Clinical Profile of Acute on Chronic Liver Failure Patients in a Tertiary Care CentreCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Anuj Singhal,
Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, AFMC, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Human dental enamel is made of hydroxyapatite crystals and fluorapatite combined with traces of delta calcium metaphosphate. Topical fluoride interacts with saliva and forms Calcium Fluoride (CaF) compounds on enamel which acts as a barrier in demineralisation process of caries formation.
Aim: To evaluate and compare the anti-microbial efficacy against S. mutans and enamel surface microhardness after application of two fluoride varnishes containing Casein PhosphopeptideAmorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) and xylitol coated calcium phosphate ions as active ingredients.
Materials and Methods: This was an in-vitro study involving one parameter on agar discs and one parameter on human enamel samples from November 2019 to January 2020. The antimicrobial efficacy of MI Varnish (GC Dental) and Embrace Varnish (Pulpdent) was comparatively assessed. Ten wells of each varnish were assessed using disc diffusion method on Trypticase-Yeast Cysteine-Sucrose-Bacitracin (TYCSB) agar plate. Zone of inhibition around each sample was measured after 48 hours of agar plate anaerobic incubation and the value was recorded using digital Vernier calliper. The change in enamel surface microhardness with and without application of fluoride varnish was assessed using Vickers Microhardness method on 30 samples. The results were compiled and compared using ANOVA.
Results: MI Varnish showed the higher antibacterial effects, compared to Pulpdent Embrace Varnish against S. mutans (p<0.05). The MI Varnish group showed significantly high value of enamel surface microhardness as compared to Pulpdent Embrace group and Control group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: MI Varnish showed higher anti-bacterial efficacy as compared to Pulpdent Embrace Varnish against S. mutans by disc diffusion method on TYCSB agar. The surface microhardness of enamel group treated with MI Varnish was significantly greater than Pulpdent Embrace and control group.
Ascites, Chronic liver disease, Hepatic encephalopathy, Hepato-renal syndrome
Date of Submission: Dec 17, 2019
Date of Peer Review: Jan 15, 2020
Date of Acceptance: Mar 06, 2020
Date of Publishing: Apr 01, 2020
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: None
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA
PLAGIARISM CHECKING METHODS:
• Plagiarism X-checker: Dec 21, 2019
• Manual Googling: Feb 25, 2020
• iThenticate Software: Mar 25, 2020 (6%)
ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin
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- Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
- Academic Search Complete Database
- Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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- HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
- Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
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- Popline (reproductive health literature)