Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

Users Online : 72685

AbstractCase ReportDiscussionConclusionReferencesDOI and Others
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers' Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this Article Send to a Friend
Advertisers Access Statistics Resources

Dr Mohan Z Mani

"Thank you very much for having published my article in record time.I would like to compliment you and your entire staff for your promptness, courtesy, and willingness to be customer friendly, which is quite unusual.I was given your reference by a colleague in pathology,and was able to directly phone your editorial office for clarifications.I would particularly like to thank the publication managers and the Assistant Editor who were following up my article. I would also like to thank you for adjusting the money I paid initially into payment for my modified article,and refunding the balance.
I wish all success to your journal and look forward to sending you any suitable similar article in future"

Dr Mohan Z Mani,
Professor & Head,
Department of Dermatolgy,
Believers Church Medical College,
Thiruvalla, Kerala
On Sep 2018

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar

"Over the last few years, we have published our research regularly in Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. Having published in more than 20 high impact journals over the last five years including several high impact ones and reviewing articles for even more journals across my fields of interest, we value our published work in JCDR for their high standards in publishing scientific articles. The ease of submission, the rapid reviews in under a month, the high quality of their reviewers and keen attention to the final process of proofs and publication, ensure that there are no mistakes in the final article. We have been asked clarifications on several occasions and have been happy to provide them and it exemplifies the commitment to quality of the team at JCDR."

Prof. Somashekhar Nimbalkar
Head, Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad
Chairman, Research Group, Charutar Arogya Mandal, Karamsad
National Joint Coordinator - Advanced IAP NNF NRP Program
Ex-Member, Governing Body, National Neonatology Forum, New Delhi
Ex-President - National Neonatology Forum Gujarat State Chapter
Department of Pediatrics, Pramukhswami Medical College, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat.
On Sep 2018

Dr. Kalyani R

"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research is at present a well-known Indian originated scientific journal which started with a humble beginning. I have been associated with this journal since many years. I appreciate the Editor, Dr. Hemant Jain, for his constant effort in bringing up this journal to the present status right from the scratch. The journal is multidisciplinary. It encourages in publishing the scientific articles from postgraduates and also the beginners who start their career. At the same time the journal also caters for the high quality articles from specialty and super-specialty researchers. Hence it provides a platform for the scientist and researchers to publish. The other aspect of it is, the readers get the information regarding the most recent developments in science which can be used for teaching, research, treating patients and to some extent take preventive measures against certain diseases. The journal is contributing immensely to the society at national and international level."

Dr Kalyani R
Professor and Head
Department of Pathology
Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Sri Devaraj Urs Academy of Higher Education and Research , Kolar, Karnataka
On Sep 2018

Dr. Saumya Navit

"As a peer-reviewed journal, the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research provides an opportunity to researchers, scientists and budding professionals to explore the developments in the field of medicine and dentistry and their varied specialities, thus extending our view on biological diversities of living species in relation to medicine.
‘Knowledge is treasure of a wise man.’ The free access of this journal provides an immense scope of learning for the both the old and the young in field of medicine and dentistry as well. The multidisciplinary nature of the journal makes it a better platform to absorb all that is being researched and developed. The publication process is systematic and professional. Online submission, publication and peer reviewing makes it a user-friendly journal.
As an experienced dentist and an academician, I proudly recommend this journal to the dental fraternity as a good quality open access platform for rapid communication of their cutting-edge research progress and discovery.
I wish JCDR a great success and I hope that journal will soar higher with the passing time."

Dr Saumya Navit
Professor and Head
Department of Pediatric Dentistry
Saraswati Dental College
On Sep 2018

Dr. Arunava Biswas

"My sincere attachment with JCDR as an author as well as reviewer is a learning experience . Their systematic approach in publication of article in various categories is really praiseworthy.
Their prompt and timely response to review's query and the manner in which they have set the reviewing process helps in extracting the best possible scientific writings for publication.
It's a honour and pride to be a part of the JCDR team. My very best wishes to JCDR and hope it will sparkle up above the sky as a high indexed journal in near future."

