MF. Evaluation of the Class I ART restorations in Brazilian schoolchildren: three-year results. Spec Care Dentist. 2004 Jan-Feb;24(1):28-33.
5.
Kudalkar SA, Damle SG. The comparative evaluation of the release profiles of aluminium, fluoride, sodium and strontium by resin modified and conventional glass polyalkenoate cements in neutral and acidic media – an in vitro study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 1997 Mar; 15(1):1-9.
6.
Yip HK, Lam WT, Smales RJ. Fluoride release, weight loss and erosive wear of modern aesthetic restoratives. Br Dent J. 1999 Sep 11;187(5): 265-70.
7.
Mount GJ. Glass ionomers: a review of their current status. Oper Dent. 1999 Mar-Apr;24(2):115-24.
8.
Hojo S, Komatsu M, Okuda R, Takahashi N, Yamada T. The acid profiles and the pH of carious dentin in active and arrested lesions. J Dent Res. 1994 Dec;73(12):1853-57.
9.
Hojo S, Takahashi N, Yamada T. Acid profile in carious dentin. J Dent Res. 1991 Mar;70(3):182-86.
10.
Davidson CL. Advances in glass-ionomer cements. J Appl Oral Sci. 2006;14 Suppl:3-9.
11.
Baig AA, Fox JL, Young RA, Wang Z, Hsu J, Higuchi WI, et al. Relationships among the carbonated apatite solubility, crystallite size, and the microstrain parameters. Calcified Tissue International. 1999;64(5):437-49.
12.
Forss H. The release of fluoride and other elements from light-cured glass ionomers in neutral and acidic conditions. J Dent Res. 1993 Aug;72(8):1257-62.
13.
Garcez RM, Buzalaf MA, de Araujo PA. The fluoride release of six restorative materials into water and pH-cycling solutions. J Appl Oral Sci. 2007 Oct;15(5):406-11.
14.
Nicholson JW, Aggarwal A, Czarnecka B, Limanowska-Shaw H. The rate of change of the pH of lactic acid which was exposed to glass-ionomer dental cements. Biomaterials. 2000 Oct;21(19):1989-93.
15.
Nicholson JW, Czarnecka B, Limanowska-Shaw H. The interaction of glass-ionomer cements which contained vinylphosphonic acidwith water and aqueous lactic acid. J Oral Rehabil. 2003 Feb;30(2): 160-64.
16.
Nomoto R, McCabe JF. A simple acid erosion test for dental waterbased cements. Dent Mater. 2001 Jan;17(1):53-9.
17.
Nicholson JW, Millar BJ, Czarnecka B, Limanowska-Shaw H. Storage of polyacid-modified resin composites (“compomers”) in lactic acid solution. Dent Mater. 1999 Nov;15(6):413-i6.

DOI and Others

DOI: JCDR/2012/3804:2028

Financial OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS:
None.

Date Of Submission: Dec 14, 2011
Date Of Peer Review: Jan 18, 2012
Date Of Acceptance: Feb 02, 2012
Date Of Publishing: Apr 15, 2012

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