Effects of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on Umbilical Cord Morphology: A Comparative StudyCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Seema Valsalan Ennazhiyil,
No.14, Shanmuganathan Visithravanitha Illam, S.K.S. Nagar, Uthangudi, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) has great effects on umbilical cord gross morphology. Antenatal detection of altered morphology would be helpful to identify the impact of GDM on umbilical cord to reduce fetomaternal complications.
Aim: To assess and compare the morphological features of umbilical cord among gestational diabetic and normal subjects.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, PK Das Institute of Medical Sciences Palakkad, Kerala, India. The subjects included in this present study were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of normal non-diabetic pregnant women (n=52) and group II consisted of mothers with GDM (n=59). A total of 111 placentas along with the umbilical cord were collected and morphological parameters of umbilical cord such as length, diameter, circumference, coiling index, insertion, knots and number of vessels were noted. Descriptive statistical analysis was done using the statistical software SPSS version 23.0.
Results: Mean diameter (1.303±0.1884) and circumference (4.073±0.595) were found more in GDM mothers than normal (1.163±0.1815 and 3.648±0.5952) which was statistically significant (p-value 0.0001). No significant changes were observed in length, coiling index, mode of insertion and false knots among GDM and normal. The number of umbilical cord vessels was same in both the groups and true knots were absent.
Conclusion: Knowledge about the variation in the morphometric measurements of umbilical cord is important for the early detection of the maternal complications and to prevent the adverse fetal outcome.
Circumference, Coiling index, Cord insertion, Diameter, False knot, Fetal outcome, Morphometry
Seema Valsalan Ennazhiyil, PK Ramakrishnan, VR Akshara, KS Premlal, S Chitra, W Benjamin, et al.. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ON UMBILICAL CORD MORPHOLOGY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2019 July [cited: 2019 Jul 23 ]; 13:AC01-AC04. Available from
Financial OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
Date of Submission: Oct 27, 2018
Date of Peer Review: Nov 10, 2018
Date of Acceptance: Dec 11, 2018
Date of Publishing: Jul 01, 2019
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