Dr. Arunava Biswas
MD, DM (Clinical Pharmacology)
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital , Kolkata

Dr. C.S. Ramesh Babu
" Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a multi-specialty medical and dental journal publishing high quality research articles in almost all branches of medicine. The quality of printing of figures and tables is excellent and comparable to any International journal. An added advantage is nominal publication charges and monthly issue of the journal and more chances of an article being accepted for publication. Moreover being a multi-specialty journal an article concerning a particular specialty has a wider reach of readers of other related specialties also. As an author and reviewer for several years I find this Journal most suitable and highly recommend this Journal."
Best regards,
C.S. Ramesh Babu,
Associate Professor of Anatomy,
Muzaffarnagar Medical College,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Arundhathi. S
"Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR) is a reputed peer reviewed journal and is constantly involved in publishing high quality research articles related to medicine. Its been a great pleasure to be associated with this esteemed journal as a reviewer and as an author for a couple of years. The editorial board consists of many dedicated and reputed experts as its members and they are doing an appreciable work in guiding budding researchers. JCDR is doing a commendable job in scientific research by promoting excellent quality research & review articles and case reports & series. The reviewers provide appropriate suggestions that improve the quality of articles. I strongly recommend my fraternity to encourage JCDR by contributing their valuable research work in this widely accepted, user friendly journal. I hope my collaboration with JCDR will continue for a long time".

Dr. Arundhathi. S
MBBS, MD (Pathology),
Sanjay Gandhi institute of trauma and orthopedics,
On Aug 2018

Dr. Mamta Gupta,
"It gives me great pleasure to be associated with JCDR, since last 2-3 years. Since then I have authored, co-authored and reviewed about 25 articles in JCDR. I thank JCDR for giving me an opportunity to improve my own skills as an author and a reviewer.
It 's a multispecialty journal, publishing high quality articles. It gives a platform to the authors to publish their research work which can be available for everyone across the globe to read. The best thing about JCDR is that the full articles of all medical specialties are available as pdf/html for reading free of cost or without institutional subscription, which is not there for other journals. For those who have problem in writing manuscript or do statistical work, JCDR comes for their rescue.
The journal has a monthly publication and the articles are published quite fast. In time compared to other journals. The on-line first publication is also a great advantage and facility to review one's own articles before going to print. The response to any query and permission if required, is quite fast; this is quite commendable. I have a very good experience about seeking quick permission for quoting a photograph (Fig.) from a JCDR article for my chapter authored in an E book. I never thought it would be so easy. No hassles.
Reviewing articles is no less a pain staking process and requires in depth perception, knowledge about the topic for review. It requires time and concentration, yet I enjoy doing it. The JCDR website especially for the reviewers is quite user friendly. My suggestions for improving the journal is, more strict review process, so that only high quality articles are published. I find a a good number of articles in Obst. Gynae, hence, a new journal for this specialty titled JCDR-OG can be started. May be a bimonthly or quarterly publication to begin with. Only selected articles should find a place in it.
An yearly reward for the best article authored can also incentivize the authors. Though the process of finding the best article will be not be very easy. I do not know how reviewing process can be improved. If an article is being reviewed by two reviewers, then opinion of one can be communicated to the other or the final opinion of the editor can be communicated to the reviewer if requested for. This will help one’s reviewing skills.
My best wishes to Dr. Hemant Jain and all the editorial staff of JCDR for their untiring efforts to bring out this journal. I strongly recommend medical fraternity to publish their valuable research work in this esteemed journal, JCDR".

Dr. Mamta Gupta
(Ex HOD Obs &Gynae, Hindu Rao Hospital and associated NDMC Medical College, Delhi)
Aug 2018

Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey

"I wish to thank Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), for asking me to write up few words.
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium i e; into the words and sentences on paper. Quality medical manuscript writing in particular, demands not only a high-quality research, but also requires accurate and concise communication of findings and conclusions, with adherence to particular journal guidelines. In medical field whether working in teaching, private, or in corporate institution, everyone wants to excel in his / her own field and get recognised by making manuscripts publication.

