Association of Life Style and Sociodemographic Parameters with Plasma Heavy Metals in Apparently Healthy Adult in Ebonyi State, South East NigeriaCorrespondence Address :
Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja,
Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053 Abakaliki, Nigeria.
Introduction: Lifestyle and sociodemographic parameters have been recognised to play important roles in human exposure to heavy metals and metal toxicity in both environmental and occupational setting.
Aim: To determine the association of life style factors and sociodemographic parameters with plasma heavy metals; arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) in apparently healthy individuals.
Materials and Methods: Randomly selected subjects (n=301) from 130 political wards in the 13 Local Government Area of the State, were studied. Structured questionnaires were used to collect sociodemographic data while anthropometric parameters were collected using standard techniques. Metal concentrations were determined in blood plasma using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. One-way Analysis of Variance (One-way ANOVA) was use to analyse the data and p =0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The observed mean levels of heavy metals were: As (0.21±0.02), Cd (0.37±0.04), Cu (156.49±2.16), Fe (132.66±2.14), Pb (1.13±0.12), Ni (0.06±001), Se (0.14±0.01) and Zn (94.32±1.10) Âµg/dL. Plasma levels of heavy metals were affected by body mass index (BMI), age, educational level and occupation. However, there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the levels of heavy metals between males and females, smokers and non-smokers and alcohol consumers and non-consumers. Plasma As and Cd were significantly negatively associated with age and BMI.
Conclusion: It is concluded that indicators of socioeconomic status have effect of plasma levels of heavy metals with levels of toxic metals raised while the levels of essential trace elements were low. Dietary diversification in addition to prevention of exposure is advocated.
Bioaccumulation, Dietary diversification, Mineral elements, Oxidative stress
Date of Submission: Jan 31, 2020
Date of Peer Review: Mar 21, 2020
Date of Acceptance: Apr 06, 2020
Date of Publishing: Jul 01, 2020
• Financial or Other Competing Interests: As declared above.
• Was Ethics Committee Approval obtained for this study? Yes
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects involved in the study? Yes
• For any images presented appropriate consent has been obtained from the subjects. NA
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• Plagiarism X-checker: Jan 31, 2020
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ETYMOLOGY: Author Origin
- Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science, thomsonreuters)
- Index Copernicus ICV 2017: 134.54
- Academic Search Complete Database
- Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
- Google Scholar
- HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme
- Indian Science Abstracts (ISA)
- Journal seek Database
- Popline (reproductive health literature)