Authors are the souls of any journal, and deserve much respect. To publish a journal manuscripts are needed from authors. Authors have a great responsibility for producing facts of their work in terms of number and results truthfully and an individual honesty is expected from authors in this regards. Both ways its true "No authors-No manuscripts-No journals" and "No journals–No manuscripts–No authors". Reviewing a manuscript is also a very responsible and important task of any peer-reviewed journal and to be taken seriously. It needs knowledge on the subject, sincerity, honesty and determination. Although the process of reviewing a manuscript is a time consuming task butit is expected to give one's best remarks within the time frame of the journal.
Salient features of the JCDR: It is a biomedical, multidisciplinary (including all medical and dental specialities), e-journal, with wide scope and extensive author support. At the same time, a free text of manuscript is available in HTML and PDF format. There is fast growing authorship and readership with JCDR as this can be judged by the number of articles published in it i e; in Feb 2007 of its first issue, it contained 5 articles only, and now in its recent volume published in April 2011, it contained 67 manuscripts. This e-journal is fulfilling the commitments and objectives sincerely, (as stated by Editor-in-chief in his preface to first edition) i e; to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. I also feel that many of us have work of substance, newer ideas, adequate clinical materials but poor in medical writing and hesitation to submit the work and need help. JCDR provides authors help in this regards.
Timely publication of journal: Publication of manuscripts and bringing out the issue in time is one of the positive aspects of JCDR and is possible with strong support team in terms of peer reviewers, proof reading, language check, computer operators, etc. This is one of the great reasons for authors to submit their work with JCDR. Another best part of JCDR is "Online first Publications" facilities available for the authors. This facility not only provides the prompt publications of the manuscripts but at the same time also early availability of the manuscripts for the readers.
Indexation and online availability: Indexation transforms the journal in some sense from its local ownership to the worldwide professional community and to the public.JCDR is indexed with Embase & EMbiology, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Chemical Abstracts Service, Journal seek Database, Indian Science Abstracts, to name few of them. Manuscriptspublished in JCDR are available on major search engines ie; google, yahoo, msn.
In the era of fast growing newer technologies, and in computer and internet friendly environment the manuscripts preparation, submission, review, revision, etc and all can be done and checked with a click from all corer of the world, at any time. Of course there is always a scope for improvement in every field and none is perfect. To progress, one needs to identify the areas of one's weakness and to strengthen them.
It is well said that "happy beginning is half done" and it fits perfectly with JCDR. It has grown considerably and I feel it has already grown up from its infancy to adolescence, achieving the status of standard online e-journal form Indian continent since its inception in Feb 2007. This had been made possible due to the efforts and the hard work put in it. The way the JCDR is improving with every new volume, with good quality original manuscripts, makes it a quality journal for readers. I must thank and congratulate Dr Hemant Jain, Editor-in-Chief JCDR and his team for their sincere efforts, dedication, and determination for making JCDR a fast growing journal.
Every one of us: authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher are responsible for enhancing the stature of the journal. I wish for a great success for JCDR."

Thanking you
With sincere regards
Dr. Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey, M.S., M. Ch., FAIS
Associate Professor,
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gandhi Medical College & Associated
Kamla Nehru & Hamidia Hospitals Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 (India)
On May 11,2011

Dr. Shankar P.R.

"On looking back through my Gmail archives after being requested by the journal to write a short editorial about my experiences of publishing with the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research (JCDR), I came across an e-mail from Dr. Hemant Jain, Editor, in March 2007, which introduced the new electronic journal. The main features of the journal which were outlined in the e-mail were extensive author support, cash rewards, the peer review process, and other salient features of the journal.
Over a span of over four years, we (I and my colleagues) have published around 25 articles in the journal. In this editorial, I plan to briefly discuss my experiences of publishing with JCDR and the strengths of the journal and to finally address the areas for improvement.
My experiences of publishing with JCDR: Overall, my experiences of publishing withJCDR have been positive. The best point about the journal is that it responds to queries from the author. This may seem to be simple and not too much to ask for, but unfortunately, many journals in the subcontinent and from many developing countries do not respond or they respond with a long delay to the queries from the authors 1. The reasons could be many, including lack of optimal secretarial and other support. Another problem with many journals is the slowness of the review process. Editorial processing and peer review can take anywhere between a year to two years with some journals. Also, some journals do not keep the contributors informed about the progress of the review process. Due to the long review process, the articles can lose their relevance and topicality. A major benefit with JCDR is the timeliness and promptness of its response. In Dr Jain's e-mail which was sent to me in 2007, before the introduction of the Pre-publishing system, he had stated that he had received my submission and that he would get back to me within seven days and he did!
Most of the manuscripts are published within 3 to 4 months of their submission if they are found to be suitable after the review process. JCDR is published bimonthly and the accepted articles were usually published in the next issue. Recently, due to the increased volume of the submissions, the review process has become slower and it ?? Section can take from 4 to 6 months for the articles to be reviewed. The journal has an extensive author support system and it has recently introduced a paid expedited review process. The journal also mentions the average time for processing the manuscript under different submission systems - regular submission and expedited review.
Strengths of the journal: The journal has an online first facility in which the accepted manuscripts may be published on the website before being included in a regular issue of the journal. This cuts down the time between their acceptance and the publication. The journal is indexed in many databases, though not in PubMed. The editorial board should now take steps to index the journal in PubMed. The journal has a system of notifying readers through e-mail when a new issue is released. Also, the articles are available in both the HTML and the PDF formats. I especially like the new and colorful page format of the journal. Also, the access statistics of the articles are available. The prepublication and the manuscript tracking system are also helpful for the authors.
Areas for improvement: In certain cases, I felt that the peer review process of the manuscripts was not up to international standards and that it should be strengthened. Also, the number of manuscripts in an issue is high and it may be difficult for readers to go through all of them. The journal can consider tightening of the peer review process and increasing the quality standards for the acceptance of the manuscripts. I faced occasional problems with the online manuscript submission (Pre-publishing) system, which have to be addressed.
Overall, the publishing process with JCDR has been smooth, quick and relatively hassle free and I can recommend other authors to consider the journal as an outlet for their work."

Dr. P. Ravi Shankar
KIST Medical College, P.O. Box 14142, Kathmandu, Nepal.
On April 2011

Dear team JCDR, I would like to thank you for the very professional and polite service provided by everyone at JCDR. While i have been in the field of writing and editing for sometime, this has been my first attempt in publishing a scientific paper.Thank you for hand-holding me through the process.

Dr. Anuradha
On Jan 2020

Important Notice

Case report
Year : 2012 | Month : June | Volume : 6 | Issue : 5 | Page : 899 - 901 Full Version

Chromoblastomycosis of the Face: A Rare Case Report from the District of Western Maharashtra, India

Published: June 1, 2012 | DOI:
Mukesh M. Sharma, Rabindra Nath Misra, Nageswari Rajesh Gandham, Savita Vivek Jadhav, Neetu Gupta

1. Chief Resident 2. Prof and HOD 3. Professor 4. Assitent Professor 5. Chief Resident

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Rabindra Nath Misra
Prof.& HOD, Department of Microbiology
Pad. Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College & Research Center,
Pimpri, Pune18, Maharashtra, India.
Phone: 9503994493


Background: Chromoblastomycosis is a non-contagious, chronic localized fungal infection of cutaneous and sub-cutaneous tissues caused by several species of phaeoid (ie. Dematiaceous) fungi. It usually known to occur following trauma with wood splinters and usually occurs on the hands, feet and legs. Diagnosis can be made by direct microscopic demonstration of pathognomic brown sclerotic cells in skin scrapings and a positive fungal culture, confirms the same.

Case Presentation:A 40-years old male presented with complaints of slowly spreading raised hyperpigmented lesions, three in number over right side of face and solitary plaque over lip with mild scaling from last six months and it was not associated with itching. Patient did not have any history of injury over the face with wooden splinters. The patient was initially suspected to have Lichen planus and was treated accordingly. But condition of the patients did not improve. He was then sent for Microbiological diagnosis.

Laboratory Diagnosis: The diagnosis of Chromoblastomycosis was made by demonstration of sclerotic bodies with transverse septa arranged in cluster on KOH examination. Isolation of Fonsecaea pedrosii on SDA confirmed Chromoblastomycosis.

Conclusion:Although Chromoblastomycosis is very rare on the face, our case demonstrates the need for consideration of Chromoblastomycosis in the differential diagnosis of resistant verrucous plaques of the face. We report an unusual case of Chromoblastomycosis for the first time from the state of Maharashtra and probably second case from India.


Chromoblastomycosis, Sclerotic bodies, Fonsecaea pedrosii, Phaeoid fungi

Chromoblastomycosis is a non-contagious, chronic, localized fungal infection of the cutaneous and the sub-cutaneous tissues, which is caused by several species of phaeoid (ie. Dematiaceous) fungi. Conant (1937) was the first to point out that the fungus, Phialophora verrucosa, one of the agents of Chromoblastomycosis, was identical to a fungus which caused “blueing” of wood. Fonsecaea, Phialophora and Cladophialophora have also been isolated from wood and vegetable material (Tre Jos 1954, Riedly 1957). They are saprophytes which are found in soil and plants. Chromoblastomycosis is usually known to occur following trauma with wood splinters and it usually occurs on the hands, feet and legs (1), (2). The actual prevalence and the incidence of Chromoblastomycosis are unknown because of its sporadic case reporting. Its rate of infection has ranged from 1 per 32500 populations to 1 per 70000 populations. The disease is characterized by the presence in infected tissues of brown, thick-walled, globose and multiseptate fungal forms which are known as sclerotic bodies (3), (4). The diagnosis can be made by the direct microscopic demonstration of pathognomic brown sclerotic cells in skin scrapings and a positive fungal culture, confirms the same (5), (6). The present report deals with Chromoblastomycosis of the face.

Case Report

A 40-years old male from the Pune district of the western part of Maharashtra, India, presented with complaints of slowly spreading, raised hyperpigmented lesions, three in number over the right side of the face and a solitary plaque over the lip with mild scaling, from the last six months and it was not associated with itching. The patient did not have any history of injury over the face with wooden splinters. The patient was initially suspected to have Lichen planus and he was treated accordingly. But his condition did not improve. He was then sent for a microbiological diagnosis.

Laboratory diagnosis
Skin scrapings and crusts were collected from the lesions and the specimens were processed for detection of the fungus by direct microscopic examination after treating them with 10% potassium hydroxide and by culturing it them Sabouraud’s Dextrose agar (SDA) medium (5), (6).

The diagnosis of Chromoblastomycosis was made by the demonstration of the pathognomic microscopic finding of sclerotic bodies with transverse septa, which were arranged in clusters on KOH examination. The cultures on the Sabouraud´s Dextrose agar medium showed olivaceous-black colonies which appeared after 18 days of incubation. The colonies became heaped up, folded and black and they were covered with short aerial mycelia which formed a grayish velvet nap on their surface. The reverse of the slant was jet black in colour. Lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB) examination of the growth revealed septate, hyphae and flask shaped conidiophores. The conidia were formed singly inside the basal portion of the phialide. They were extruded through the neck into the cup and beyond. They accumulated around the cup to form a spherical mass of loosely adherent spores. The individual conidia were oval, smooth walled and hyaline cells. Isolation of Fonsecaea pedrosoi on SDA confirmed Chromoblastomycosis. Histopathology-A skin biopsy of the affected material revealed inflammatory cells and brownish round septate bodies. He was successfully treated with Terbinafin, Itraconazole plus therapy and local debridement.


This disease has been reported from most parts of the world. It appears to be more common in the tropical and the sub-tropical areas. Chromoblastomycosis must be differentiated from blastomycosis, leprosy, cutaneous tuberculosis, mycetoma, tertiary syphilis, leishmaniasis, malignancy, etc. Microscopy and culture provide a gold standard for its diagnosis. There are various reports on Chromoblastomycosis from India. Shantala G.B. et al., reported a case of Chromoblastomycosis in a patient who was an agriculturist by occupation, who was from Karnataka state (7). Sharma A et al., reported Chromoblastomycosis which was caused by Cladosopirium carionii from Assam, India (8). Misra A. et al., also reported a case of chromoblastomycosis which was caused by Fonsecaea pedrosi, from an ulcerated warty growth over the chin, which was of 1 year duration, from Orissa India (9). Paniz-Mondolfi reported an extensive chromoblastomycosis of 22 years duration which was caused by Fonsecaea pedrosi, which was successfully treated with a combination of amphotericin B and itraconazole (10). The microbiological confirmation of the diagnosis is very important. This is an inexpensive and simple technique which does not require any sophisticated tools. Proper identification of the fungus which is grown in culture is necessary for the confirmation of the diagnosis as Chromoblastomycosis. Physicians should consider other diagnoses before a long-term treatment with either antitubercular drugs or antileprosy drugs is initiated for long-standing skin infections. Chromoblastomycosis, although it is infrequent, must be considered in the differential diagnosis of long-standing skin lesions in patients from the tropical and sub-tropical regions. Our report emphasizes the need for awareness about this condition and for proper communication between clinicians and microbiologists.


Our case was unique because of its unusual site of presentation and because of the absence of any history of trauma prior to the onset of the infection. Although Chromoblastomycosis is very rare on the face, our case demonstrates the need for the consideration of Chromoblastomycosis in the differential diagnosis of resistant verrucous plaques of the face. We are reporting an unusual case of Chromoblastomycosis for the first time from the state of Maharashtra and probably it is the second case from India.


Schell WA. Agent of Chromoblastomycosis and Sporotrichosis, Chapter 17. In: Toplay and Wilsons Microbiology and Microbial infections, Vol4. Medical Mycology, 9th edition.1998;315-23.
Emmons CW, Binford CH, Kown-Chung KJ. Chromoblastomycosis, chapter24. In: Medical Mycology, 3rd. edition. Lea and Febiger, Phialadelphia 1977; 386-405.
De A, Gharami RC, Data PK. A verrucous plaque on the face: what is your diagnosis? Dermatology Online J 2010; 16:6.
Mohanty L, Mohanty P, Padhi T. A verrucous growth on the leg. Indian J Dermatol Venereal Leprol 72: 399-400.
Baron EJ, Peterson LR, Finegold SM. Laboratory Methods in Basic Mycology, Chapter 44. In: Baily and Scotts Diagnostic Microbiology,1994, 9th edition. Mosby, St. Louis. 1994;725-6.
Fisher F, Cook NB. Fundamentals Of Diagnostic Mycology. Philadelphia: W.B.Saunders Company 1998; 372.
Shantala GB, Rudresh SM. Chromoblastomycosis: A case report.
Sharma A, Hazarika NK, Gupta D. Chromoblastomycosis in the subtropical regions of India. Mycopatholgia, 2010; 169: 381-86.
Mishra A, Tripathi K, Biswal P, Rath J. Chromoblastomycosis of the chin masquerading as a facial wart. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2011;54:221-2.
Paniz-Mondolfi AE, Colella MT, NegrĂ­n DC, Aranzazu N, Oliver M, Reyes-Jaimes O, et al. Extensive chromoblastomycosis which was caused by Fonsecaea pedrosoi was successfully treated with a combination of amphotericin B and itraconazole. Med Mycol. 2008 Mar;46 (2):179-84.

DOI and Others

DOI: JCDR/2012/4092:0000

Date of Submission: Feb 02, 2012
Date of Peer Review: Mar 21, 2012
Date of Acceptance: Mar 29, 2012
Date of Publishing: Jun 22, 2012

JCDR is now Monthly and more widely Indexed .
  • Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
  • Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
  • Academic Search Complete Database
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • Embase
  • EBSCOhost
  • Google Scholar
  • HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
  • Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
  • Journal seek Database
  • Google
  • Popline (reproductive health literature)